Towards the strategic adoption of Lean in Aviation Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO) industry : An empirical study into the industry's status

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Towards the strategic adoption of Lean in Aviation Maintenance

Repair and Overhaul (MRO) industry: An empirical study into the

industry’s Lean status

r

Abst act:

(i) Pu pose:r

M r d r M r d r

Despite many aintenance Repai an Ove haul ( RO) o ganisations allu ing thei positive business

r r d r d r r r d

pe fo mances to the a option Lean initiatives, the e is a paucity of i ect lite atu e that vali ates this

r d r r d d r d r

asse tion. Thus, containe in this pape is an empi ical stu y via the use of an in ust y-wi e su vey

d d d r r M

to establish an extent of Lean a option an to ve ify its suitability in mitigating p evalent RO challenges.

(ii) Design/metho ology/app oach: d r

r d d r d d r d r d

The empi ical stu y containe in this pape is facilitate by an in ust y-wi e su vey to collect ata

r r r r M r d r r d r d r

f om seve al fi ms ac oss the RO spect um. The analyse esponses f om in ust y lea e s,

r d d r r d r

p ofessionals an executives synthesise with existing lite atu e was use in asce taining the extent

d r r r d r

of Lean a option within the ope ational f amewo k of the in ust y.

(iii) Fin ings, d

r d d d M r

The empi ical stu y helpe in vali ating the suitability of Lean in RO context. Howeve , it was also

r d d rd r d r d

obse ve that the focus of its application was skewe towa s its p o uction-o ientate functions

r r r d r r r

mo e than its se vice-o ientate functions. Nonetheless, this pape p esents esults of the positive M

influence of Lean in RO context.

(iv) Resea ch limitations/implications:r

r d r d r rr d r r

This empi ical stu y p esente in this pape was ca ie out within a f amewo k of key

r r r r d r

cha acte istics of ope ation. Although this app oach is sufficient in assessing the in ust y’s Lean

r r d r r r r

status, fu the assessment can also be achieve within the context of elevant pe fo mance met ics

d d r

which was not inclu e in this pape .

(v) O iginality/value: r

r r d M

Apa t f om vali ating the suitability of Lean in RO contexts, by establishing the extent of Lean

d r r r r r d r r

a option within the context of the ope ational f amewo k, this pape p ovi es a clea e insight as to

d r d

how successful Lean implementation can be achieve via a holistic implementation st ategy balance

r d r d r r d r

between the p o uct-cent ic an se vice-cent ic aspects of the in ust y.

rd

Keywo s: Lean, aintenance Repai Ove haul, Su vey, P o uct-Cent ic.M r r r r d r

NOTATIONS

MRO Maintenance Repai Ove haulr r M

OE O iginal Equipment anufactu er M r r

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1 INTRODUCTION

r d d d r r

Lean p o uction has been i entifie as one of the p evalent business st ategies in the aviation

Maintenance Repai an Ove haul ( RO) in ust y [1]. In a business envi onment cha acte ise byr d r M d r r r r d

d d r d r r r

intense global competition, eman ing p o uction goals along with changing ma ket fo ces, the e

r r M r r r r d

has been significant p essu e on RO o ganisations to inc ease p ofit ma gins whilst optimising an

r r r d M d r

st eamlining business ope ations [2]. This has t anslate into the aviation RO in ust y having to

r r r d r r r r d

manage mo e effectively how it minimises ove all maintenance costs, e uces ai c aft tu n-a oun

d r r r r r d rd r

times (TAT) an establish etu n-on-expe ience in the fo m of accu ate job stan a s. Conve sely,

r r M r d

these continuously changing ma ket fo ces also mean that RO o ganisations have to conten with

d r d r r r r r r r r

wil ly va ying asset types an configu ations now mo e than eve befo e. It is the efo e no su p ise

M r r d r r r d

that many RO o ganisations have tu ne to Lean as a solution to imp ove ente p ise-wi e

r d r r d d d d

p o uctivity especially because of its unive sal appeal as a successfully t ie an teste mo el in the

d r

automobile in ust y [3].

d r d d r d

Lean philosophy itself can be esc ibe as a multi- imensional app oach that encompasses a wi e

r r d r r

va iety of management p actices, inclu ing just-in-time, quality systems, wo k teams, cellula

r r r d r r

manufactu ing, supplie management, etc. in an integ ate system [4]. The co e th ust of Lean

r d r r r r r d

p o uction is that these p actices can wo k syne gistically to c eate a st eamline , high quality

r d d r d r d d r

system that p o uces finishe p o ucts at the pace of custome eman with little o no waste [5].

r d r d r r

Although the p inciples behin Lean a e not in themselves new as they ate as fa back to Hen y

rd r d d M d r r d

Fo ’s p o uction line; its a option in the aviation RO in ust y has only been ecently emphasise [1].

M d r d r d r d r r r r

The RO in ust y can be esc ibe as the a m of the aviation in ust y that is p ima ily esponsible

r r r r r r r r r r r r r d

fo the etaining o esto ing of ai c aft pa ts to a state in which they can pe fo m thei equi e

design function(s). This inclu es the combination of all technical an co espon ing a minist ative,d d rr d d r

r r r d r M r r r

manage ial, supe viso y an ove sight activities [6]. RO activities a e p incipally the se vicing,

repai , mo ification, ove haul, inspection an ete mination of con ition of the ai c aft especially atr d r d d r d r r

d d r d r M r r d

sche ule pe io ic checks. The main ole of the aviation RO secto is summa ise as essentially

responsible fo the p ovision of a fully se viceable ai c aft when equi e by the ope ato atr r r r r r r d r r

rd d r

affo able an easonable cost with optimum quality [6].

r r d r rr d M M

The elatively late int o uction of Lean (often efe e to as Lean aintenance in the aviation RO

d r d d r M r

in ust y) has motivate this stu y into how Lean ‘wo ks’ in RO contexts. Howeve , with the

r r d r r r d r r

paucity in lite atu e i ectly elating to this subject a ea in the aviation in ust y, it became necessa y

rr r r r d r r r

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d r r d r d r r r

in ust y’s pe ception of Lean an asce tain the in ust y’s Lean status. An empi ical app oach was

d d r d r d r d r d r

employe via an in ust y-wi e su vey that involve the pa ticipation of in ust y lea e s,

r d r d r r r d r r

p ofessionals an executives. Thus, p esente in this pape is fi st a b ief esc iption of key featu es

M d r r r r r r d

of the RO in ust y that fo m the scope within which this empi ical esea ch was ealise . The

resea ch esign an the const uct fo the esea ch questions a e then int o uce followe by ther d d r r r r r r d d d

r d d d r r r d

questionnai e esign an a minist ation. The esults of the su vey have been synthesize into a set

d M d r r r

of fin ings on the influence of Lean in the aviation RO in ust y. Finally, the esults of this su vey is

discusse an summa ise with conclusions awn.d d r d dr

2 Empirical Research Framework

r d M d r d r

F om the efinition of the RO in ust y as summe up by Al-Kaabi [6] it becomes clea that the

MRO capacity cannot be accu ately efine solely within manufactu ing o se vice te ms alone as itr d d r r r r

d r r r

seems to encompass aspects of both in ust ies. Fo example, the conventional manufactu ing

d r d r r M r r r r d r

in ust y coul efe to RO offe ings in te ms of its ‘ emanufactu ing’ functions; esc ibing the

M d r r r r r r d r r

main function of the RO in ust y as esponsible fo the esto ation of the p o uct (ai c aft) back

r r r r r d d r r

to a state whe e it can pe fo m its equi e esign functions. Conve sely, the conventional se vice

d r d r r r M d r r d r

in ust y coul a gue that the p ima y function of the RO in ust y is to p ovi e a ‘se vice’ in the

r r r d r r r r

fo m of ai c aft maintenance to the aviation in ust y. It the efo e follows that a comp omise

r r r d r M r r

between the two pe spectives may be mo e accu ate in esc ibing the RO capacity. The efo e, it

d r r M d r r d r r

woul not be out of place to efe to the aviation RO in ust y as a ‘p o uct-cent ic se vice’

d r d r M r

in ust y; a esc iption that seems to encompass elements of both the conventional anufactu ing

d r d r M d d r

an Se vice in ust ies into one unit [7]. The RO capacity is ma e up of iffe ent functions with

r r d r r r d r r

some mo e closely elate to conventional manufactu ing (o p o uction) contexts while othe s a e

r r r r d r

mo e popula in conventional se vice envi onments. The combination an inte action of these

diffe ent functions is ep esente by the ‘Ope ations System’ of the RO in ust y which will ber r r d r M d r

d M r

evi ent in typical RO o ganisations.

r d d r d

The ope ation system of a company is base on the subtle blen of the ‘t ansactional’ an

r r r d r d d r

‘ elational’ activities [8]. These activities can also be ep esente as the p o uction an se vice

r r r r d r r d r d

cha acte istics of the o ganisation. P o uction cha acte istics ten to be configu e on conventional

r d r r r d d d r

p inciples focuse on the physical t ansfo mation of p o uct into finishe goo s. By cont ast, the

r r r r d r

se vice cha acte istics focuses on the inte action of the non-physical systems connecte by simila

r r d r r d d

value p opositions as the p o uction ope ations th ough facilitation an me iation. These

r d d r r r d d d r d r r

p o uction an se vice cha acte istics can be istille an g oupe into the ‘Key Cha acte istics of

r r r r r

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decisions a e often ma e. It is the efo e expecte that the int o uction of Lean into the ROr d r r d r d M

d r d d r d r r r

in ust y shoul influence the ecisions that a e ma e within these key cha acte istics of ope ation.

d r d r d

Un e stan ing the influence of Lean within these a eas woul not only help in assessing the extent

d r d M

of Lean a option, but will be c ucial in vali ating Lean’s ability to mitigate typical RO challenges.

d r r M d r r d r r

Baines et al. [8] establishe a comp ehensive ‘P incipal o el’ that ep esente a f amewo k of key

r r r d r d r d r r d d d

ope ational cha acte istics inclu ing the p o uction-cent e f amewo k a vocate by Hayes an

r r r d r r r r d d r

Wheelw ight [9], Hill [10]; se vice-cent e ope ation f amewo ks that we e a vocate fo by

r r d M r r r d r r

Silvest o et al. [11]; Collie an eye [12]. Ac oss these two g oups, 11 istinct key cha acte istics

r r d d d d d d r r d r r r r r d

of ope ations we e i entifie an ivi e into St uctu al an Inf a-st uctu al cha acte istics base on

r r d d r r d

thei p o uction an se vice o ientations as liste in Table 1.

r r r r

St uctu al cha acte istics Inf a-st uctu al cha acte isticsr r r r r

r d

P ocess an Technology Human Resou cesr

Capacity Quality cont olr

Facilities New P o uct/Se vice Range an int o uctionr d r d r d

Supply Chain Positioning Pe fo mance measu ementr r r

d r

Planning an Cont ol Supplie Relationsr

r

Custome Relations Table 1: Cha acte istics of ope ation [8]r r r

d r d r d

The achievement of ‘Leanness’ in a best-in-class company woul la gely be ete mine within the

r r r r r

f amewo k of these key cha acte istics of ope ation ([13], [14], [15]). The influence of Lean within

r d r d

these a eas woul be obse vable an as such, enable an assessment of the extent of Leanness in the

diffe ent p ocesses within an o ganisation. It is impo tant to note that popula usage of the te mr r r r r r

r r r r r d r r

‘Key Cha acte istics of Ope ation’ can also be ep esente as ‘St ategic Business Decision A eas’ of

r d r d r r r

the o ganisation an thus, both te ms will be use inte changeably in this pape except whe e intent

d d r d r r r d d d r r

an un e stan ing is c ucial. Fo the pu pose of this stu y, the i entifie cha acte istics of

r r r

ope ation efe to the following:

1. P ocess an Technologyr d : This key cha acte istic of ope ation la gely ep esents the physicalr r r r r r resou ces an technologies that a e use within ope ations [8]. This eals with automater d r d r d d

d r r r d d

systems an va ying ange of technology, info mation systems an atabases to enhance

r d r d r r d

p o uct confo mance, efficiency, communication an custome inte action. It also eals

r d r d r r d r

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r M d r r

envi onments akin to the RO in ust y is the ability to exploit a ange of technologies

r r r d d r

th oughout ope ations to achieve efficiency in p o uction an effectiveness in se vice

delive yr

2. Capacity: This cha acte istic of ope ation eals with how p o uction capacity shoul ber r r d r d d

d d d rd r r r r

matche to eman in o e to ensu e optimum esou ce utilisation [9]. The main emphasis

r d r r r

in this st ategic business ecision a ea is on the inte action between Human Resou ces,

d d d r

Technology an Supply Chain to match eman . Fo example, Baines et al. [8] suggests that

r d r r r r r r d r

p o uct-cent ic se vice ope ations a e cha acte ise by multiple custome touch-points each

r r d d d r r

of which can gene ate va ying capacity eman signals necessitating iffe ing fo ms of

response f om the host o ganisation. Thus, the fluctuating eman expe ience by the ROr r d d r d M

d r d r d r d r

in ust y shoul suit multiple custome “touch points” that woul foste the nee to ope ate

d r

with iffe ing levels of capacity utilisation.

3. Facilities: This key cha acte istic of ope ation typically eals with the choice of p o uctionr r r d r d

r d r d r

sites, thei location an specialisation [9]. Fo example, this stu y will be keen to explo e if

M d r r r d r

the RO in ust y exploits economies of scale by b inging togethe an cent alising

r d r r d d

p o uction activities that maximise available esou ces to both accommo ate an enhance

r r d r d r

custome expe ience [16]. This oes not limit p o uction to a single site. It is common fo

r d r r r r r r r r

P o uct-Cent ic Se vice o ganisations to e-o ganise thei business into netwo ks of smalle

r d r r d r

business units o multiple fiel facilities within close p oximity to the custome to ai quicke

response an elive an ove all bette se vice. d d r r r r

4. Supply chain Positioning: This cove s the ange of activities ca ie out by the company anr r rr d d

r r r r M d

how it elates to outsou cing, in-sou cing, subcont acts, ake vs Buy ecisions. The

d r r d d r d

positioning an cont ol of an o ganisation’s supply chain is epen ent on its p o uction

r r d r r d r r r

footp int is usually cent e on its co e competencies. P o uct-cent ic se vice o ganisations

d r r d r r

typically ten to have cont ol ove the cost an quality by continuous ve tical integ ation

d d r d d

whilst positioning itself to become less epen ent on b oa in-house capabilities an thus

r r r d r

engage pa tne o ganisation in elive ing value ([17], [18]).

5. Planning an Cont old r : This elates to the flow of mate ials in an th ough the company usingr r d r diffe ent p o uction planning mo els. o e popula mo els inclu e Ente p ise Resou cer r d d M r r d d r r r

M r r M d r d

Planning (ERP), ate ials Requi ements Planning ( RP), Optimise P o uction Technology

r d r r r d

(OPT), Pe io Batch Cont ol (PBC), Kanban. The e is a focus on the optimisation of p o uct

d r r d

availability an inte action between info mation capacity an stock ([10], [19]).

6. Human Resou cesr : This efe s to integ ation of the wo ke s into the ope ation system. Thisr r r r r r

d r d r r r d

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r r d d r r d d r

wo ke skills, efine outines, t aining, motivation, attitu es, values an cultu e of the

r r r r

o ganisation in sufficiently satisfying custome equi ements [20].

7. Quality Cont olr : Efficient p o uction ope ations have utilise Lean p inciples an techniquesr d r d r d

r r d r d

to cont ol quality by achieving p o uct confo mance an the minimisation of waste in

r d r r d r d d r d

mate ials an esou ce usage [21]. This business ecision a ea exten s beyon the p o uct

d r r r r r r

to inclu e app op iate measu es that imp ove on the custome ’s pe ception of acceptable

r d r d

se vice [8]. Examples of tools that have been employe in these a eas inclu e Statistical

r r r

P ocess Cont ol (SPC), Statistical Quality Cont ol (SQC).

8. New P o uct / Se vice Int o uctionr d r r d : This business ecision a ea involves the configu ationd r r

r d r d r d r r

of the ope ation system to eal with the int o uction of new p o uct o se vices [10].

r d r r d r d r d d

Although seve al metho ologies fo new p o uct int o uction a e extensively iscusse by

r r r r

many autho s in conventional manufactu ing contexts, common p actice is to allow fo

rr d r r d r d r

ample test to be ca ie out befo e the p o uct is elease to the ma ket ([1], [21], [22]); the

d r r r rr d d r

testing an efinement of new se vices a e ca ie out ‘in the fiel ’ with the custome as

r r d r d r

they a e usually tailo e to custome expectations that may exist at iffe ent levels of consciousness ([23], [24]).

9. Pe fo mance easu ementr r M r : This efe s to the pe fo mance measu ing app oach of ther r r r r r

r r d r r r r r r d

o ganisation. Although, t a itional pe fo mance met ics a e gene ally measu e against

d d r r d r r r r

Cost, Quality an On-time elive y; P o uct-cent ic Se vice envi onments also featu e

r d d r r d d

met ics that ten to use iffe ent custome an employee satisfaction an business success

r r d d

c ite ia ([25], [26] an [27]). This stu y will be keen to evaluate the influence of Lean in the

r r r d r

a ea how it elates to the motivation fo Lean a option. These app oaches may involve the

r r r r

use of tools such as machine utilisation, wo ke utilisation, WIP, Doo -Doo time.

10. Supplie Relationsr : This efe s to how the ope ation system is configu e in the sou cing ofr r r r d r resou ces an mate ials. Effective management of the supply chain is c itical fo efficient anr d r r r d

r d r r r

effective p o uction ope ations [28]. To be effective, it is impo tant to align supplie

relations in both inte nal an exte nal supply chains. Othe app oaches may involve singler d r r r

r r r r r d r

sou cing to multi sou cing o even the integ ation of exte nal an inte nal supply chains.

r r r r

Whateve the app oach, the esponsiveness of supply chain in meeting custome

r

expectations is c itical

11. Custome Relationsr : This key cha acte istic of ope ation efe s to the balance between ther r r r r

r r d d r r

t ansactional aspect of p o uction an the elational aspects of the ope ation system. Whilst

r r d r r r

the t ansactional aspects gene ally ten to focus on imp oving inte nal ope ational

r r r

(7)

d d r r d

in buil ing an maintaining elationships with custome s [29]. This stu y will also assess

r M d r d d

what influence of Lean has in the inte action between the RO in ust y an the en

r r r r

custome (ai line ope ato s).

r r M d r r r d

The majo challenge fo the RO in ust y is the successful inte p etation an implementation of

r r r r

Lean within the context of all these key cha acte istics of ope ation of the ope ation system.

r d r r r r

Investigating the influence of Lean in each of these a eas woul se ve an app op iate measu e of the

d r d r d r r M

in ust y’s Lean status an p ovi e mo e insight as to how Lean ‘wo ks’ in aviation RO context.

3 RESEARCH PROGRAMME

3.1 Research Aim & Objectives

r r d d r

The evaluation of existing lite atu e suggests that Lean is being applie to some eg ee of success in

M d r d r r d d

the aviation RO in ust y. Although, these allusions coul not be accu ately ve ifie ue to the

r r r r d r d M

paucity in lite atu e, they se ve as a gene al a vocate fo its a option in typical RO context. This

r d r r r r r d

se ve as the motivation fo this empi ical esea ch into asce taining the extent of Lean a option

d r d M d d r d

an how it wo ke in aviation RO contexts. With the gui ing aim of un e stan ing how Lean

r M r

‘wo ks’ in aviation RO context the following objectives we e set:

1. Establish the extent of Lean a option within the RO in ust yd M d r

2. P ofile the influence of Lean within key business ecision a eas of the RO in ust y. r d r M d r

r d d d d r r r d d r d r

This was a la gely in uctive stu y, gui e by a lite atu e which info me the in ust y-wi e su vey.

r r r r d d r

The esea ch questions we e g oupe un e the following themes:

Theme 1: Lean a option within contextual facto s d r

d d r r r r

The influence of Lean within the i entifie key cha acte istic of ope ation will be vital in p ofiling the

d r r d r

in ust y’s Lean status. Not only will the synthesis of all the esponses give an in ication to the natu e

d d r d r r d r r M

of ecisions ma e but also, p ovi e mo e insight into the espon ents’ awa eness of thei RO

d r r r r d r

capacity an how well they pe fo m within those functions. This will fu the expose the in ust y’s

r rd d d r

pe ception towa s Lean an its ability to mitigate in ust y challenges.

d r d r d r d r

This ete mination of Lean a option will be also be ealise in context of the p o uction footp int of

r r d r r r r d

an o ganisation. The p o uction footp int of an o ganisation is ep esente by its position on

r r d d r d r rr r

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r d r r r d r r

have cont ol an owne ship [30]. An app eciation of the p o uction footp int of an o ganisation is

d r

not only vital in assessing the extent of Lean a option within the o ganisation but it also exposes any

r d dr r d

linkages that may exist between the size of its ope ation an the ive fo the a option of Lean. The

r d rr d d rd r r r

empi ical stu y ca ie out by Shah an Wa [31] suggests that o ganisations with la ge

r r r r d r r r r

ope ational footp int a e mo e incline to implement Lean p actices than thei elatively smalle

r r r d d r d

counte pa ts. This p oposition woul be checke in this empi ical stu y.

Theme 2: Impact of Lean on RO outputM

r r r d r d r r

With the p evalence of Lean p inciples, it is impo tant to un e stan the t ue motivation fo Lean

d d r r d M d r

a option an assess if this motivations a e t uly being fulfille within the aviation RO in ust y [30].

r d M d r d r d

A Lean Ae ospace Initiative stu y by IT [32] into the auto-in ust y foun that the int o uction of

d r r r r r d r d r

Lean le to significant imp ovement in a eas labou hou s, p o uction costs, p o uctivity, custome

d d r r r r r r M d r

lea times an a sc ap/ ewo k. The efo e, investigating these a eas in the aviation RO in ust y

d r M d r

woul confi m if Lean is suitable in the aviation RO in ust y.

d r d r r r d r d

With the un e stan ing that the esponses to these questions a e elative an a e base on the

d r d r d r d r

opinions of in ust y lea e s, the outcome of this stu y may not esult in key fin ings; howeve , the

r d d r r d r r

above themes we e use to gui e this su vey. All obse vations an notable points a e b iefly

r d r

summa ise in following sections of this pape .

3.2 Survey Design, Administration, Response and Analysis

r d r r r r d d

The p ocess tasks involve in the ealisation of this empi ical esea ch inclu e the following:

r r d r r r r d r r

(a) Design su vey questions info me by existing esea ch epo te in lite atu e;

d r r d d r r

(b) Pilot an efine questionnai e, scope stu y, an ta get o ganisations;

r r d d r

(c) Execute su vey; compile esults, ocument, an publish esults.

r d r M d r d

The su vey was aime at all the secto s of the RO in ust y to avoi any bias ([33], [34]). Companies

r d d r r M r d d r

we e i entifie th ough the Inte national RO T a e shows (UK 2010) an f om the Aviation Weekly

(9)

M H V

19%

Engine 11% Component

26% M

Line aintenance 19%

Avionics 15%

M do s an Ret o-fitsd r 11%

r

Figu e 1: Su vey esponse acco ing to in ust y secto : Heavy aintenance Visit (H V); Engine Ove haul; Component r r rd d r r M M r

r M M r M d r d r

Ove haul; Line aintenance; Avionics; ajo o ifications, Ret ofits an Conve sions [7].

r d d r d r ddr d

The su vey was base on a self-a ministe e questionnai e typically a esse to managing

d ri ecto s. Pape copies of the su vey we e sent out in June, 2011 with esponses collecte ove ther r r r r d r r d

following 3 months pe io .

r r d r

The o iginal ta get sample was about 136 companies with 22 fully complete questionnai es

receive . All these esponses we e f om senio executives (e.g. in ust y lea e s, p ofessionals and r r r r d r d r r d

r r d r

executives). The esponse ate as calculate by the Ame ican Association of Public Opinion Poll

r r r r r r d

Resea ch was app oximately 18 pe cent. The c itical evaluation of the esponses confi me initial

r r r d d r d d r

lite atu e eview fin ings an p ovi e significant insights into the pe ception of Lean within the

M

(10)

4 KEY FINDINGS EMERGING FROM SURVEY RESULTS

r r d d r d

The analyses of the esponses p ovi e the basis fo the following key fin ings.

4.1 Assessment of Lean influence in key characteristics of operation

r d d d d r

The su vey set out to fin out the impact of Lean within all the i entifie key business ecision a eas

r r d r r r r d r

both St uctu al an Inf a-st uctu al. This inte est is base on the p eposition that successful

r d d r d r r r r

implementation of Lean will be t anslate an filte e th ough all key cha acte istics of ope ation as

d

liste in Table 1. The analysis of the esponse le to the following obse vations:r d r 4.1.1 Structural Characteristics

r r r r r r d

Within the st uctu al cha acte istics of ope ation, analysis of the esponses in icates that Lean

r d r d rd

effo ts have been most i ecte towa s the ‘P ocess & Technology’r key business ecision a ea asd r

shown in Figu e 2r . This st ategic business ecision a ea eals with the inte action between physicalr d r d r resou ces an the technology employe an thus, its pa amete s a e mo e closely linke tor d d d r r r r d

r r d d

conventional manufactu ing envi onments ([9], [10]). This woul involve the use of automate

r d r d r r

systems to enhance p o uct confo mance, efficiency, communication an custome inte action. The

r d r d

optimisation of the shopfloo layout to get the best out of these automate systems is also cove e

r d r

in this st ategic business ecision a ea ([35], [36]).

r r rr d r r r

The extensive esea ch that has been ca ie out within this cha acte istic of ope ation in the

r r r d r d

manufactu ing secto p ovi es substantial info mation that can be use in the application of Lean

M r d r r r

within RO p o uction. Thus, the positive outcome of Lean in this a ea is not hugely su p ising.

r r r r r

Howeve , caution has to be taken in the t ansfe ence of Lean f om a conventional manufactu ing

r M r r d r r M r r d

shopfloo to an RO shopfloo as they a e iffe ent. The stochastic natu e of RO epai an

rewo k is the fun amental iffe ence with the conventional manufactu ing envi onment. Howeve ,r d d r r r r

r r d rd r

one can safely expect to see an inc ease in the automation of p o uction systems in o e to

r r r d d r r

imp ove the quality confo mance of the p o uct. Also, the a option of Lean manufactu ing p actices

d r r r r r r r

woul also esult in the batching of pa ts with simila pe tinent p ocess equi ements so as to

r d r d d r r

benefit f om combine set-up time e uction ultimately lea ing to imp ovements in p ocess flow.

d r r d r r

Consequentially, the nee to imp ove p ocess flow woul also mean a e-evaluation of the shopfloo

d r r r r r r r r d

layout possibly base on pa t g oups, families, o p ocess equi ements. The efo e one woul expect

r r r r d r d rd

a elative p opo tion of Lean effo ts to also be i ecte towa s the ‘Planning an Cont ol’d r

r r r

cha acte istic of ope ation.

r d r d r d d

As obse ve f om the analyses of the synthesise esults, Lean was also note to have achieve

relatively goo success in the d ‘Planning an Cont ol’d r st ategic business ecision a ea. The success ofr d r

Lean within the P ocess an Technologyr d a eas is elatively p opo tional to the positive outcome inr r r r r

(11)

d r r d r r

an inte action between info mation capacity an stock ([10], [19]). Howeve , it is inte esting to

r r r d

note that although lite atu e suggests that p o uction Planning an Cont old r activities a e inhe entlyr r

r M r r r

mo e complex within ROtype envi onments [37]; the application of Lean within othe inte

-relate key cha acte istics of ope ation seems to have cont ibute to the inc ease success of Leand r r r r d r d r

in this a ea.

r r d M

As ea lie explaine , RO Planning an Cont old r is all the mo e complex ue to ma ket fluctuationsr d r

r d d r d r r r

(exte nal), unknown an stochastic con ition of p o ucts (inte nal). Thus, the popula ity of mo e

d d r d r d d

a vance p o uction planning tools that focus on the optimisation of p o uct availability an

r r d r r r

inte action between info mation capacity an stock such as Ente p ise Resou ce Planning (ERP),

Mate ials Requi ements Planning ( RP), to simple tools Kanban Systems is a welcome positiver r M d

r r d d

obse vation. Howeve , it shoul be note as shown in Figu e 2r that the ating of Lean in this a ea isr r d

still somewhat lagging behin the P ocess an Technologyr d suggesting that efficient balance between

r d r d r d

p o uct availability, info mation capacity an stock is still yet to be eache .

r d

P ocess an Technology Capacity Facilities Supply Chain positioning

d r

Planning an Cont ol r Human Resou ces

r Quality cont ol

r d New P o uct /

r r d Se vice Int o uction

r r M r

Pe fo mance easu ement r r Supplie elations

r r Custome elations

Ratings

r

(12)

r

Conve sely, the application of Lean in the ‘Facility’ an d‘Supply Chain’ ope ation eco e elativelyr r rd d r

r r r d r r r r

lowe atings as compa e with othe st uctu al a eas. The Facility ecision a ea involves thed r

r r r r d r r r

p oximity of the o ganisation to custome s, supplie s an ma kets [8]. This cha acte istic of

r r r r d r

ope ation also influences the human esou ces, skills info mation an possibly finance that a e

r M r r r d r r d r

available to the o ganisation. o e impo tantly, this st ategic ecision a ea is c itical in elive ing

d r r r M r r

agile an flexible suppo t to the custome . With mo e global RO suppo t inc easingly becoming a

r r r r d d d d r

necessity fo ai line ope ato s, the nee to a apt to this evolving eman is an inc easing necessity

r r d rr d r r r r r d

fo su vival an competitiveness. Cu ent in ust y p actice is that the global suppo t equi e by the

r r r d d r r r r d

ai line ope ato s is still being expe ite f om locations fa away f om the custome an the

r r r d r r d d r

supplie s. P oblem t oubleshooting an esolution f om istant locations o not suppo t the

d r r r r d d

effective an quick esponse to changes in the info mation f om the ma ket [38] an coul

r r r r d r r

significantly hampe o ganisational g owth. Subsequently, the ability to api ly econfigu e the

r d r r r r d d d r r d

p o uction p ocess to meet both exte nal (ma ket, custome eman s) an inte nal (p o uction

deman s) is significantly hampe e . d r d

r r r

The elatively lowe ating of Lean in the Facility cha acte istic of ope ation is also eflecte in ther r r r d

low outcome of Lean on the Supply Chain Positioning cha acte istic of ope ation. The st ategicr r r r

r r r r d

position of the o ganisation along the supply chain plays an impo tant ole in meeting ag ee

r r d r d r

custome commitments [39]. The goal of an integ ate supply chain is to emove all boun a ies to

r r r d r r r

ease the flow of mate ial, cash, esou ces an info mation. Although elative imp ovements have

r rd d r rd d r r M r d

been eco e with ega s to ealing with the stochastic natu e inhe ent of RO p o uction in

r d r d r

othe business ecision a eas, limite application o success of Lean in the Supply Chain a ea coulr d

d r r r d r r

un o the p og ess that has been so fa ma e. This will inevitably esult in longe TAT which

r r r d r

comp omises one of the main objectives fo Lean int o uction in the fi st place.

r ddr d

A few o ganisations have a esse the application of Lean in the Facility an d Supply Chain Positioning business ecision a eas. Fo example, business app oaches like TotalCa e by Rolls-Royced r r r r

d r r r r r rd r d d

involve majo est uctu ing of thei business in o e to effectively meet changing eman s of the

d r r r r r d d r d

global aviation in ust y [40]. Not only has this est uctu ing gene ate commen able p ofits an

r r r d r d

new evenue st eams, these o ganisations have been able to expe ite p ompt on-wing an shop

r d r r d

assistance to custome s globally an thus enhancing custome expe ience an satisfaction. By

d d d d r r r d

consoli ating uplicate supply chains an aligning suppo t netwo k th ough intelligent ata

r d dr r r r d

captu e, they have manage to ive mo e efficient se vices to the custome [41]. Although it woul

r d r r r r

take t emen ous amount of effo t to each this stage in the Lean implementation p og amme, the

r d r r r d

(13)

r r d d d r rd

Analyses of the esponses also p ovi e a positive in ication with ega s to the application of Lean in the ‘Capacity’ cha acte istic of ope ation. This a ea p e ominantly eals with the inte actionr r r r r d d r

d d d r r d M r

between ‘ eman ’, ‘supply’ an ‘utilisation of esou ces’, an thus suggest that RO o ganisations

r d r d r

a e fin ing elative success in the application of Lean tools an techniques to balance these th ee

r r r r r r

pa amete s. Although lite atu e suggests that this balance is much easie to each in conventional

r r M r r r

manufactu ing context, it is mo e complex in RO-type envi onments ([8], [9]). A equi ement of

MRO offe ing is the ability to meet unsche ule maintenance eman . These unsche ule eman sr d d d d d d d d

d r r r r r r r d r

coul va y f om mino line maintenance input to c itical situations whe e an ai c aft ue fo

r r d d r d r r r

imminent ope ation is g oun e fo imme iate hange o on-wing maintenance suppo t. The

r r d d d d r d d r

inco po ation of these unsche ule eman s into the p o uction sche ule will ce tainly affect the

r r r d d r

utilisation of esou ces which will also be eflecte in the supply levels hel by the o ganisation in

r r r r r

most cases. The balancing of all these pa amete s within this cha acte istic of ope ation will affect the Capacity levels hel by the o ganisation. d r

r r d dr

F om the analyses of the esponses, casual linkages coul be awn on the influence of Lean within

r r r r r r r r d

the st uctu al cha acte istics of ope ation. A st onge link was obse ve with the influence of Lean between the P ocess an Technologyr d cha acte istics; r r Planning an Cont ol;d r Capacity cha acte isticsr r

r r d r

of ope ation. This elationship is base on the obse vation that the successful application of Lean in

ddr r r d r d r d r

a essing physical esou ces an technologies that a e use within ope ation, woul inva iable be

reflecte in the ecisions ma e with ega s to the flow of mate ials th ough the company and d d r rd r r d

r r r r d r

hence, the balance between these two a eas of ope ation ep esente as capacity. A weake causal

r d

link was also obse ve with the influence of Lean in the Supply Chain Positioning an the d Facility

r r r r rd

cha acte istic of ope ation. This is because the position of the company with ega s to its supply

d r r d d

chain activities significantly ete mines the o ganisation’s ability to expe ite flexible an agile

r r r r r r

suppo t to the custome especially on a global scale. Seve al pe mutations of these cha acte istics of

r d r r r r

ope ation woul also eveal othe elationships that exist between them. Howeve , the most

dominant of these elationships as obse ve f om this empi ical stu y a e as it was obse vable f omr r d r r d r r r

r d r r d r r d

this empi ical stu y a e as b iefly explaine . These elationships can be exp esse mathematically in

r

te ms of:

Lean influence(SCO):PT∝PC∝Cap

d

An

(14)

r

Whe e

r r r r r

SCO = St uctu al Cha acte istics of Ope ation

r d

PT = P ocess an Technology

d r

PC = Planning an Cont ol Cap = Capacity

SCP = Supply Chain Positioning Fac = Facility

r d d r r M d r

Although the casual linkages a e in uctive, they o eveal the app oach of the RO in ust y

rd d M r r

towa s the a option of Lean in aviation RO context. The a eas that seem to exhibit mo e positive

r d r d r r r r

emphasis a e focuse on the in-house p o uction equi ements of the o ganisation in te ms of the

r r r d r r M d r d d

shop-floo optimisation. Howeve , the p o uction equi ement of the RO in ust y exten s beyon

r r r r r r r

the inte action of these cha acte istics inte nally, but also as it elates with the exte nal se vice

r d d r r rd rd r

p ovi e to the custome especially with ega s to its position on its supply chain activities in o e

r d d r r d r d

to p ovi e flexible an agile custome suppo t. This has le the autho s to conclu e that:

r

Obse vation 1:

r r r r r r r r

Although the e has been a p olife ation of Lean p actices within st uctu al cha acte istics of

r M d r r d r d r

ope ation in the RO in ust y, mo e emphasis has been place on in-house a eas that have i ect

r r d

inte action with the p o uct.

4.1.2 Infra-structural characteristics:

r r r r r r r r

The inf a-st uctu al cha acte istics of ope ation efe to the relational aspects of the RO fab ic thatM r

r d r r

focuses on the inte action of the non-physical systems connecte by simila value p opositions as

r d r r d d r d r

the p o uction ope ations [8]. As al ea y establishe by Ka lsson an Ahlst om [42], a company

does not achieve Lean p o uct evelopment simply by implementing Lean techniques to ther d d

r d rd r r r

physical ope ations alone, instea , a successful move towa s Lean equi es app oaching these

rr d r r r ddr

inte elate systems in a cohe ent way. Successful Lean implementation will equi e a essing both

d d d r d

the physical an the non-physical systems. In ee , this is one of the co e i eals of successful Lean

r r

implementation p og ammes.

r d

The analysis of the esponse showe that the Lean has been most influential in the ‘Human r

Resou ces’, ‘Quality Cont ol’r an d‘Pe fo mance easu ement’r r M r st ategic business ecision a eas. Thisr d r

r r r r r

(15)

r r r r d d r r r

cha acte istics of ope ation, Lean app oaches have been a opte in the integ ation of the wo ke s

r r r r d d

into the ope ation systems. In p actice, lite atu e suggests that this woul involve: the ivision of

r d d d r d r d r d r r d

labou ; efine an cont olle p o uction systems; inc ease emphasis on wo ke skills, attitu es,

r d r d d r

motivation; imp ove quality of the p o uct an se vice [42]. Consequentially, effective Lean

r r r r d r r r r r

p og ammes will also be cha acte ise by accu ate measu ing met ics to evaluate the pe fo mance

r r

of va ious ope ating systems.

r r r d r r r

Apa t f om p o uction cost savings, anothe majo motivation fo the application of Lean in the

M d r r r d r d d

aviation RO in ust y is tu n-a oun -time e uction [44]. Although these motivations coul

r d r r r M

imp ove the competitive a vantage of the company, they a e not eflective of the enti e RO

r r r d d d r d

capacity in that it they a e mo e p o uction focuse . Thus, it can be sai that the met ics that woul

r r M d r d r r d r d r

be mo e popula in the aviation RO in ust y woul be mo e p o uction o ientate , such as labou

r d d r r r r

utilisation, p o uction cost an TAT. Howeve , customisable met ics that account fo the elational

r d r d d r d d

aspects of p o uction will be few in numbe . If in ee the long-te m success of Lean is epen ent

d d r d r r

on the attitu e an motivations of the people in the p o uction system [4], the lack of app op iate

r r r

met ics that account fo the elational aspects suggest that the emphasis of Lean implementation

d d r d d r d d

has been focuse on the tools an techniques which can be ea ily applie to p o uct an not the

d r d

Lean philosophy itself. The Lean philosophy, a vocates a pa a igm change in the way the whole

r r r d r r r r

ope ation system is un; both the t ansactional an the elational aspects [21]. Fu the mo e,

r r r d r d d

lite atu e suggests that a tho ough un e stan ing of the Lean philosophy itself has to be achieve

r r rd r r r d

ac oss the whole business o ganisation in o e to ensu e the elevance, effectiveness an

d

sustainability of its implementation ([7], [45]). Thus, focusing mainly on the tools an techniques

r r d d r d

alone can be counte -p o uctive. This has le the autho s to conclu e that:

r

Obse vation 2:

r r d d r d

Although the e has been an inc ease in the a option of Lean tools an techniques, the pa a igm

d d r rd r d

change a vocate by Lean philosophy with ega s to o ganisation-wi e change is still lacking.

With Quality consi e e as a ma ket qualifie an not an o e -winning option in the aviationd r d r r d rd r

d r r r r

in ust y, it is a positive obse vation to note f om the esults that the implementation of Lean in the

MRO in ust y has not comp omise p o uct quality. Womack et al. [21] suggests that most efficientd r r d r d

r d r r d d r r d

p o uction ope ations have int o uce Lean p inciples whe e quality is focuse on achieving

r d r d r d r r r

p o uct confo mance an the minimisation of waste in mate ials an esou ce usage. Howeve , with

r r d r d r r r r r

the ‘Rewo k/Sc ap cost’ an ‘P o uction Cost’ not pe fo ming as well as othe key pe fo mance

r

(16)

d r d r r d r r r d

in ust y highlighte bette p o uct confo mance, significant imp ovements a e yet to be ma e on

r d r r d r

the minimisation of mate ials an esou ce wastes. This le to the obse vation that:

r

Obse vation 3:

r r d r d r d

Bette p o uct confo mance is being achieve with the int o uction of Lean with significant

r d r d d r r

imp ovement yet to be ma e on the p o uction an ewo k costs.

r r d

Labou P o uctivity Quality Lea Time TATd Sc ap Rewo kr r P o uction costr d

r

Figu e 3: The outcome of Lean implementation within gene ic key pe fo mance measu ing met icsr r r r r

r d r d r

The analyses of the esponses also in icate that Lean was least ate in a eas such as ‘New P o uct/r d

r r d

Se vice Int o uction’, ‘Custome Relations’r an ‘d Supplie Relations’r . The elatively low p o uct anger r d r

d r d r r r r

of the aviation in ust y an its specialist natu e may be the eason fo Lean’s elatively low

r r r rd

pe fo mance with ega s to the New P o uct/Se vice int o uctionr d r r d st ategic business ecision a ear d r r

[1]. The low atings in ‘Custome Relations’r an ‘d Supplie Relations’r fu the suppo ts p eviousr r r r

r d r M

obse vations that the Lean implementation has been focuse mo e on the physical aspects of RO

r r M r r

ope ations that the non-physical ( elational) aspects. athaisel [3] suggests that the eason fo this

r r r r d

is because it is easie to see waste on the shopfloo than anywhe e else. This obse vation coul also

d r r r r M d r r

be in icative of the ove all matu ity of Lean p og ammes in the aviation RO in ust y as only mo e

d d r r r r

a vance p og ammes within simila business envi onments have been able to apply Lean to all

r r r r r

aspects of thei ope ations system. The ealisation of Lean ac oss all aspects of the ope ation system

r r d r r r M d r

is c ucial especially in a p o uct-cent ic se vice envi onment typical of the RO in ust y because

d r r d d r r r r r d d

(17)

relational (se vice) type activities. The elative poo pe fo mance in the application of Lean to c ucialr r r r r r

M r d r r r

aspects of the RO ope ation system coul eithe be a esult of an incomplete pe ception of all its

r d r

capacities of an inhe ent limitation to the application of Lean in this context. It coul also be a esult

d r rd r d r

of paucity in the knowle ge with ega s to a st ategic a option of Lean ac oss all aspects of the

r r r M r

ope ation system. Whateve the case, it is clea that the RO awa eness of all its capacities both

r d d r r d d r d d r

p o uction an se vice o ientate activities nee to be clea ly istinguishe so as to allow fo the

r d r

cohe ent an st ategic application of Lean.

r r r r r r d

Simila to the outcome in the st uctu al cha acte istics of ope ation, casual linkages coul also be

drawn on the influence of Len within the inf ast uctu al cha acte istics of ope ation. It was obse ver r r r r r r d

r d r r

f om the analyse esults that an inc ease in the application of Lean within the Pe fo mancer r Measu ementr a ea woul lea to a p opo tional to an inc ease in the r d d r r r Quality cha acte istic ofr r

r d r r r r r

ope ation an vice-ve sa. Inva iable, the positive inte action between these two cha acte istics of

r d d

ope ation woul also lea to a positive outcome in the Human Resou cesr cha acte istic of ope ation.r r r

r d d r

This was the one of the majo casual linkages that coul be establishe as the elatively low outcome

r r d d r d r d r d r

of Lean in othe a eas i not p ovi e significant tangible elationships that coul be obse ve f om

r M r d d r d

the esponses. athematically, the obse ve casual linkage coul be mathematically exp esse as:

Lean influence

(

ISC

)

:PM∝Q∝HR

r

Whe e;

r r r r r r

ISC = Inf a-st uctu al Cha acte istics of Ope ation

M r r r

P =Pe fo mance measu ement Q = Quality

r

HR = Human Resou ces

d d r

Again, although this casual linkage is in uctive, it oes suggest that the Lean app oaches have been

d r r r r r

employe extensively in pe fo mance measu ements to ensu e quality compliance is la gely

d r r d r r

maintaine . This has inva iably cont ibute to the integ ation of employees into the ope ation

r d r d r r

system. Howeve , this linkage oes not p ovi e the complete pictu e especially as it elates to a

r d r r d r r

p o uct-cent ic se vice in ust y. The elatively low outcome of the application of Lean in the r

Custome an d Supplie Relations r which a e both c itical elements of a p o uct-cent ic se vicer r r d r r

r r r r r M d r

envi onment, suppo t ea lie obse vations that the focus of Lean application in the RO in ust y

r d r d rd r d d r r

has been la gely i ecte towa s the p o uction aspects of the in ust y than its se vice

r r d d r

(18)

t-r r r r r d d d

te m; its long te m sustenance ac oss the enti e ope ation system in fulfilling all its eman s coul

r d d r d

be significantly hampe e . This has le the autho s to conclu e that:

r

Obse vation 4:

rr r d r r d r d

Although the cu ent t en eveals that mo e Lean emphasis is been place on the p o

uction-r d M d r d d

o ientate activities, Lean success in the RO in ust y can only be sustaine when it is applie

r r

ac oss all aspects of its ope ation system.

4.2 Extent of Lean adoption within other contextual factors

r r r r

With a few autho s on Lean ([31], [33], [34]) suggesting that Lean p og ammes a e plant specific, it

r d r r r d r d d d

was also necessa y to i entify the ope ation footp int of the espon ing o ganisation an e uce

r r r r d r r

the elationship that exists between thei ope ation footp int an thei app oach to Lean itself. A

r M r d r r d d

gene ic list of typical RO activities common to all secto s within the in ust y we e i entifie as

d

liste Table 2 within which the ope ation footp int of the espon ents will be p ofile . r r r d r d

r d r r d r r r

Analyses of the esponses showe that majo ity of the espon ing o ganisations we e mo e active in

r r d r d r r r r d

thei p o uction-o ientate activities than they we e in thei se vice-o ientate activities. Although

r d r d d r r r d

autho s like Chan le [46] an Chil [47] suggests that the effective integ ation of se vice o ientate

r d r r r

activities within an o ganisation may be complicate , mo e ecent publications pe ceive the

r r r r

integ ation of se vices into the ope ations footp int as a competitive necessity ([8], [48], [49]). This

M r r rd r r

suggests that the position that many RO o ganisations take with ega s to thei ope ation

r r d rd r d rd r r r d

footp int is mo e skewe towa s the p o uction aspects than it is towa s thei se vice o ientate

r r r r r r r d

ope ations. Thus, it was no su p ise to obse ve f om the esponses that the Lean p actices an tools

r d d r d rd r r d r d

that we e a opte we e significantly biase towa s thei p o uction o ientate activities.

r r d r r r rr r r

Conve sely, it can be obse ve that la ge o ganisations, i espective of thei position on thei

r d d r r r r r r d r

p o uction an se vice footp ints, we e mo e eceptive ove all to the a option of Lean p actices.

d d r r d d d d rd

This was evi ence in the numbe of Lean p actices they ha a opte . Shah an Wa [31] suggest

r r r r r r r d r

that the eason la ge o ganisations a e mo e eceptive to the that a option of Lean p actices is

d r r d d

because they possess both capital an human esou ces that facilitate a option an implementation

r r r d d r

of Lean p actices as well as etu ns on investments associate with Lean a option [50]. Howeve ,

r r r d d r r

failu e to ealise the impo tance an benefits of Lean a option ac oss all aspects of ope ation

r d d r d r d

(p o uction an se vice), coul se ve as an impe iment to its successful implementation [31].

r d r d d M

(19)

d r rr d r r d r d

in ust y, the cu ent position taken by the in ust y on its se vice an p o uction activities have

r d r d

p ompte the autho s to conclu e that:

r

Obse vation 5:

MRO o ganisations with la ge p o uction footp ints a e mo e eceptive to the a option of Leanr r r r d r r r r d d

tools an techniques.

P R O D U C T IO N O R IE N T A T E D O P E R A T IO N S

DISASSE BLYM

STRIPPING/RE OVALM OFSURFACEFINISHES

MEASURE ENTM

INSPECTION

MACHINING PLATING

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING

PART-PEENING SPECIAL COATING ASSE BLYM

PAINT

STRESS RELIEVING/DE-E BRITTLE ENTM M

BAKE MANUFACTURE RE-WIRING

TEST (E.G. FLIGHT, ELECTRIC)

SE R V IC E O R IE N T A T E D O P E R A T IO N S I

NSTALLATIONOFPRODUCT PRODUCTTRAINING

CUSTO ERM HELPDESK (SUPPORT) BREAKDOWNREPAIR

SPAREPARTSSALES PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE DIAGNOSTICS

PRODUCT DISPOSAL PROVISION OF LABOUR

SYSTEM INTEGRATIONFINANCING ADVICE/CONSULTING

NON-AEROSPACE Table 2: Gene ic RO ope ationsr M r

4.3 Lean influence on MRO output

r d r d d d

Analyses of the esponses in icate that the Lean p actices that have been a opte most inclu e

d r r r d

Just-in-time (JIT), 5S an Takt time. Othe p actices such as Continuous imp ovement an Six Sigma

r d d M r d d

we e also being a opte within RO. Evaluation of the p actices that have been a opte most

M d r r d d rd d d r

within the RO in ust y p esent mixe evi ence towa s the allu e success. Fo example,

d r r d r

(20)

d r r r d

is evi ence that this is not always the case. Analyses of the esults also show that labou p o uctivity

r d r r d r r r

has seen the most imp ovement which coul infe a e uction in wo k-in-p og ess (WIP). Boute et

d r r r d

al., [54] ma e a simila p oposition that the effect of JIT implementation is mostly ealise in WIP

r de uction an aw mate ial invento y atio as oppose to a i ect e uction in invento y atio. Thisd r r r r d d r r d r r r de uction in WIP woul also cont ibute to the e uction in ove all TAT. d r r d r

r r r r rr d d r r

Fu the mo e, 5S is efe e to as the foun ation upon which all othe Lean business imp ovement

r d r d d

initiatives a e establishe on. This is because the ‘5S’ p ocess is a simple metho ical team base

r r r r d rr d r d

app oach to o ganizing wo k space to ensu e that it is ti y, a ange e gonomically, efficient an

r r

capable of epeatable, quality output. Successful 5S implementation cont ibutes to significant

r de uctions in the 7 wastes i entifie by Ohno [55] as unnecessa y clutte is emove f om thed d r r r d r

r r d d r rr r d

wo king envi onment an tools an equipment necessa y to ca y-out tasks a e locate in the most

r r d

e gonomic locations. Effective 5S implementation also makes all malfunctions in the p o uction

r r rr r r r

p ocess mo e obvious so that co ective actions a e p ompt. Othe tools such as continuous

r d d r r r r

imp ovement initiatives an Six Sigma woul also esult in simila benefits in pa ticula ly in the

r r d

output pa amete s examine in Figu e 3r . Since the benefits in icate by the o ganisations a ed d r r

r d r r d d

consistent with the p evalent tools implemente , the autho s a e le to conclu e that:

r

Obse vation 6:

M r d d r r d r d

Lean success in RO output is confi me an consistent with lite atu e espite being a p o

uct-r r r

cent ic se vice envi onment.

5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

MRO f amewo k is ma e up of both p o uction-o ientate an se vice-o ientate functions [6].r r d r d r d d r r d

d r d r d r r r

These functions can be esc ibe in conventional manufactu ing an se vice te ms. Although neithe

desc iption of the in ust y is inco ect, they a e in epen ently incomplete esc iptions of the ROr d r rr r d d d r M

d r M d r r d r

in ust y. This is because the RO in ust y has elements akin to the t a itional manufactu ing

r d r d r r r r r r r M

envi onments an t a itional se vice envi onments. As such, lite atu e eview efe s to the RO

d r r d r r d r d M

in ust y as a p o uct-cent ic se vice in ust y. Thus, the extent of Lean a option within the RO

d r d

in ust y has to be establishe within the scope of these two aspects.

r d d M d r

The su vey set out to fin out the extent of Lean a option within the aviation RO in ust y by

d r d d r r r r rr d

consi e ing its influence within i entifie key cha acte istics of ope ation also efe e to as the key

d r r d r

business ecision a eas. This inte est is base on the p eposition that successful implementation of

r d d r d r r r r d r r r

(21)

r r r r r r d

Analysis of the esponses within the key st uctu al cha acte istics of ope ation showe that the

r d r d r

st ategic ecision a eas that have been most influence by Lean a e ‘P ocess & Technology’r and

d r

‘Planning an Cont ol’. This suggests that Lean tools a e being employe in enhancing both ther d

r d r r r r d r r

p o uction p ocess that the planning systems esponsible fo p o uction. Conve sely, the esponses

d r

in icate Lean to have the lesse impacts in the ‘Facility’ an d‘Supply Chain’ st uctu al cha acte isticsr r r r r

of ope ation. With the ‘Facility’ ecision a ea ep esenting the p oximity of the o ganisation tod r r r r r

r r d r d

custome s, supplie s an ma kets an the ‘Supply Chain’ a ea ep esenting the position of ther r r

r M r d r r d M d r d

o ganisation within the RO p o uction footp int; it can be obse ve that the RO in ust y ha not

d r d d r r r

sufficiently employe Lean app oaches in ealing with agile an quick custome equi ements.

r r d r d

Simila ly, analysis of the esults in icate that mo e emphasis on Lean tools have been place within the ‘Human Resou ces’r , ‘Quality Cont ol’r an ‘d Pe fo mancer r Measu ement’r key inf ast uctu alr r r

r r r d r r

cha acte istics of ope ation. Lean is associate with the effective integ ation of people into thei

r d r d r d d d d r d r d

p o uction systems th ough the ivision of labou an efine an cont olle p o uction systems

r r d r r r

[43]. The esponses f om this section suggest that emphasis has been place on wo ke skills, thei

d d r r d d r d

attitu es an motivation whilst ensu ing that p o uct quality is maintaine . The esults in icate that

d r r d r r

emphasis have been place on the measu ing met ics employe in evaluating the pe fo mance of

r r r d d r r r

va ious o ganisations. Although this su vey i not explo e what exact measu ing met ics have been

d d r r r d d r d

employe an thei app op iateness, it will be safe to suggest that the a opte met ics woul be

relatively limite to measu ing p o uction outputs such as labou utilisation, p o uction cost and r r d r r d d

r r r r r d r r r

TAT savings with elatively lowe focus on thei se vice o ientate functions whe e app op iate

r d d d

customisable met ics woul have to be evelope .

r d r r r d r

Conve sely, it was note f om the esponse that Lean was least ate in a eas such as ‘NewP o uct/r d

r r d

Se vice Int o uction’, ‘Custome Relations’r an d‘Supplie Relations’r . The elatively low p o uct anger r d r

d r d r r r r r

of the aviation in ust y an its specialist natu e may be the eason fo Lean’s elatively poo

r r

pe fo mance in the New P o uct/Se vice Int o uctionr d r r d . Howeve , the lowe atings in the elationalr r r r

aspects such as ‘Custome Relations’r an d‘Supplie Relations’r suppo ts the ove whelming fin ing thatr r d

d r d rd r d r d r M

the focus of Lean has mainly i ecte towa p o uction-o ientate functions whe e athaisel [3]

r r r d

suggests, is mo e easy to see waste. The application of Lean to the se vice-o ientate functions is notably lacking.

r r r r d

Often the p ima y goal of Lean implementation has been to inc ease outcomes like p o uctivity,

r de uce lea times an costs, imp ove quality in a manufactu ing shop, facto y o company [56].d d r r r r

r M r r r d

Howeve , the uniqueness of the RO envi onment equi es that Lean implementation is not limite

r r d d r r d

(22)

d r r d r d d r

an techniques a e va ie such that some of them exclusively affect the p o uction epa tment,

r r r r r r

the e a e othe initiatives that integ ate seve al company functions. The ove whelming conclusion of

r d M d r

this su vey is that although Lean has been successfully implemente in the aviation RO in ust y, its

d r d r r r

implementation has been limite to the p o uction shop-floo activities whe e waste is mo e easily

d d r r d r d r

notice with little attention pai to the se vice- elate ope ation of the in ust y. Although Zayco et

d r d r r d

al. [57] an Ahlst öm [58] a vocate fo the g a ual implementation of the elements of Lean, the

r M r r r r d r d

ove all success of RO Lean p og ammes can only be accu ately measu e when an integ ate

r ddr r d d r d d

app oach a essing both the p o uction an se vice aspects of the business is a opte .

r r r r r d d d r r r rd r

Fu the mo e, analysis eveals all the espon ents in icate la ge footp int with ega s to thei

r d r d r r r r

p o uction functions with only a few o ganisations in icating a simila size footp int on thei se vice

r r r r r

ope ations. Although Pette sen [33] suggest that Lean p og ammes a e plant specific, it was

r r r r r r r r d r r

obse vable f om the esponse that o ganisations with elatively la ge p o uction footp int we e

r r d d d r d d r

mo e eceptive to the a option of Lean as evi ence by the numbe of tools a opte . Howeve , it

r r r r r d d r d r d r

was no su p ise to obse ve that majo ity of the tools that we e a opte a e i ectly linke to thei

r d r d r r d d d r

p o uction-o ientate activities than the se vice-o ientate activities. This fin ing coul eithe be a

result of a elibe ate phase implementation of Lean to fi st ad r d r ddress the p o uction elater d r d

r d r r d r r d r r

conce ns an then the se vice elate conce ns o it coul be the a esult of the lack of a cohe ent

d r r d r r r

an holistic app oach of Lean implementation within a p o uct-cent ic se vice envi onment.

d r d r d

Notwithstan ing, casual linkages between the size of the p o uction footp int an the motivation

r d d dr r r r

fo the a option of Lean coul still be awn. Simila to manufactu ing envi onments, it was also

r d r r r r r r d r d

obse ve f om the esponses that o ganisations with la ge p o uction footp ints seeme to be

r r d r r r

mo e eceptive to the a option of Lean. Conve sely, analyses of the esponse eveal that significant

r r r rd d r d M r

imp ovements we e eco e in all outputs of p o uction. ost notable of them was in Labou

r d d r d r r r

P o uctivity, Quality an P o uction Cost. Although the actual pe centage imp ovements we e not

reco e , this fin ing fu the vali ates the success att ibute to Lean by many o ganisations. rd d d r r d r d r

r r r d d d M d r

This esea ch p ovi es evi ence to the successful a option of Lean in the aviation RO in ust y

d r d r d r r d d r

albeit limite to the p o uction-o ientate ope ations with less attention p ovi e to the se vice

r d r r d r d d

o ientate ope ations. Howeve , without wanting to un e mine the value of this stu y, it shoul be

d d r r d r d d d

note that the fin ings f om this su vey shoul be t eate as in icative. Base on the outcome of

r d r r r d r r r r r d

this empi ical stu y, the autho s of this pape ecommen fu the esea ch into an integ ate

r rr d r d r

app oach of Lean implementation that concu ently consi e s its a option ac oss both the

r d r d d r r d r

p o uction-o ientate functions an its se vice-o ientate activities. This will involve wo king closely

r d r r d d r r r r

with inte este pa tne s to evelop an establish best p actices ac oss all the key cha acte istics of

r d r r d r

(23)

r r d M r r rd r r r r

f amewo k of the ‘I eal Lean RO’. The autho s look fo wa to epo ting this wo k in the nea

r

Figure

Figu e 1 : Su vey  esponse acco ing to in ust y secto : Heavy  aintenance Visit (H V); Engine Ove haul; Component  r r rd d r r M M r

Figu e

1 : Su vey esponse acco ing to in ust y secto : Heavy aintenance Visit (H V); Engine Ove haul; Component r r rd d r r M M r p.9
Figu e 2 : The influence of Lean within i entifie  key cha acte istics of ope ation d d r r r

Figu e

2 : The influence of Lean within i entifie key cha acte istics of ope ation d d r r r p.11
Figu e 3 : The outcome of Lean implementation within gene ic key pe fo mance measu ing met ics r r r r r

Figu e

3 : The outcome of Lean implementation within gene ic key pe fo mance measu ing met ics r r r r r p.16

References