Power quality of Electronic Control System for Metal Halide HID Lamps

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Power Quality of Electronic Control System for

Metal Halide HID Lamps

Ahteshamul Haque

Department ofElectricalEngineering Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi-25

Abstract

Metal Halide (MH) High intensity discharge (HID) Lamp is widely used because of its high efficacy and light color spectrum. To operate these lamps an electronic control system is required. The Electronic control system involves high frequency switching due to which the input power factor on the ac side may get deteriorated. An active power factor correction is used to improve the power factor on AC side. The objective of this paper is to analyze the working of active power factor correction for MH-HID electronic control system. The simulation work is done by using PSIM simulation software.

Keywords: MH-HID, Power Electronics, Power Factor, DC – DC converter, PSIM

________________________________________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION

Energy saving is a major concern of today’s world. Artificial lighting is one of the area where tremendous amount of energy is used. Electronic control system is used to drive artificial lighting sources [1-2]. Various types of electronic control system for various types of lamps are designed [3-7]. Metal Halide HID lamps is one of the artificial light source used extensively because of its high efficacy and light color spectrum. Electronic control system is used for deriving MH-HID lamps [8 -11]. The electronic control system uses high frequency converters due to which the power quality of AC side get deteriorated i.e. power factor etc [12]. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the working of active power factor correction implemented in boost DC – DC converter to improve the power factor on AC side.

II. ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR MH-HID LAMPS

The block diagram of electronic control system for metal halide HID lamp without active power factor correction is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1: Block Diagram of Electronic Control System without Active power factor correction

Figure 1 shows a high frequency inverter with close loop control sensing the lamp power and regulating it. There is no active power factor correction in this electronic control system.

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(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 08 / 050)

Fig. 3: Schematic of Active power factor correction

Figure 2 is the block diagram of electronic control system with active power factor correction. The inverter control circuit is working same as without active power factor correction. For active power factor correction the feedback control circuit is working by sensing the DC output and AC input voltage and control the duty cycle. The details schematic of active power factor is shown in Fig. 3.

Boost converter is shown in Fig.4a.Following condition should be satisfied for proper operation of boost converter when it is used in power factor correction.

1) Boost converter should operate in continuous conduction mode. 2) The switching frequency is much higher than the line frequency. Working of Boost converter is divided into two modes.

Mode1

When switch ‘S’ is closed, in this mode of operation the switch is in on state. The current flows through switch and inductor, so the energy is stored in the inductor. At the same time, the capacitor discharges and supplies current to the load. Mode1 is shown in Fig.4b.

Assuming inductor current rises linearly from I1 to I2 in time t1. VDC= L

I2−I1

t1 = L

∆I

t1 (1)

Mode 2

When switch ‘S’ is open, in this mode of operation the switch is in off state and current flows through inductor, diode and the capacitor with the load and return to main. Mode 2 is shown in Fig.16c.Now inductor current falls linearly from I2 to I1 in time t2.

VDC− Vo = −L

∆I

t2 (2) Since the average voltage across inductor is zero.

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Fig. 4 (b): Mode.1

Fig.4(c) Mode2

Fig. 4(d): Waveform of Boost Converter

. 1

   

Lavg DC DC o

V D V D V V

(3)

1

 

D C o

V V

D

(4)

The State Space Equation is stated as under.

Where q = 0 when switch is off. q = 1 when switch is on. i̇L = First derivative of inductor current. v̇C = First derivative of capacitor voltage Vin= Input voltage

Vo = Output voltage iL = Inductor current Vc = Capacitor voltage

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(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 08 / 050)

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig. 5: Input AC Voltage and Current Waveform without Active Power Factor Correction

Fig. 6: Input AC Voltage and Current Waveform with Active Power Factor Correction.

Figure 5 is the simulation result of input ac voltage and ac current without active power factor correction. Figure 6 is the simulation result with active power factor correction. It is evident that the power factor is increased drastically with active power factor correction.

IV. CONCLUSION

The main objective of this paper is to analyses the working of active power factor correction of electronic control system for metal halide HID lamp for power quality improvement. The working of electronic control system with and without active power factor correction. The state space model and other equations are described. The result of input voltage and current are presented with and without active power factor correction is presented. It is evident that power quality is improved with active power factor corrections.

REFERENCES

[1] Ribarich, Thomas J.; Ribarich, John J.; “A New Procedure for High-Frequency Electronic Ballast Design,” IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meetings, New Orleans, Louisiana, Oct. 1997.

[2] Costa, Marco Antonio Dalla; Alvarez, Jose Marcos Alonso; Garcia, Jorge; Kirsten, Andre Luis; Vaquero, David Gacio; “Microcontroller Based High-Power-Factor Electronic Ballast To Supply Metal Halide Lamps,” IEEE Transactions On Industrial Electronics, vol.59, no.4, April 2012.

0 -100 -200 100 200 Vin

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2

Time (s) 0 -100 -200 100 200 I(Lin) 0 -100 -200 100 200 Vin

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2

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[4] A. Haque, “Ballast with circuit for detecting and eliminating an arc condition”, US patent, 7183721, 2007.

[5] Diaz, F.J.; Azcondo, F.J.; Casanueva, R.; Branas, C.; “Microcontroller Software Applied to Electronic Ballast Design,” Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on, Barcelona, Spain, Sept. 2009.

[6] A Haque, “Evaluation of Operational Characteristics of Electronics Ballast for Metal Halide HID Lamps” IEEE International Conference Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems, pp. 1 -7, 2006.

[7] Cosby, M.C.; Jr., Nelms, R.M.; “A Resonant Inverter for Electronic Ballast Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol.41, no.4, Aug 1994.

[8] Rahul Sharma, Ahteshamul Haque, “Simulation and analysis of Power Factor correction in Electric control system for Metal Halide High Intensity Discharge Lamp”, International conference on Advances in Electronics and Electric Engineering, pp. 185-192, Vol. 4, 2014.

[9] Qinghong Yu; Radzinski, C.; Dernovsek, J.; “Adaptive Preheat and Strike of Microcontroller based Ballast,” IEEE Industry Applications Conference, Oct. 2004.

[10] Alonso, J.M.; Villegas, P.J. ; Diaz, J. ; Blanco, C. ; Rico, M.; “A Microcontroller-based Emergency Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol.44, no. 2, Aug. 2002.

[11] Moo, C.S.; Chen, W.M.; Yen, H.C.; “A Series-Resonant Electronic Ballast for Rapid-Start Fluorescent Lamps with Programmable Starting,” Proceedings of the Power Conversion Conference, vol.1, 2002, PCC-Osaka 2002.

[12] Rahul Sharma, A Haque, “Simulation and analysis of Electric Control System for Metal Halide High Intensity Discharge lamp”, Proceedings of ACEEE International conference on Advances in Power Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, pp. 144-151, 2014.

Figure

Figure 1 shows a high frequency inverter with close loop control sensing the lamp power and regulating it
Figure 1 shows a high frequency inverter with close loop control sensing the lamp power and regulating it. View in document p.1
Fig. 2: Block Diagram of Electronic Control System with Active power factor correction

Fig 2.

Block Diagram of Electronic Control System with Active power factor correction . View in document p.1
Fig. 3: Schematic of Active power factor correction

Fig 3.

Schematic of Active power factor correction . View in document p.2
Fig. 4(a): Basic Boost Converter
Fig 4 a Basic Boost Converter . View in document p.2
Fig. 4 (b): Mode.1
Fig 4 b Mode 1 . View in document p.3
Fig. 6: Input AC Voltage and Current Waveform with Active Power Factor Correction.Time (s)

Fig 6.

Input AC Voltage and Current Waveform with Active Power Factor Correction Time s . View in document p.4
Fig. 5: Input AC Voltage and Current Waveform without Active Power Factor CorrectionTime (s)

Fig 5.

Input AC Voltage and Current Waveform without Active Power Factor CorrectionTime s . View in document p.4
Fig. 5: Input AC Voltage and Current Waveform without Active Power Factor Correction

Fig 5.

Input AC Voltage and Current Waveform without Active Power Factor Correction . View in document p.4

References

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