Determinants of pre-primary school teachers' use of teaching aids to enhance instruction in Isinya Sub-County, Kenya

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USE OF TEACHING AIDS TO ENHANCE INSTRUCTION

IN

ISINYA SUB-COUNTY, KENYA

BY

MAKAU AGNES NZISA

A RESEARCH

PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL

FULFILLMENT

OF THE REQUIREMENTS

FOR THE AWARD OF A

DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

EDUCATION, SCHOOL OF EDUCATION KENYATTA

I'

UNIVERSITY

MAY 2016

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DECLARATION

I declare that this report is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other University/institution for consideration. This research report has been completed by referenced sources duly acknowledged. Where text, data (including spoken words), graphics, pictures or tables have been borrowed from other sources, including the internet, these are specifically accredited and references cited in accordance in line with anti-plagiarism regulations.

Signature

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=_=

--

__

Date

~(s12D(-b

Agnes Makau Reg. No: E55/CE/22533/20 10

We confirm that the work reported in this project was carried out by the candidate under our supervision as university supervisors.

Signature

----\0-6=

Date

Dr.Catherine Murungi

Department of Early Childhood Studies I'

-~~

Signature ~ . Date

----~~---Dr. Nyakwara Begi

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CFS ECD GER MOE MOEST NACECE SPSS TV UK UNICEF USA WHO

Child Friendly Schools Early Childhood Development Gross Enrolment Ratio Ministry Of Education

Ministry of Education Science and Technology National Centre for Early Childhood Education

Statistical Package for Social Sciences Television

United Kingdom

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS v

LIST OF FIGURES viii

LIST OFTABLES ix

ABSTRACT ~ x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT OF THE STUDY 1

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Background of the Study : 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem : 3

1.3 Purpose of the Study 4

1.4 Objectives of the Study 4

1.5 Research Questions 4

1.6 Significance of the Study 4

1.7 Delimitations and Limitations of the Study 5

1.7.1 Limitation of the Study 5

1.7.2 Delimitation of the Study 5

1.8 Assumption of the Study 6

1.9 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework 6

1.9.1 Theoretical Framework · : 6

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1.10 Operational Definition of Terms 8

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 9

2.0 Introduction 9

2.1 Use of Teaching Aids to Enhance Learning 9 2.2 Factors Influencing Pre-primary School Teachers' use of Teaching Aids to Enhance

Learning 19

2.3 Strategies to Enhance Use of TeachingAids 23

2.4 Summary of Literature Reviewed : 25

CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 27

3.0 Introduction .' 27

3.1 Research Design ; 27

3.2 Study Variables 27

3.2.1 Dependant Variable 27

3.3 Location of the Study 28

3.4 Target Population 28

3.5 Sampling Techniques and Sample Size 28

3.5.\ Sampling Techniques 28

3.5.2 Sample Size : 29

3.6 Research Instruments 29

3.7 Pilot Study 30

3.7.1 Instrument Validity 30

3.7.2 Reliability of the Instruments 31

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Data was collected in two stages as follows; 31

3.9 Data Analysis 32

3.10 Logistical and Ethical Considerations 32

CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSIONS 33

4.1 Introduction 33

4.2 General and Demographic Information of the Respondents 33

4.2.2 Age of Respondents 34

4.2.3 Level of Education 34

4.3 Teachers' Use of Teaching Aids to Enhance Learning 35

4.4 Factors Influencing Teachers' Use of Teaching Aids 38

4.5 Strategies to Enhance the Use of Teaching Aids .40

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ....43

5.1 Introduction 43

5.2 Summary of Findings 43

5.3 Conclusions 45

5.4 Recommendations 46

,5.4.5 Recommendations for Further Research .47

REFERENCES 48

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-APPENDICES 52

Appendix I: Questionnaire for pre-school teachers 52

Appendix II: Observation Checklist 56

Appendix III: Research Authorization Letter 57

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: ConceptuaIFramework 9

Figure 4.1 GenderDistribution 35

Figure 4.2 Age of Respondents 36

Figure 4.3 Use oITeachingAids 37

Figure 4.4 Distribution of Specific TeachingAidsUsed .38

Figure 4.5 Use of Teaching AidsPerception 39

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LIST OF TABLES

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ABSTRACT

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INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT OF THE STUDY

1.0 Introduction

This chapter presents background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, significance of the study and limitations of the study. The assumptions of the study, theoretical and conceptual framework and definition of terms are also described.

1.1Background of the Study

Early years of life are the most critical for learning. According to Van der stoep (1973) the term teaching aid can be used to explain most of teaching and learning aids. Teaching aids are used by teachers in presenting lessons in class, on the other hand learning aids are utilized by learners during their classroom work. The United Nations Children's Fund asserted that creating friendly and conducive learning conditions can improve how children acquire skills through use of teaching aids. According to UNICEF, any material that a teacher can use to enhance classroom learning and help in improving the children concentration levels can be referred as a teaching aid (UNICEF, 2006).

In the African context, teaching should entail more than just work books and text books

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friendly to enable effective teaching and learning. A number of teaching aids exists, including chalk board/white boards, flash cards, post cards, magazines, and photos,

among others (Elliot, 2005). Pre-school teachers use a number of aids ranging from the

improvised ones such as charts, sticks, to modern ones like television, tape recorders and projectors.

The type of teaching aid in a school depends largely on the type of school and the

management of the school. A number of challenges have thwarted learning by not making schooling a positive experience for children. Children have been struggling to

learn from poor structures, unconducive surroundings, and unequipped classrooms, falling sick, sometimes fear of heavy punishment, mistreatment from teachers and bullying by their peers (Ministry of Education, 2009).

Teaching aids are used to achieve specific learning objectives. According to Larry (2006), teaching aids enhance free interaction and socialization between learners and teachers at the same time improving teaching and learning skills. The interaction between teachers and learners help children to grasp new concepts and procedures. When there is I'

a good rapport between learners and teachers in pre-primary school, this facilitates a good

starting point for children. In order to meet the main objective of using teaching aids in

pre-schools, that is, to enable smooth and effective learning, in the early stages of

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teaching aids may not be available to many pre-schools, the teachers should be creative

and innovative to come up with teaching aids to cater for all senses of the learners.

Kajiado County is mostly inhabited by Maasai community. They are well known for

embracing their culture and this is usually translated in the teaching methodologies and

aids that are used when teaching and socializing with pre-school children, Sachedina and

Nelson (2010). This study aimed at establishing the pre-primary school teachers' use of

teaching aids to enhance teaching and learning and factors that influence their use in

preschools in Isinya Sub-County.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teaching aids are crucial to any successful process of teaching and learning worldwide.

They aid the teacher to effectively transfer the content to the pupils. Karaka (2007) and

Fabian (2007). The use of teaching aids supplement classroom learning yet some pre-o

school teachers completely ignore this learning resource and instead use the typical

classroom lecture system to impart knowledge to pupils. Teaching aids playa vital role in

learning. They attract attention, arouse interest and promote retention and memory, help

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to make learners get motivated and participate in learning process. The study therefore

sort to establish the extent to which teaching aids are used by pre-school teachers in

Isinya Sub-County and explore the different factors that influence the adaptation of

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1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of study was to establish pre-primary school teachers' use of teaching aids to

enhance learning in pre-schools in Isinya Sub-County and the factors influencing their

use.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

i. To establish pre-primary school teachers' use of teaching aids to enhance teaching

learning in pre-primary schools in Isinya Sub-County.

II. To explore .the factors influencing teachers' use of teaching aids to enhance

teaching learning in pre-primary schools.

Ill. To determine the strategies that can be used to enhance teachers' use of teaching aids in teaching learning.

1.5 Research Questions

I. What is the frequency of teachers' use of teaching aids to facilitate teaching and learning inpre-primary schools in Isinya Sub-County.

I' ii. What are the factors influencing teachers' use of teaching aids to enhance

teaching learning in pre-schools.

Ill. Which strategies that can be used to enhance teachers' use of teaching aids In teaching learning.

1.6 Significance of the Study

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teaching aids are used to enhance learning in the Sub-count. The study will also help in

mobilizing parents and the community on the importance of using teaching aids to

enhance learning. The findings may be useful to the county government to make relevant

policies geared towards effective utilization of teaching aids to enhance teaching and

learning in pre-schools. The study findings may also be useful to management of schools

under study in initiating administrative actions towards improvement of use of teaching

aids from the available resources that can be prudently expanded for continued

development of educational facilities. Curriculum developers in the field of early

childhood education may use the findings of this study to ensure that teachers use aids in

instructing childrento promote effective curriculum delivery,

1.7 Delimitations and Limitations of the Study

They are described in the following sub-sections;

1.7.1 Limitation of the Study

The researcher was faced with the problem of concealment of material information by the

respondents and to mitigate this, the researcher clearly explained the purpose of the study

to the respondents. Logistics challenges due to the expansive area were expected, but the

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researcher had prepared in advance with a map and had made a pre-visit.

1.7.2 Delimitation of the Study

The study was conducted in isinya Sub County and focused on factors influencing the use

of teaching aids to enhance learning in pre-schools.

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1.8 Assumption of the Study

The study assumed that pre-school teachers would spare their time for the researcher to

be able to get the needed information. It further assumed that pre-school teachers

understood the importance of teaching aids.

1.9Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

1.9.1 Theoretical Framework

The study employed Cognitive Constructivism learing theory by Perry William (1999).

According to this theory, children interpret new information into unique knowledge by

providing an enabling environment for them to initiate appropriate improvement to their

intellectual framework to accommodate the new acquired knowledge. The theory also

suggests that the incorporation of images and· other teaching aids creates imaginative

pictures in the minds of children hence they help in improving the rate of mastering

concepts inclassroom. Therefore pre-primary school teachers need to understand learners

existing knowledge and integrate it in learning process. A conducive learning

environment is very imperative, so do teaching aids in pre-schools help in enhancing

teaching and learning skills hence discovery of new knowledge (Samuel, 2009).

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According to constructivist's argument, the process of learning can also be explained as a

process of active discovery. Moreover, children need an instructor who not only teaches

them in their classroom work, but also enabling learners to explore the different talents

through use of teaching aids and good interaction with learners. Early detection of talents

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children are able to major in advancing their talents and scaling them to new heights in

early stages. When designing new teaching aids for use in pre-schools, the current level

of understanding of the learners should be considered in order to ensure that teaching aids

adds more knowledge to children.

From this perspective, to motivate learners to strive into learning, greater opportunities

can be offered through use of teaching aids, this makes pre-school children to master the

system and achieve the much needed skills (Samuel, 2009). Providing a conducive

learning environment for the learners is one of the strategies to be adopted to make the

learning experience memorable and even more interesting for children. Teaching aids can

be used in creating the conducive interactive environment which creates a positive

perception in children hence make the process of learning interesting. They fall into

several main categories: visual aids such as overheads; and interactive tools such as a

video programme or resource pack. It is good to bear in mind that too much materials and

too many different themes can serve to confuse the class. When instructing children, the

instructor should attempt to sequentially follow a few techniques in order to avoid

confusing the learners.

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1.9.2 Conceptual Framework

It demonstrates how different variables interact and their influence on the use of teaching

aids. The result of the influence of the intervening variables is demonstrated through

teaching and learning skills. The intervening variables can affect the capacity of the

independent variable in influencing the dependent variable. Pre-schools should develop

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access to them'.

Independent variable

Factors influencing the use of teaching aids

• Teachers training • Capacity building • Job qualification • Teacher's attitude (Study Variables)

Dependent variable

•..

Use of teaching aids to enhance instruction

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Intervening Variables - School environment - Type of school

Educational Outcomes • Better performance • Acquisition of

learning skills • Talent nurturing J---.;~~(Non-Study Variables)

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Strategies to enhance the use of teaching aids in Pre-schools

Figure 1.1: Factors influencing use of teaching aids in Learning

1.10 Operational Definition of Terms

Strategies. A plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall objective.

Teaching aids. Resources used by teachers to enhance learning. They include items like Charts, diagrams, or notes used to helpchildren inacquiring knowledge.

Teachers Altitude. Refers to the degree of positive or negative effect associated with some psychological object

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEWED

2.0Introduction

This chapter presents literature reviewed on use of teaching aids to enhance learning,

factors influencing pre-school teachers' use of teaching aids, strategies to enhance use of

teaching aids in learning and a summary of literature reviewed.

2.1Use of Teaching Aids to Enhance Learning

Teaching aids are materials used by teachers or learners to facilitate teaching and

learning. These teaching aids can take numerous forms, from the beans students might

count while learning simple math in pre-schools to the photos of famous people, to chalk

boards, charts and places teachers might display during teaching and learning process

(National Teacher Institute, 2006).

There are many different kinds of teaching aids and the choice depends on the needs of

children and their availability. Although numerous challenges exist, all the instructors are

required to incorporate these teaching aids while instructing children. This has made

many teachers to only use blackboard or white board as the only teaching aid since it is

easily available. A lot of challenges face the use of electronic and advanced teaching aids

in most of the pre-schools such as luck of electricity and insecurity in some of the regions

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Oguntuase (2008) defined teaching aids as a record on any medium through which a

moving image may by any means be produced. They are derivative works which are

usually based on original literacy, dramatic, musical and artistic works. Pre-school

teachers are now expected to make use of video for mass media teaching or learning.

Finally, many recent methods of teaching have focused on the use of authentic material.

The study aimed at establishing how pre-school teachers used these teaching aids to

enhance learning in pre-schools.

According to reviewed studies, chalkboard is widely used as the only teaching aid in

many schools in Kenya hence majority of teachers would find teaching without one to be

a challenge, it is also the case that teachers frequently do not adequately consider how to

present material on the board. It is generally. considered a good practice to list the

lesson's objectives on the board and leave them up throughout the lesson, for the

pre-school to refer to. It is also helpful to leave a running list of vocabulary on one part of the

board. The central part of the board can be used for examples, charts, drawings, etc.,

which will generally only be left up for one part of the lesson (Sarah, 2007). This study

sort to establish the different types of teaching aids adopted by pre-school teachers to

enhance the learning process.

The process of maintaining the good quality of pre-school education involves the

corporation of teachers who are the key stakeholders in ensuring that the learning process

of learners is smooth and meets required standards. Use of teaching aids plays a very

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use these aids appropriately, they have to be aware of how and when to use each teaching

aid and to which category of children. Children usually view their teachers as role models

and hence they acquire most of the key social and intellectual skills from their teachers.

Therefore, teachers should be careful on how they behave while interacting with learners.

The pre-schoolers should use teaching aids and when anything is put before them in a

three dimensional form they pay more attention. Moreover use of teaching aids is one

innovative idea which teachers worldwide sought after to help in curriculum delivery

-the teaching aids can be used in order to teach children in the most interactive manner.

Sarah is of the view that many teachers advocate teaching aids as it simplifies their job

and also helps children get the facts right (Sarah 2007).

It is generally accepted that varies forms and types of teaching aids suite dynamic needs

of learners. The pre-school teaching aids manufacturers have various unique concepts

which pre-school teachers use in an innovative manner to help them know the best way to

deliver the content to the child. Been creative is a unique concept, however irrespective

of the teaching aid used by a teacher, they should be able to meet the intended objective

or pass the information it was planned to deliver. Teaching aids help in ensuring that

children do not get bored but instead they find learning interesting.

Different children respond in vanous ways to different teaching aids used by their

teachers due to the different learning capacities of the learners and level of understanding.

The use of teaching aids helps inevaluating how the child is developing inall the aspects,

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teaching aids can be displayed in differently forms, irrespective of how they are

presented, these teaching aids make learning a fun filled experience and help in

improving reading, writing and grasping skills. Pre-schoolers perform various tasks as

assigned to them repeatedly using these teaching aids and ultimately learn activities.

Puthen, (2000) recognizes that due to the small retention power of pre-schoolers, using

teaching aids in classroom makes the environment friendly and interactive. The use of

attractive and eye-catching teaching aids helps in developing a better way to remember

for the children hence improving their grasping and retention powers gradually. However,

many activity based teaching aids may be relevant in enabling the pre-schooler to

develop perseverance, confidence, cooperation, communication and creating curiosity in

their minds for knowledge acquisition. These activities prepare learners for future

learning experiences and environments. These activity based teaching aids are useful in

art science discoveries and they also help the learner to acquire personal and social skills

which are crucial in later stages of life. The use of teaching aids while instructing

preschool children has had a great positive impact on the learning experience of

pre-school children, this has motivated pre-school owners and teachers to devote their I'

resources in ensuring children have access to the modern teaching aids and aids of good

quality (Puthen, 2000).

The incorporation of teaching aids while instructing learners is crucial in ensuring that

the children concentration is not diverted and it also make learners to clearly understand

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teaching aids to install positive values into the young and energetic minds of the children.

This helps in moulding the children to be more responsible and prepare them for future bigger assignments. Various teaching colleges and institutions train teachers on different skills and techniques which should be applied while in classrooms although the way in which the teachers eventually apply the skills is different, hence a lot still needs to be done to ensure transfer of knowledge to the learners is done in a systematic manner (Mkhahatshwa, 1990).

Through this, teaching aids can be used as a medium to meet the intended objectives (Mkhahatshwa, 1990). Moreover, students can easily recognize problems and strategize on ways which can be used to solve that particular problem through exchanging ideas with other learners. This can be spearheaded by incorporating the best teaching aids while instructing then to enhance their interaction and create a friendly environment for them to learn and socialize.

Alaku (1998) stated that teachers' competency depends on his use of appropriate teaching aids and learning strategy. Adoption of the correct teaching aids and strategies can also be nsed by the government and other regulatory agencies in accessing the competency and efficiency of teachers in pre-schools. By using the right teaching aid during lessons,

learners can easily capture the concepts been demonstrated by their teacher with charts,

maps or any other teaching aid that the teacher may find appropriate to use in to cater for the diverse needs of the learners.

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acquisition. The use of videos creates more interest in learners. Children can easily

remember something they saw in a clip which improves their development and retention

rate hence enhancing a smooth learning environment. Children usually find it interesting to see real simulation of what they have theoretically learned in class. Of all the senses, it

has been discovered that hearing and sight are the most used to gather information (Van

Rooyen and Van Der Merwe, 1990; Spencer, 1988). For example, a teacher holding an A4

paper rectangle up to a class - some of the children may already be familiar with

rectangles; they will recognize the object, remember what they learnt and incorporate any

new knowledge about rectangles. This will make the concept rectangle meaning full to

them. On the other' hand, other children in the class might have no knowledge about the

rectangles. Kindler (2006) as quoted by Fakunle (2008) declared that people generally

remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what .they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of

what they hear and see, 70% of what they say and 90% of what they say as they do a

thing. This clearly implies that the children will need to incorporate all the above aspects

in order to perform well in their studies.

Researchers have discovered that use of teaching aids enable the teacher and children to

engage in solid conversation about something tangible. The incorperation of tangible

objects to demonstrate and illustrate several mathematical procedures and concepts helps

to ensure a good learning conditions (Szendrei, 1996). When children are given objects to

work with and a familiar background they are able to solve problems that teachers never

thought they could. Children communicate their thinking to others through verbal

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Ensor, (1997) observered that preschool children can be able to come up with innovate

new ways and startegies to solve problems hence changing the old way of doing things.

Childs development depends a lot on pre-school learning environment and the quality of

preschools education received by the child. This stresses the importance of providing an

encouraging environment for learning in school, learning materials, including safety and

protection from violence, access to clean water and sanitation, as well as effective

teaching and learning processes, improved governance and successful learning outcomes

(Ackerman, and Barnett, 2005).

There are significant differences between individual pre-school settings and their impact

on children; some settings are more effective than others in promoting positive child

outcomes. Researchers have found out that irrespective of the school setup, there are

other things that can be done in order to establish a culture of effective teaching and

learning materials. These include establishing quality education, supporting early child

hood development, reducing gender gaps, assessing children with disability, equipping

them with life skills and equity impact (Ackerman and Barnett, 2005).

An effective teaching and providing all learning materials for preschool children is a

crucial aspect in ensuring that children receive quality and standard education. Highly

qualified and experienced professional educators, staff-to-child ratios which allow staff to

interact with children, effective intentional curriculum that involves active engagement

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relationships with early childhood staff, an integration between care and education, promotion of early literacy and math skills, responsiveness to cultural diversity, high

standards of safety and child protection, and an atmosphere that fosters social, emotional

and regulatory skills can be used to assess the quality of education (Ackerman and Barnett, 2005).

Quality pre-school education will provide developmentally appropriate learning experiences for young children to develop holistically and nurture positive attitudes

towards learning. It will also help the children develop foundational literacy and numeracy skills and build up confidence as well as self-management and social skills.

This foundational development will enable children to have a smoother transition from pre-school to formal education in primary schools. However, it is the responsibility of the government to ensure that education is affordable and it's of good quality, the education

should be also accessible to all the citizens. However, there have been a lot of challenges

in developing countries in ensuring that quality basic education is accessible and affordable to all the citizens irrespective of social class in the society.

The government under the Ministry of Education should devote more resources in

ensuring the quality of education is improved in public preschools by implementing strategies aimed at improving the standards of education. Teachers Training Colleges and

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In the pursuit of quality, pre-schoolers' needs should be comprehensively addressed. This

should cover all the basic needs of the child to ensure all their different needs are

adequately met in an effective manner. Strategies can also be formulated to ensure

participation of learners in all the activities prepared by the teacher. The standards of

education can be measured from the effectiveness of linking the school to a wider

community from which it derives its sense of engagement with reality and confirms the

relevance of its curriculum (Halle, 2004).

Effecti ve learning is only achieved if the health and sanitation conditions are maintained

by different stakeholders in the education sector who include the government, society and

teachers .Sanitation topics range from hand washing procedures to air quality and from

plumbing connections to lead exposure prevention. Sanitation guidelines should be

created to promote wellness and healthy child development to prevent accidents and to

stop the spread of infectious diseases. Experts from National Environment Management

Authority should conduct regular inspections in preschools to help in ensuring that

maintain healthy environments. High health and sanitation standards have to be

maintained and observed all the time to reduce the rate of disease infection among

children. It is the responsibility of the preschool teachers and instructors to ensure that all

laid and recommended healthy and sanitation standard and procedures are adhered by the

children. Maintaining sanitation and health conditions in preschools is paramount since

the immunity of the learners is usually weak and vulnerable to diseases. These may

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spread of communicable diseases (Halle, 2004).

Children with disability need to be targeted and their needs established and met in the

school setup (Bullock, 1998). This is an important phase targeting system wide

interventions in education. Some measures can be formulated as projects on the small

scale and those which can be localised and this can result in problem solving policies

through allocating resources and investments to the less fortunate in the society. Proper

and strategized interventions can out-do most national average in terms of ensuring

quality is maintained and improved gradually. Although they playa very crucial role in

ensuring quality is maintained, they are yet not the most effective policy in ensuring that

children receive the best quality of their education. These strategies encourage children to

attend school and help in eventually eradication 'poverty in the society.

Children with special needs such as developmental, emotional, physical or learning

difficulties are often at risk for difficulties in social-emotional development. Many of

these pre-schoolers seem to lack the social and language skills needed to initiate or

maintain age-rriate relationships. Some have personal characteristics or personal styles

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that keep them isolated or contribute to rejection from peers, and have no idea that their

own behaviour is part of the problem. Such situations should be addressed as early as

possible in order to ensure that all the children interact freely and understand the special

needs of their fellow learners.

Early friendships for all children begin through play, providing frequent and appropriate

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social behaviours. Facilities that serve preschool children with disabilities, either in

inclusionary or self- contained settings have an obligation to provide experiences that

promote the social-emotional competencies needed for children to have successful peer

relationships and to facilitate the children's inclusion in as many settings as possible

(Odom, 2000).

An approach that .provides frequent and appropriate play experiences 111 settings that

include children with disabilities increases the likelihood that they will learn, generalize

new behaviours, maintain skills, and hopefully, make new and lasting friends. The study

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noted that most of the pre-primary school teachers' use of teaching aids under review

were mainly found in urban areas and mostly in private pre-schools. Few scholars looked

at use of teaching aids in public pre-schools that reflcetd the rural setting. This study

seeks to establish how teaching aids have been incoperated in learning in rural settings.

2.2 Factors Influencing Pre-primary School Teachers' use of Teaching Aids to

Enhance Learning

Teaching aids are essential in fostering meaningful learning among children in pre

-schools. Yule (1991) views courses in most of the institutions with the mandate to train

teachers as having emphasizing on imparting knowledge in teachers and neglecting the

transition of the same to the preschool learners. Creating an environment in the classroom

where reshaping and redesigning of knowledge, stimulation of intellectual curiosity, and

innovative and independent thinking can take place, is a real challenge. Subject matter

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similarity in the two situations is that teaching aid help in the delivery of curriculum,

accessing topics, skill acquisition, and lessening of the child's anxiety about their ability

to understand. However disparities exist in questioning and evaluation skills that indicate

disparity in learning skills acquired in the classroom situation. Many studies have been

done by scholars on the area of the efficiency of a teacher in transferring knowledge to

learners during ina given lesson.

The quality of teaching aids is of great concern in ensuring that children receive quality

education. Experience of children in their early years playa crucial role in the child's

development in terms of psychological, emotional and social needs. This includes

unresponsiveness to developmentally appropriate guidance and actions such as prolonged

tantrums, physical and verbal aggression, disruptive vocal and motor behaviour, property

destruction, self-injury, noncompliance, and withdrawal. Challenging behaviours during the preschool years constitute one of the strongest predictors of later, more serious

problem behaviours including delinquency, antisocial behaviour, and substance abuse

(Farris, 2000).

Participation In early care and education is sometimes linked to higher rates of

challenging behaviours, Borich, (1998) especially in programs of lower quality that do

not specifically address the social development needs of young children. High-quality

preschool education that includes an emphasis on children's social development can

reduce rates of challenging behaviours and serve as a long-term protective factor for

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Universal, classroom-based curricula that include social skills teaching should be viewed

as the base tier of a teaching pyramid that serves all pre-school children. Children who

struggle with challenging behaviours should receive additional tiers that provide

intentional teaching of social problem-solving and other pro-social. skills as well as

interventions from experts and family members as needed. Developmentally appropriate

screening for early identification of problems is essential. The use of teaching aid that is

necessary to carry out this education should be reviewed to make sure they are effective

and absolute teaching and learning takes place (Borich, 1998).

Due to heavy workloads, compulsion of covering the syllabus within a given time limit

and overcrowded classes, pre-school teachers tend to combine certain skills like

evaluation and recapitulation or overlook skills like use of teaching aids (Mkhahatshwa,

1990). Since many schools cannot afford most of the advanced teaching aids, most

teachers are using blackboards and ignore the use of the rest of the teaching aids.

Experimentation, creativity and innovation do not find priority in the teaching practice of

most of pre-school teachers. Recapitulation and evaluation are integral part of teaching

behaviour in the class. If, in a given period, teacher is unable to use these skills, in the

next class these can be used as a set induction to introduce a new topic. However children

need practical activities in order to comprehend theoretical knowledge learned in class.

Demonstrations such as pictures drawn on chalkboard can help in ensuring that the

learners find it interesting and also it can expand the dimension of their reasoning. Where

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always have trouble in answering questions from the topic due to poor memory or in

ability to think critically (Mkhahatshwa, 1990). Teaching aids play an important role in

teaching most of the practical and technical subjects in ensuring that the learners can see

demonstrations and presentation of concepts and procedures.

Teaching aid can be useful but also harmful to the pre-schoolers in teaching and learning

mathematics (Szendrei 1996; Grooves and Doig 1999). There is always the problem of

bureaucratic barriers that can kill teacher enthusiasm. The school managers and heads

should encourage teachers who are practical in their teaching and learning and not

demoralize them or let them seek alternative teaching aids that they have no knowledge

about on how to teach the pre-schoolers.

Lack of training and orientation can limit the teacher's ability to use teaching aids.

Acquisition of such material should follow the training of teachers on how to use the

materials and when to use the materials in delivering the curriculum to the pre-schoolers.

These items are normally acquired with good intention to help the pre-school teachers

deliver and present better lessons and attempts should be made to help the pre-primary

I'

school teachers to use them effectively. Where there is no training, the teaching aids are

misused and there is failure in subject delivery too (Szendrei, 1996; Grooves and Doig,

1999). The study sort to establish the factors that affected the use of teaching aids inrural

settings, a case study of lsinya Sub-County. This will fill the knowledge gap that exists in

(33)

2.3 Strategies to Enhance Use of Teaching Aids

Teaching aids can be defined as various objects and tools which teachers used during

lessons with children in the classroom. Moreover, pre-school teachers may use different

types of teaching aids to ensure that children concentrate during learning. These aids can

also be used for keeping the children occupied with different assignments depending on

the relevant pre-school curriculum. These teaching aids are available in various colours

and different sizes to suit different needs and learning styles. Teaching aids can be held

by hand or mounted on walls. Teaching aids can be used in many different ways,

however they all aim at achieving the same objective of making learning interesting and

helping children to grasp different concepts and procedures that could seem complicated

without demonstrations and use of teaching aids.

Learning and development of cognitive in early years holds the key foundation to

learning. Lindegue (1996). and Mwamwenda (1994) and Spencer (1988) concluded that

there is a correlation between the child development stages and the process of acquiring,

organizing, retention and use of knowledge. Pre-schools that are in more affluent urban

communities are often heavily resourced and teachers have many teaching aids from

I'

which to choose. In the poor rural communities that may not even have electricity the

selection of teaching aids is often a challenge to teachers. The strategic improvement of

teaching aids in the preschool requires teachers or the procurement teacher to carefully

plan the selection, production and acquisition of teaching aids responsibly taking into

consideration factors such as learner and level of development, education objective to be

achieved, the relevance of the teaching aid and the negative aspects of the teaching aid.

(34)

Merwe (1996) teaching aid must be suitable to a particular group of learners.

Complicated models can easily confuse the young child. The pre-schoolers should also be

able to handle the teaching aids therefore fragile material is not appropriate for them.

Pre-school teachers should guard against the selection of any teaching aid but preserve the

right to meet the set objectives of the curriculum. They should never be used to keep the

learner busy while the teacher is engaged elsewhere. The selected aid should convey the

relevant information that the learner has to learn. Incorrect use of teaching aid by teachers

can lead to ineffective teaching-learning situation (Rooyen & Merwe, 1996). The choice

of colour in teaching aid is a very important strategy to help the teacher meet set

objectives by combining his skills and the teaching aid presentation to deliver better

lessons (Romiszowiski, 1968).

Colour enhances presentation; colours should be avoided unless the subject is relatively

dull. Colour should be used to evoke different responses, to support the presentation, to

stress the important parts and to summarize and reinforce the key points in the

presentation. Different colours of marker pens should be used to do this. Coloured

'backgrounds can also be used where there is poor lighting in the class to enhance the

vision of the pre-schooler so that they are able to see and participate in the class. Colours

if used effectively provide interest, contrast and are powerful in creating a stimulated

environment which is essential in improving the grasping rate of the learners. However

caution should be taken that there might be colour blind children in the preschool. There

should be a special assessment for these colour blind children so that they too gain

(35)

Many preschools are filled with children ready to learn and materials designed to teach

them. To be sure these valuable materials remain valuable as they were just when they

were purchased, they should be maintained regularly. By carefully monitoring the

teaching aids and creating an environment for frequent inspections the management can

be sure the teaching aids are in their best condition to play their role. Store the teaching

aid in a safe place, not in a class room but in a locked closet where only authorized

persons can get access. The teaching staff should have a person in charge of the materials.

This is relevant in keeping the records of check outs. This also helps to track the materials

and ensures return 'of teaching aid after use. If the teaching aid are circulated around the

room, the teacher should make sure instructions are given to the children on how to use

the materials and when returned, the teacher. should survey them to ensure none is

destroyed but if destroyed he should arrange for their repair and maintenance. Dealing

with damaged materials will help the teacher prevent them from getting worse or even

replacing them (National Teacher Institute, 2006). The study sort to fill the gap that exists

in establishing the appropriate strategies that can be adopted to enhance use of teaching

aids in learning especially in rural settings.

2.4 Summary of Literature Reviewed

As per the literature reviewed, many scholars have researched a lot pertaining the use of

teaching aids by teachers to enhance teaching and learning among pre-school children.

However, after careful consideration of the available literature empirical evidence for

(36)

Moreover, most of the reviewed studies on the use of teaching aids in pre-schools have

been done on an international platform, national and regional levels. This study

investigated the use of teaching aids in local platform in Kenya and particularly in

(37)

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

In this chapter the research methodology, methods and procedures used are described.

The chapter further discusses research design, target population, sample size, sampling

procedure; research instruments, piloting of instruments, validity and reliability of

instruments, and data collection procedures and data analysis techniques. It also includes

logistical and ethical considerations.

3.1 Research Design

Descriptive cross sectional research design was appropriate for this study as it can collect

information on people's attitudes, opinions and habits (in the area) hence will be used to

establish pre-primary school teachers' use of teaching aids to enhance teaching and

learning among pre-school children.

3.2 Study Variables

They are described in the following sections;

3.2.1 Dependant Variable

It was teacher's use of teaching aids to enhance learning which was measured by

determining the teaching aids used to enhance learning and how they were used.

3.2.2 Independent Variables

(38)

enhance learning.

3.3 Location ofthe Study

In order to meet the objectives, the study was conducted in selected pre-schools in Isinya

Sub- County, Kajiado County. Isinya Sub-County was selected as it is in rural pastoralist

area that does not give pre-school education priority and also based on the fact that very

few similar study has not been done inthe area, Sachedina and Nelson (2010). It is also a

rural area with public pre-primary schools that enabled the researcher to have a wider

representation.

3.4 Target Population

The study targeted 30 pre-schools in lsinya Sub-County with approximately 87

pre-school teachers. There were only 29 public pre-schools in Isinya and data was collected

from the targeted pre-schools only.

3.5 Sampling Techniques and Sample Size

They are described in the following sub-sections;

I'

3.5.1 Sampling Techniques

The study adopted cluster sampling technique. The location has (5) sub zones which

includes Olooloitikush, Noon Kopir, Sholinke, Nyompopong and Emakoko. The zones

formed the five clusters each with four schools. Each of the (5) clusters was divided into

(4) sub clusters (schools) totalling to 20 schools. The sample of the population was

(39)

3.5.2 Sample Size

The total sample size comprised of pre-primary school teachers in the pre-schools

selected. Five clusters formed part of the study. Each cluster zone had four schools; each

school provided three pre-school teachers who formed part of the respondents. Random

sampling was used to select the three teachers. This brought the sample size of this study

to 60 (69%) pre-school teachers. A sampling frame with all the pre-schools in Isinya Sub

County was obtained from the sub-county education office.

3.6 Research Instruments

A questionnaire and observational checklist were used to collect data. Close ended

questions helped in collecting quantitative data while open ended questionnaire was used

to generate qualitative data.

(i). Questionnaires were administered to pre-primary school teachers in pre-schools

selected. Section one was for obtaining the general information on the respondent's

characteristics. The second part was to determine pre-primary school teachers' use of

I' teaching aids to enhance teaching and learning in pre-primary schools. Since the

sample size was considered to be big enough, the information that was collected was

useful and generated data that was considered as reliable to make generalizations and

conclusions. This enabled a rich source of information to be gathered.

(ii). Observation checklist was also used in the study. The researcher observed the

availability and adequacy on use of teaching aids while teaching pre-school children.

This enabled the researcher to gain real detailed and in-depth knowledge of the

(40)

situation on the ground.

3.7 Pilot Study

A pilot study was conducted in four schools in Isinya Sub-County to establish reliability

and validity of research instruments. Questionnaire was pre-tested on pre-primary school

teachers. This helped to make corrections on the final questionnaire. The pre-schools that

formed part of the pre-test were not included in the final study. This exercise ensured that

the research instruments administered are in line with the research topic and objectives.

The results of the pilot study were used to make corrections concerning the data

collection tool. The pre-testing of tools also helped in reducing the degree of biasness.

This established the validity of the data collection tools, that is, questionnaire and

observation checklist, whether or not the questions were well understood and finally the

tool was tested on varied respondents. The pilot study enabled the study to identify items

that require modification, from the pilot results which helped the study to correct

inconsistencies arising from the instruments.

3.7.1 Instrument Validity

Content was used to ensure the instruments were valid. Validity is the extent to which

results obtained from the analysis of the data actually represent the phenomenon under

study Mugenda and Mugenda, (2003). The researcher adhered to strict research

techniques, in order to ensure validity of the instruments, the data analysis and

interpretation of the findings were done and cross examined against the objectives of the

study. Outcomes from the pilot study were also used in validating the instrument by

(41)

that the results obtained meet the set objectives.

3.7.2 Reliability of the Instruments

According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003), reliability is a technique to assess the extent

to which the study meets the objectives of the study through repeated trials. However for

the purpose of this study, the researcher conducted apilot study in four schools which did

not take part in the actual study. Moreover, test-retest method was conducted before

conducting the actual study to further test the reliability of the tools, that is,

questionnaires. The exercise entailed having a group of participants responding to the

questions and administering the same questions to the same group of participants after

some time. The correlation between results on identical tests given at different times

operationally defines its test-retest reliability.

3.8 Data Collection Techniques

Data was collected in two stages as follows;

Stages I. Administration of questionnaires to teachers

The questionnaire consisted of both open ended and close ended questions. The

questionnaires were handed over to the concerned pre-school teachers, who were

properly oriented, then urged to fill inthe blank using a pen.

StageII. Conduction of observation

The researcher observed the availability and use of teaching aids. This was done by

(42)

3.9 Data Analysis

The data collected was processed before it was analysed, this was in form of

organization, entailing identifying and correcting error, coding the data and sorting in

appropriate forms. Qualitative data was ana lysed by performing a quick impressionist

summary which entailed summarizing key findings from questionnaires, explanation and

conclusion using key themes as per the study objectives.

Data collected in qualitative form were summarised and presented in prose form to

ensure easy interpretation and presentation. Quantitative data were however analysed

using descriptive statistics using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results

from data analysis were presented in form of frequency tables, figures and in text.

3.10 Logistical and Ethical Considerations

Permission for the study was sought from Kenyatta university graduate school. A

research permit to enable the researcher to conduct the study smoothly was obtained from

National Commission for Science Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI). The

willingness of respondents to participate in the study was considered before the actual

data collection. All the information given by respondents was treated confidential. The

respondents were informed about their rights before the commencement of the study and

(43)

CHAPTER FOUR

FINDINGS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Introduction

This chapter presents data analysis and results. The study used descriptive statistics to

summarize the data.

4.2 General and Demographic Information of the Respondents

A total of 60 questionnaires were administered to the respondents on a personal basis in

order to maximize the response rate. The study achieved a 100% response rate and all the

filled questionnaires were obtained and used in the analysis.

4.2.1 Gender of Respondents

Gender of respondents

Figure 4.1 Gender of the Respondents

(44)

teachers were female (41) representing 68.33%, while the male teachers were 19 representing 31.67%.

4.2.2 Age of Respondents

eo

-so

-

40-.

'4 •

lit"

20-10'"

Age of Respondents

18-29Years

AGe of Respondents

Figure 4.2 Age of Respondents

"'According to :figure 4.2, majority of the teachers were within the age group of 30-39 years representing 55.0%, this was foUowed by teachers within 18-29 years age bracket

(35.0%). Teachers whose ages fall in 40-59 years age bracket were 6 representing 10.0%

while none of the teachers had 60 years and above.

4.2.3 Level of Education

The teachers who participated in the Study were required to indicate the highest level of

(45)

Table 4.1 Respondents Level of Education

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid completed primary 0 0 0 0.0

Secondary 9 15.0 15.0 15.0

College 45 75.0 75.0 90.0

University 6 10.0 10.0 100.0

Total 60 100.0 100.0

As shown in Table 4.1, majority of the teachers had acquired middle level college

education representing 75.5 %, this was followed by those who had attained secondary

education representing 15.0%, while teachers who had attained University education

were 6 representing 10.0% while none of the teacher had attained primary education as

the highest level of education (0.0%).

4.3 Teachers' Use of Teaching Aids toEnhance Learning

The first objective of the study was to determine how teachers used teaching aids to

enhance learning. To achieve this objective, teachers were asked whether they used

(46)

Figure 4.3 Pre-school Teachers' Use of Teaching Aids to Enhance Learning.

As shown in figure 4.3, majority of the teachers had reported that they were using one or

more teaching aids in classrooms while instructing children representing 78.33%.

However, 21.67% of the teachers were not using any kind of teaching aid while teaching

children.

The types of teaching aids used by teachers were determined and the results are shown in

Figure 4.4 below.

1!

I!

IL 311"

lit"

10-I

I

I I I I

a.to _

(47)

-Figure 4.4 Distributions of Teaching Aids Used to Enhance Learning

The teachers who used at least one teaching aid were further required to indicate the

specific teaching aides) which they used in instructing children. Figure 4.4 shows the

distribution of the specific teaching aids used by teachers.

The study affirmed Sarah (2007) finding that majority of the teachers used black/white

boards as the only teaching aid representing 28.6%, while 17.9% of the teachers used

charts as the only teaching aids. Those who used post cards, Magazines, videos and maps

represented 3.6%, 7.1%, 1.8% and 1.8% respectively. Some teachers had also reported

using more than one teaching aid to instruct children. Teachers who used both

black/white boards and flashcards represented 14.3%, while those who used black/white

boards, flashcards and charts represented 10.7%. The findings are also in agreement with

the position taken by Oguntuase (2008), who argued that teachers usually use the readily

available teaching aids such as black boards and charts. This is attributed to the

non-corporation among stake holders.

The teachers' perception of teaching aids was determined, figure 4.5 presents the results.

Table 4.2 Teachers' Perception of Use of Teaching Aids

I' Frequency

Percentage

Very Important 26 43.3%

Important 16 26.7%

Not sure 8 13.3%

Unimportant 8 13.3%

Not Important at all 2 3.3%

.

(48)

As shown in table 4.2, majority of the teachers' perceived teaching aids as very important

in instructing children representing 43.3%, this was followed by those who said it was important (26.7%). This confirms Farris, (2000) suggestion that many teachers were

aware of teaching aids but they ignored them. The percentage of those who reported to be not sure was equal to the percentage of those who said it was unimportant representing

13.3% each, while only 3.3% said that use of teaching aids was not important at all.

4.4 Factors InOuencing Teachers' Use of Teaching Aids

In the second objective the researcher was to find out the factors influencing teachers' use

of teaching aids. To achieve the objective, teachers were asked to indicate the different

factors that influenced them to use teaching aids. Figure 4.6 presents the results .

Figure 4.6 Factors InOuencing the use of Teaching Aids

=:r

AYIIiIIIbayofteec:Hng Teea-a SIIudesIn1

.

~.on~

teachingaid

D~=r.r=

c:cnditions

R~\.eof~

.teaching IIids

o

Al1he Above

• Non~~teec:Hng

IIids In1 r . use of

pertia.Wteactq aid

(49)

Figure 4.6 shows that majority of the teachers had reported that all the listed factors

greatly influenced their use of teaching aids in instructing children representing 27.59%,

that is, non-availability of teaching aids, teachers' attitude and perceptions on particular

teaching aid and repetitive use of a particular teaching aids. However 25.86% reported

that repetitive use of teaching aid was the main factor while equal number of teachers

said that the teachers' attitude and perceptions on particular teaching aids and

non-availability of teaching aids were the main factors affecting the use of teaching aids each

representing 15.25%.

This confirmed Borich (1998) conclusion that many factors influence the use of teaching

aids inenhancing learning. Those who reported social economic conditions were 12.07%.

Lastly 3.45% said that both non-availability ·of teaching aids and repetitive use of

particular teaching aids were the main factors. This however contradicted Halle (2004)

findings on factors affecting teaching methods. He argued that the main factors that

contributed to use of different teaching methods was the availability and accessibility

relevant resources. The findings also align with the findings made by Puthen (2000),

whose study showed that use of non-repetitive and eye-catching teaching aids greatly

I'

influence learners ability to understand new concepts. Similarly, in their study, Ackerman

and Barnett (2005) concluded that availing teaching aids to pre-schools would result to a

more conducive learning environment hence changing the perspective of teachers

(50)

4.5 Strategies to Enhance the Use of Teaching Aids

In the third objective, the researcher was to determine the strategies that could be used to

enhance the use of teaching aids in the selected pre-schools. To achieve this objective,

teachers were asked to state the strategies which they could suggest to improve the use of

teaching aids in pre-schools.

Some teachers suggested that providing enough materials for children will help to

enhance the use of teaching aids. This will enable each child to have humble time in

learning with the teaching aids as they will not be scrambling for few available teaching

aids. Availability of enough teaching aids facilitates smooth learning and children find it

interesting to learn and interact with their colleagues. The pre-school teachers also said

that the teaching aids should be designed in different varieties to meet the diverse needs

of children. Providing variety of teaching aids will also help to make learning less

monotonous. However, this finding contradicts other studies carried out in the same area.

For example, Alaku (1998) has demonstrated that teacher's competency depends on use

of appropriate teaching aid and instructional strategy.

However the study agrees with Sarah (2007) who supported the strategy of availing

affordable teaching aids to pre-schools. Several pre-school teachers who participated in

the study suggested that the best strategy would be making the teaching aids affordable to

all pre-schools. They further stated that most of the pre-schools cannot afford some of the

teaching aids especially the one using certain advanced technology such as projectors and

(51)

in providing free teaching aids through the Ministry of Education to meet the needs of all

pre-schools. This will relieve parents the burden of contributing funds to buy teaching

aids for children. This will also help in ensuring that all the teaching aids used in pre

-schools meet the minimum requirements and they are uniform across all the pre-schools.

The study suggested that the best strategy would be coming up with safe, durable and

portable teaching aids. This would ensure safety when children are interacting with the

teaching aids. This seemed to agree with Mkhahatshwa (1990) finding that teaching aids

should be convenient and easily relocatable. Heavy teaching aids with sharp edges should

be avoided on order to ensure that the safety of our children is guaranteed. Moreover,

children should not handle electricity powered teaching aids such as projectors without

the teacher to avoid cases of electric shock which can result to death of children.

A section of the teachers suggested that the best strategy would be providing attractive

teaching aids and to make sure they are in relation to the theme of the lessons. Attractive

teaching aids enable children to concentrate for more hours and avoid monotony among

children, this asserts Romiszowiski (1968) conclusion on the choice of teaching aids. As I'

an effective way of passing knowledge to the children, the teaching aids should be related

to the theme or objective of a particular topic/lesson. A suggestion to have teachers form

group to develop teaching aids materials was also proposed as a strategy by some

teachers. This strategy would be effective since every teacher would bring in the needs of

his/her children hence ammonizing all the needs of children from different environs.

(52)

and fast learners. Making use of locally available materials was also suggested to be a

strategy that could help improve the use of teaching aids while instructing children. This

calls for creativity and innovation among the teachers in order to use the locally available

materials and come up with new teaching aids to cater for all the different needs of the

children.

Creating awareness to teachers on the importance of using teaching aids was supported

by several teachers as the best strategy that can be undertaken to improve the use of

teaching aids in pre-schools. This contradicted with Borich (1998) who asserted that

training colleges f~r teachers should train teachers on the use of teaching aids effectively.

Szendrei (1996), Grooves and Doig (1999) also asseted that teachers should be trained on

all the teaching aids including the modern ones. Some pre-school teachers are not fully

informed about the importance of using teaching aids in instructing children and creating

awareness to all the teachers would greatly improve the manner in which teachers use

teaching aids. Lastly, several teachers also suggested that the use of computerized

teaching aids would be a good strategy in improving the use of teaching aid in

pre-schools. This will help in exposing the children to technology in early stages. They noted

I'

that the challenge in implementing this strategy would be the initial cost which could be

(53)

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents summary findings, conclusions and makes recommendations based

on study findings in chapter four. It also gives suggestions for further studies which can

be conducted in the future.

5.2 Summary of Findings

The purpose of the study was to establish pre-primary school teachers' use of teaching

aids to enhance learning in pre-schools in Isinya Sub-County and the factors influencing

their use. From the study findings, majority of the teachers were using teaching aids in

instructing the learners while the rest were not using any teaching aids. The study further

revealed that most of the teachers adopted only one teaching aid with majority using

black/white board. The findings also depicted a relatively positive perspective of the

teachers on the teaching aids.

.The study revealed that several factors influenced the use of teaching aids in enhancing

learning. Majority of the teachers said that all the four factors greatly affected the use of

teaching aids, namely, Non-availability of teaching aids, teachers' attitude and

perceptions on particular teaching aids, Social economic conditions of the child at home

(54)

On the strategies that could be used to improve the use of teaching aids in pre-schools.

Some teachers suggested that providing enough materials for children will help in

enhancing the used of teaching aids. This will enable each child to have humble time in

learning with the teaching aids as they will not be scrambling for few available teaching

aids. The pre-school teachers also said that the teaching aids should be designed in

different varieties to meet the diverse needs of the children. Providing variety of teaching

aids will also help making learning less monotonous.

Several pre-school teachers suggested that the best strategy would be making the teaching

aids affordable to all pre-schools. They further stated that most of the pre-schools cannot

afford some of the teaching aids especially advanced technology such as projectors and

tape recorders. The government can help in providing free teaching aids through the

Ministry of Education to all pre-schools. However, other pre-school teachers suggested

that the best strategy would be coming up with safe, durable and portable teaching aids.

This would ensure safety when the children are interacting with the teaching aids.

From the study it is evident that the best strategy to promote the use of teaching aids

,.

would be providing attractive teaching aids and to make sure they are in relation to the

theme of the lessons. Attractive teaching aids enable children to concentrate for more

hours and avoid monotony among children. As an effective way of passing knowledge to

the children, the teaching aids should be related to the theme or objective of a particular

Figure

Figure 1.1: ConceptuaIFramework
Figure 1 1 ConceptuaIFramework. View in document p.8
Table 4.1 Level of Education of Respondents
Table 4 1 Level of Education of Respondents. View in document p.9
Figure 4.1 Gender of the Respondents
Figure 4 1 Gender of the Respondents. View in document p.43
Figure 4.2 Age of Respondents
Figure 4 2 Age of Respondents. View in document p.44
Table 4.1 Respondents Level of Education
Table 4 1 Respondents Level of Education. View in document p.45
Figure 4.3 presents
Figure 4 3 presents. View in document p.45
Figure 4.3 Pre-school Teachers' Use of Teaching Aids to Enhance Learning.
Figure 4 3 Pre school Teachers Use of Teaching Aids to Enhance Learning . View in document p.46
Table 4.2 Teachers' Perception
Table 4 2 Teachers Perception. View in document p.47
Figure 4.6 Factors InOuencing the use of Teaching Aids
Figure 4 6 Factors InOuencing the use of Teaching Aids. View in document p.48

References

Updating...