USE OF TEACHING AIDS TO ENHANCE INSTRUCTION
ISINYA SUB-COUNTY, KENYA
MAKAU AGNES NZISA
PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL
OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE AWARD OF A
DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
EDUCATION, SCHOOL OF EDUCATION KENYATTA
I declare that this report is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other University/institution for consideration. This research report has been completed by referenced sources duly acknowledged. Where text, data (including spoken words), graphics, pictures or tables have been borrowed from other sources, including the internet, these are specifically accredited and references cited in accordance in line with anti-plagiarism regulations.
Agnes Makau Reg. No: E55/CE/22533/20 10
We confirm that the work reported in this project was carried out by the candidate under our supervision as university supervisors.
Department of Early Childhood Studies I'
Signature ~ . Date
----~~---Dr. Nyakwara Begi
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
CFS ECD GER MOE MOEST NACECE SPSS TV UK UNICEF USA WHO
Child Friendly Schools Early Childhood Development Gross Enrolment Ratio Ministry Of Education
Ministry of Education Science and Technology National Centre for Early Childhood Education
Statistical Package for Social Sciences Television
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OFTABLES ix
ABSTRACT ~ x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT OF THE STUDY 1
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study : 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem : 3
1.3 Purpose of the Study 4
1.4 Objectives of the Study 4
1.5 Research Questions 4
1.6 Significance of the Study 4
1.7 Delimitations and Limitations of the Study 5
1.7.1 Limitation of the Study 5
1.7.2 Delimitation of the Study 5
1.8 Assumption of the Study 6
1.9 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework 6
1.9.1 Theoretical Framework · : 6
1.10 Operational Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.0 Introduction 9
2.1 Use of Teaching Aids to Enhance Learning 9 2.2 Factors Influencing Pre-primary School Teachers' use of Teaching Aids to Enhance
2.3 Strategies to Enhance Use of TeachingAids 23
2.4 Summary of Literature Reviewed : 25
CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 27
3.0 Introduction .' 27
3.1 Research Design ; 27
3.2 Study Variables 27
3.2.1 Dependant Variable 27
3.3 Location of the Study 28
3.4 Target Population 28
3.5 Sampling Techniques and Sample Size 28
3.5.\ Sampling Techniques 28
3.5.2 Sample Size : 29
3.6 Research Instruments 29
3.7 Pilot Study 30
3.7.1 Instrument Validity 30
3.7.2 Reliability of the Instruments 31
Data was collected in two stages as follows; 31
3.9 Data Analysis 32
3.10 Logistical and Ethical Considerations 32
CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSIONS 33
4.1 Introduction 33
4.2 General and Demographic Information of the Respondents 33
4.2.2 Age of Respondents 34
4.2.3 Level of Education 34
4.3 Teachers' Use of Teaching Aids to Enhance Learning 35
4.4 Factors Influencing Teachers' Use of Teaching Aids 38
4.5 Strategies to Enhance the Use of Teaching Aids .40
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ....43
5.1 Introduction 43
5.2 Summary of Findings 43
5.3 Conclusions 45
5.4 Recommendations 46
,5.4.5 Recommendations for Further Research .47
Appendix I: Questionnaire for pre-school teachers 52
Appendix II: Observation Checklist 56
Appendix III: Research Authorization Letter 57
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: ConceptuaIFramework 9
Figure 4.1 GenderDistribution 35
Figure 4.2 Age of Respondents 36
Figure 4.3 Use oITeachingAids 37
Figure 4.4 Distribution of Specific TeachingAidsUsed .38
Figure 4.5 Use of Teaching AidsPerception 39
LIST OF TABLES
INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT OF THE STUDY
This chapter presents background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, significance of the study and limitations of the study. The assumptions of the study, theoretical and conceptual framework and definition of terms are also described.
1.1Background of the Study
Early years of life are the most critical for learning. According to Van der stoep (1973) the term teaching aid can be used to explain most of teaching and learning aids. Teaching aids are used by teachers in presenting lessons in class, on the other hand learning aids are utilized by learners during their classroom work. The United Nations Children's Fund asserted that creating friendly and conducive learning conditions can improve how children acquire skills through use of teaching aids. According to UNICEF, any material that a teacher can use to enhance classroom learning and help in improving the children concentration levels can be referred as a teaching aid (UNICEF, 2006).
In the African context, teaching should entail more than just work books and text books
friendly to enable effective teaching and learning. A number of teaching aids exists, including chalk board/white boards, flash cards, post cards, magazines, and photos,
among others (Elliot, 2005). Pre-school teachers use a number of aids ranging from the
improvised ones such as charts, sticks, to modern ones like television, tape recorders and projectors.
The type of teaching aid in a school depends largely on the type of school and the
management of the school. A number of challenges have thwarted learning by not making schooling a positive experience for children. Children have been struggling to
learn from poor structures, unconducive surroundings, and unequipped classrooms, falling sick, sometimes fear of heavy punishment, mistreatment from teachers and bullying by their peers (Ministry of Education, 2009).
Teaching aids are used to achieve specific learning objectives. According to Larry (2006), teaching aids enhance free interaction and socialization between learners and teachers at the same time improving teaching and learning skills. The interaction between teachers and learners help children to grasp new concepts and procedures. When there is I'
a good rapport between learners and teachers in pre-primary school, this facilitates a good
starting point for children. In order to meet the main objective of using teaching aids in
pre-schools, that is, to enable smooth and effective learning, in the early stages of
teaching aids may not be available to many pre-schools, the teachers should be creative
and innovative to come up with teaching aids to cater for all senses of the learners.
Kajiado County is mostly inhabited by Maasai community. They are well known for
embracing their culture and this is usually translated in the teaching methodologies and
aids that are used when teaching and socializing with pre-school children, Sachedina and
Nelson (2010). This study aimed at establishing the pre-primary school teachers' use of
teaching aids to enhance teaching and learning and factors that influence their use in
preschools in Isinya Sub-County.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teaching aids are crucial to any successful process of teaching and learning worldwide.
They aid the teacher to effectively transfer the content to the pupils. Karaka (2007) and
Fabian (2007). The use of teaching aids supplement classroom learning yet some pre-o
school teachers completely ignore this learning resource and instead use the typical
classroom lecture system to impart knowledge to pupils. Teaching aids playa vital role in
learning. They attract attention, arouse interest and promote retention and memory, help
to make learners get motivated and participate in learning process. The study therefore
sort to establish the extent to which teaching aids are used by pre-school teachers in
Isinya Sub-County and explore the different factors that influence the adaptation of
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of study was to establish pre-primary school teachers' use of teaching aids to
enhance learning in pre-schools in Isinya Sub-County and the factors influencing their
1.4 Objectives of the Study
i. To establish pre-primary school teachers' use of teaching aids to enhance teaching
learning in pre-primary schools in Isinya Sub-County.
II. To explore .the factors influencing teachers' use of teaching aids to enhance
teaching learning in pre-primary schools.
Ill. To determine the strategies that can be used to enhance teachers' use of teaching aids in teaching learning.
1.5 Research Questions
I. What is the frequency of teachers' use of teaching aids to facilitate teaching and learning inpre-primary schools in Isinya Sub-County.
I' ii. What are the factors influencing teachers' use of teaching aids to enhance
teaching learning in pre-schools.
Ill. Which strategies that can be used to enhance teachers' use of teaching aids In teaching learning.
1.6 Significance of the Study
teaching aids are used to enhance learning in the Sub-count. The study will also help in
mobilizing parents and the community on the importance of using teaching aids to
enhance learning. The findings may be useful to the county government to make relevant
policies geared towards effective utilization of teaching aids to enhance teaching and
learning in pre-schools. The study findings may also be useful to management of schools
under study in initiating administrative actions towards improvement of use of teaching
aids from the available resources that can be prudently expanded for continued
development of educational facilities. Curriculum developers in the field of early
childhood education may use the findings of this study to ensure that teachers use aids in
instructing childrento promote effective curriculum delivery,
1.7 Delimitations and Limitations of the Study
They are described in the following sub-sections;
1.7.1 Limitation of the Study
The researcher was faced with the problem of concealment of material information by the
respondents and to mitigate this, the researcher clearly explained the purpose of the study
to the respondents. Logistics challenges due to the expansive area were expected, but the
researcher had prepared in advance with a map and had made a pre-visit.
1.7.2 Delimitation of the Study
The study was conducted in isinya Sub County and focused on factors influencing the use
of teaching aids to enhance learning in pre-schools.
1.8 Assumption of the Study
The study assumed that pre-school teachers would spare their time for the researcher to
be able to get the needed information. It further assumed that pre-school teachers
understood the importance of teaching aids.
1.9Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
1.9.1 Theoretical Framework
The study employed Cognitive Constructivism learing theory by Perry William (1999).
According to this theory, children interpret new information into unique knowledge by
providing an enabling environment for them to initiate appropriate improvement to their
intellectual framework to accommodate the new acquired knowledge. The theory also
suggests that the incorporation of images and· other teaching aids creates imaginative
pictures in the minds of children hence they help in improving the rate of mastering
concepts inclassroom. Therefore pre-primary school teachers need to understand learners
existing knowledge and integrate it in learning process. A conducive learning
environment is very imperative, so do teaching aids in pre-schools help in enhancing
teaching and learning skills hence discovery of new knowledge (Samuel, 2009).
According to constructivist's argument, the process of learning can also be explained as a
process of active discovery. Moreover, children need an instructor who not only teaches
them in their classroom work, but also enabling learners to explore the different talents
through use of teaching aids and good interaction with learners. Early detection of talents
children are able to major in advancing their talents and scaling them to new heights in
early stages. When designing new teaching aids for use in pre-schools, the current level
of understanding of the learners should be considered in order to ensure that teaching aids
adds more knowledge to children.
From this perspective, to motivate learners to strive into learning, greater opportunities
can be offered through use of teaching aids, this makes pre-school children to master the
system and achieve the much needed skills (Samuel, 2009). Providing a conducive
learning environment for the learners is one of the strategies to be adopted to make the
learning experience memorable and even more interesting for children. Teaching aids can
be used in creating the conducive interactive environment which creates a positive
perception in children hence make the process of learning interesting. They fall into
several main categories: visual aids such as overheads; and interactive tools such as a
video programme or resource pack. It is good to bear in mind that too much materials and
too many different themes can serve to confuse the class. When instructing children, the
instructor should attempt to sequentially follow a few techniques in order to avoid
confusing the learners.
1.9.2 Conceptual Framework
It demonstrates how different variables interact and their influence on the use of teaching
aids. The result of the influence of the intervening variables is demonstrated through
teaching and learning skills. The intervening variables can affect the capacity of the
independent variable in influencing the dependent variable. Pre-schools should develop
access to them'.
Factors influencing the use of teaching aids
• Teachers training • Capacity building • Job qualification • Teacher's attitude (Study Variables)
Use of teaching aids to enhance instruction
Intervening Variables - School environment - Type of school
Educational Outcomes • Better performance • Acquisition of
learning skills • Talent nurturing J---.;~~(Non-Study Variables)
Strategies to enhance the use of teaching aids in Pre-schools
Figure 1.1: Factors influencing use of teaching aids in Learning
1.10 Operational Definition of Terms
Strategies. A plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall objective.
Teaching aids. Resources used by teachers to enhance learning. They include items like Charts, diagrams, or notes used to helpchildren inacquiring knowledge.
Teachers Altitude. Refers to the degree of positive or negative effect associated with some psychological object
This chapter presents literature reviewed on use of teaching aids to enhance learning,
factors influencing pre-school teachers' use of teaching aids, strategies to enhance use of
teaching aids in learning and a summary of literature reviewed.
2.1Use of Teaching Aids to Enhance Learning
Teaching aids are materials used by teachers or learners to facilitate teaching and
learning. These teaching aids can take numerous forms, from the beans students might
count while learning simple math in pre-schools to the photos of famous people, to chalk
boards, charts and places teachers might display during teaching and learning process
(National Teacher Institute, 2006).
There are many different kinds of teaching aids and the choice depends on the needs of
children and their availability. Although numerous challenges exist, all the instructors are
required to incorporate these teaching aids while instructing children. This has made
many teachers to only use blackboard or white board as the only teaching aid since it is
easily available. A lot of challenges face the use of electronic and advanced teaching aids
in most of the pre-schools such as luck of electricity and insecurity in some of the regions
Oguntuase (2008) defined teaching aids as a record on any medium through which a
moving image may by any means be produced. They are derivative works which are
usually based on original literacy, dramatic, musical and artistic works. Pre-school
teachers are now expected to make use of video for mass media teaching or learning.
Finally, many recent methods of teaching have focused on the use of authentic material.
The study aimed at establishing how pre-school teachers used these teaching aids to
enhance learning in pre-schools.
According to reviewed studies, chalkboard is widely used as the only teaching aid in
many schools in Kenya hence majority of teachers would find teaching without one to be
a challenge, it is also the case that teachers frequently do not adequately consider how to
present material on the board. It is generally. considered a good practice to list the
lesson's objectives on the board and leave them up throughout the lesson, for the
pre-school to refer to. It is also helpful to leave a running list of vocabulary on one part of the
board. The central part of the board can be used for examples, charts, drawings, etc.,
which will generally only be left up for one part of the lesson (Sarah, 2007). This study
sort to establish the different types of teaching aids adopted by pre-school teachers to
enhance the learning process.
The process of maintaining the good quality of pre-school education involves the
corporation of teachers who are the key stakeholders in ensuring that the learning process
of learners is smooth and meets required standards. Use of teaching aids plays a very
use these aids appropriately, they have to be aware of how and when to use each teaching
aid and to which category of children. Children usually view their teachers as role models
and hence they acquire most of the key social and intellectual skills from their teachers.
Therefore, teachers should be careful on how they behave while interacting with learners.
The pre-schoolers should use teaching aids and when anything is put before them in a
three dimensional form they pay more attention. Moreover use of teaching aids is one
innovative idea which teachers worldwide sought after to help in curriculum delivery
-the teaching aids can be used in order to teach children in the most interactive manner.
Sarah is of the view that many teachers advocate teaching aids as it simplifies their job
and also helps children get the facts right (Sarah 2007).
It is generally accepted that varies forms and types of teaching aids suite dynamic needs
of learners. The pre-school teaching aids manufacturers have various unique concepts
which pre-school teachers use in an innovative manner to help them know the best way to
deliver the content to the child. Been creative is a unique concept, however irrespective
of the teaching aid used by a teacher, they should be able to meet the intended objective
or pass the information it was planned to deliver. Teaching aids help in ensuring that
children do not get bored but instead they find learning interesting.
Different children respond in vanous ways to different teaching aids used by their
teachers due to the different learning capacities of the learners and level of understanding.
The use of teaching aids helps inevaluating how the child is developing inall the aspects,
teaching aids can be displayed in differently forms, irrespective of how they are
presented, these teaching aids make learning a fun filled experience and help in
improving reading, writing and grasping skills. Pre-schoolers perform various tasks as
assigned to them repeatedly using these teaching aids and ultimately learn activities.
Puthen, (2000) recognizes that due to the small retention power of pre-schoolers, using
teaching aids in classroom makes the environment friendly and interactive. The use of
attractive and eye-catching teaching aids helps in developing a better way to remember
for the children hence improving their grasping and retention powers gradually. However,
many activity based teaching aids may be relevant in enabling the pre-schooler to
develop perseverance, confidence, cooperation, communication and creating curiosity in
their minds for knowledge acquisition. These activities prepare learners for future
learning experiences and environments. These activity based teaching aids are useful in
art science discoveries and they also help the learner to acquire personal and social skills
which are crucial in later stages of life. The use of teaching aids while instructing
preschool children has had a great positive impact on the learning experience of
pre-school children, this has motivated pre-school owners and teachers to devote their I'
resources in ensuring children have access to the modern teaching aids and aids of good
quality (Puthen, 2000).
The incorporation of teaching aids while instructing learners is crucial in ensuring that
the children concentration is not diverted and it also make learners to clearly understand
teaching aids to install positive values into the young and energetic minds of the children.
This helps in moulding the children to be more responsible and prepare them for future bigger assignments. Various teaching colleges and institutions train teachers on different skills and techniques which should be applied while in classrooms although the way in which the teachers eventually apply the skills is different, hence a lot still needs to be done to ensure transfer of knowledge to the learners is done in a systematic manner (Mkhahatshwa, 1990).
Through this, teaching aids can be used as a medium to meet the intended objectives (Mkhahatshwa, 1990). Moreover, students can easily recognize problems and strategize on ways which can be used to solve that particular problem through exchanging ideas with other learners. This can be spearheaded by incorporating the best teaching aids while instructing then to enhance their interaction and create a friendly environment for them to learn and socialize.
Alaku (1998) stated that teachers' competency depends on his use of appropriate teaching aids and learning strategy. Adoption of the correct teaching aids and strategies can also be nsed by the government and other regulatory agencies in accessing the competency and efficiency of teachers in pre-schools. By using the right teaching aid during lessons,
learners can easily capture the concepts been demonstrated by their teacher with charts,
maps or any other teaching aid that the teacher may find appropriate to use in to cater for the diverse needs of the learners.
acquisition. The use of videos creates more interest in learners. Children can easily
remember something they saw in a clip which improves their development and retention
rate hence enhancing a smooth learning environment. Children usually find it interesting to see real simulation of what they have theoretically learned in class. Of all the senses, it
has been discovered that hearing and sight are the most used to gather information (Van
Rooyen and Van Der Merwe, 1990; Spencer, 1988). For example, a teacher holding an A4
paper rectangle up to a class - some of the children may already be familiar with
rectangles; they will recognize the object, remember what they learnt and incorporate any
new knowledge about rectangles. This will make the concept rectangle meaning full to
them. On the other' hand, other children in the class might have no knowledge about the
rectangles. Kindler (2006) as quoted by Fakunle (2008) declared that people generally
remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what .they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of
what they hear and see, 70% of what they say and 90% of what they say as they do a
thing. This clearly implies that the children will need to incorporate all the above aspects
in order to perform well in their studies.
Researchers have discovered that use of teaching aids enable the teacher and children to
engage in solid conversation about something tangible. The incorperation of tangible
objects to demonstrate and illustrate several mathematical procedures and concepts helps
to ensure a good learning conditions (Szendrei, 1996). When children are given objects to
work with and a familiar background they are able to solve problems that teachers never
thought they could. Children communicate their thinking to others through verbal
Ensor, (1997) observered that preschool children can be able to come up with innovate
new ways and startegies to solve problems hence changing the old way of doing things.
Childs development depends a lot on pre-school learning environment and the quality of
preschools education received by the child. This stresses the importance of providing an
encouraging environment for learning in school, learning materials, including safety and
protection from violence, access to clean water and sanitation, as well as effective
teaching and learning processes, improved governance and successful learning outcomes
(Ackerman, and Barnett, 2005).
There are significant differences between individual pre-school settings and their impact
on children; some settings are more effective than others in promoting positive child
outcomes. Researchers have found out that irrespective of the school setup, there are
other things that can be done in order to establish a culture of effective teaching and
learning materials. These include establishing quality education, supporting early child
hood development, reducing gender gaps, assessing children with disability, equipping
them with life skills and equity impact (Ackerman and Barnett, 2005).
An effective teaching and providing all learning materials for preschool children is a
crucial aspect in ensuring that children receive quality and standard education. Highly
qualified and experienced professional educators, staff-to-child ratios which allow staff to
interact with children, effective intentional curriculum that involves active engagement
relationships with early childhood staff, an integration between care and education, promotion of early literacy and math skills, responsiveness to cultural diversity, high
standards of safety and child protection, and an atmosphere that fosters social, emotional
and regulatory skills can be used to assess the quality of education (Ackerman and Barnett, 2005).
Quality pre-school education will provide developmentally appropriate learning experiences for young children to develop holistically and nurture positive attitudes
towards learning. It will also help the children develop foundational literacy and numeracy skills and build up confidence as well as self-management and social skills.
This foundational development will enable children to have a smoother transition from pre-school to formal education in primary schools. However, it is the responsibility of the government to ensure that education is affordable and it's of good quality, the education
should be also accessible to all the citizens. However, there have been a lot of challenges
in developing countries in ensuring that quality basic education is accessible and affordable to all the citizens irrespective of social class in the society.
The government under the Ministry of Education should devote more resources in
ensuring the quality of education is improved in public preschools by implementing strategies aimed at improving the standards of education. Teachers Training Colleges and
In the pursuit of quality, pre-schoolers' needs should be comprehensively addressed. This
should cover all the basic needs of the child to ensure all their different needs are
adequately met in an effective manner. Strategies can also be formulated to ensure
participation of learners in all the activities prepared by the teacher. The standards of
education can be measured from the effectiveness of linking the school to a wider
community from which it derives its sense of engagement with reality and confirms the
relevance of its curriculum (Halle, 2004).
Effecti ve learning is only achieved if the health and sanitation conditions are maintained
by different stakeholders in the education sector who include the government, society and
teachers .Sanitation topics range from hand washing procedures to air quality and from
plumbing connections to lead exposure prevention. Sanitation guidelines should be
created to promote wellness and healthy child development to prevent accidents and to
stop the spread of infectious diseases. Experts from National Environment Management
Authority should conduct regular inspections in preschools to help in ensuring that
maintain healthy environments. High health and sanitation standards have to be
maintained and observed all the time to reduce the rate of disease infection among
children. It is the responsibility of the preschool teachers and instructors to ensure that all
laid and recommended healthy and sanitation standard and procedures are adhered by the
children. Maintaining sanitation and health conditions in preschools is paramount since
the immunity of the learners is usually weak and vulnerable to diseases. These may
spread of communicable diseases (Halle, 2004).
Children with disability need to be targeted and their needs established and met in the
school setup (Bullock, 1998). This is an important phase targeting system wide
interventions in education. Some measures can be formulated as projects on the small
scale and those which can be localised and this can result in problem solving policies
through allocating resources and investments to the less fortunate in the society. Proper
and strategized interventions can out-do most national average in terms of ensuring
quality is maintained and improved gradually. Although they playa very crucial role in
ensuring quality is maintained, they are yet not the most effective policy in ensuring that
children receive the best quality of their education. These strategies encourage children to
attend school and help in eventually eradication 'poverty in the society.
Children with special needs such as developmental, emotional, physical or learning
difficulties are often at risk for difficulties in social-emotional development. Many of
these pre-schoolers seem to lack the social and language skills needed to initiate or
maintain age-rriate relationships. Some have personal characteristics or personal styles
that keep them isolated or contribute to rejection from peers, and have no idea that their
own behaviour is part of the problem. Such situations should be addressed as early as
possible in order to ensure that all the children interact freely and understand the special
needs of their fellow learners.
Early friendships for all children begin through play, providing frequent and appropriate
social behaviours. Facilities that serve preschool children with disabilities, either in
inclusionary or self- contained settings have an obligation to provide experiences that
promote the social-emotional competencies needed for children to have successful peer
relationships and to facilitate the children's inclusion in as many settings as possible
An approach that .provides frequent and appropriate play experiences 111 settings that
include children with disabilities increases the likelihood that they will learn, generalize
new behaviours, maintain skills, and hopefully, make new and lasting friends. The study
noted that most of the pre-primary school teachers' use of teaching aids under review
were mainly found in urban areas and mostly in private pre-schools. Few scholars looked
at use of teaching aids in public pre-schools that reflcetd the rural setting. This study
seeks to establish how teaching aids have been incoperated in learning in rural settings.
2.2 Factors Influencing Pre-primary School Teachers' use of Teaching Aids to
Teaching aids are essential in fostering meaningful learning among children in pre
-schools. Yule (1991) views courses in most of the institutions with the mandate to train
teachers as having emphasizing on imparting knowledge in teachers and neglecting the
transition of the same to the preschool learners. Creating an environment in the classroom
where reshaping and redesigning of knowledge, stimulation of intellectual curiosity, and
innovative and independent thinking can take place, is a real challenge. Subject matter
similarity in the two situations is that teaching aid help in the delivery of curriculum,
accessing topics, skill acquisition, and lessening of the child's anxiety about their ability
to understand. However disparities exist in questioning and evaluation skills that indicate
disparity in learning skills acquired in the classroom situation. Many studies have been
done by scholars on the area of the efficiency of a teacher in transferring knowledge to
learners during ina given lesson.
The quality of teaching aids is of great concern in ensuring that children receive quality
education. Experience of children in their early years playa crucial role in the child's
development in terms of psychological, emotional and social needs. This includes
unresponsiveness to developmentally appropriate guidance and actions such as prolonged
tantrums, physical and verbal aggression, disruptive vocal and motor behaviour, property
destruction, self-injury, noncompliance, and withdrawal. Challenging behaviours during the preschool years constitute one of the strongest predictors of later, more serious
problem behaviours including delinquency, antisocial behaviour, and substance abuse
Participation In early care and education is sometimes linked to higher rates of
challenging behaviours, Borich, (1998) especially in programs of lower quality that do
not specifically address the social development needs of young children. High-quality
preschool education that includes an emphasis on children's social development can
reduce rates of challenging behaviours and serve as a long-term protective factor for
Universal, classroom-based curricula that include social skills teaching should be viewed
as the base tier of a teaching pyramid that serves all pre-school children. Children who
struggle with challenging behaviours should receive additional tiers that provide
intentional teaching of social problem-solving and other pro-social. skills as well as
interventions from experts and family members as needed. Developmentally appropriate
screening for early identification of problems is essential. The use of teaching aid that is
necessary to carry out this education should be reviewed to make sure they are effective
and absolute teaching and learning takes place (Borich, 1998).
Due to heavy workloads, compulsion of covering the syllabus within a given time limit
and overcrowded classes, pre-school teachers tend to combine certain skills like
evaluation and recapitulation or overlook skills like use of teaching aids (Mkhahatshwa,
1990). Since many schools cannot afford most of the advanced teaching aids, most
teachers are using blackboards and ignore the use of the rest of the teaching aids.
Experimentation, creativity and innovation do not find priority in the teaching practice of
most of pre-school teachers. Recapitulation and evaluation are integral part of teaching
behaviour in the class. If, in a given period, teacher is unable to use these skills, in the
next class these can be used as a set induction to introduce a new topic. However children
need practical activities in order to comprehend theoretical knowledge learned in class.
Demonstrations such as pictures drawn on chalkboard can help in ensuring that the
learners find it interesting and also it can expand the dimension of their reasoning. Where
always have trouble in answering questions from the topic due to poor memory or in
ability to think critically (Mkhahatshwa, 1990). Teaching aids play an important role in
teaching most of the practical and technical subjects in ensuring that the learners can see
demonstrations and presentation of concepts and procedures.
Teaching aid can be useful but also harmful to the pre-schoolers in teaching and learning
mathematics (Szendrei 1996; Grooves and Doig 1999). There is always the problem of
bureaucratic barriers that can kill teacher enthusiasm. The school managers and heads
should encourage teachers who are practical in their teaching and learning and not
demoralize them or let them seek alternative teaching aids that they have no knowledge
about on how to teach the pre-schoolers.
Lack of training and orientation can limit the teacher's ability to use teaching aids.
Acquisition of such material should follow the training of teachers on how to use the
materials and when to use the materials in delivering the curriculum to the pre-schoolers.
These items are normally acquired with good intention to help the pre-school teachers
deliver and present better lessons and attempts should be made to help the pre-primary
school teachers to use them effectively. Where there is no training, the teaching aids are
misused and there is failure in subject delivery too (Szendrei, 1996; Grooves and Doig,
1999). The study sort to establish the factors that affected the use of teaching aids inrural
settings, a case study of lsinya Sub-County. This will fill the knowledge gap that exists in
2.3 Strategies to Enhance Use of Teaching Aids
Teaching aids can be defined as various objects and tools which teachers used during
lessons with children in the classroom. Moreover, pre-school teachers may use different
types of teaching aids to ensure that children concentrate during learning. These aids can
also be used for keeping the children occupied with different assignments depending on
the relevant pre-school curriculum. These teaching aids are available in various colours
and different sizes to suit different needs and learning styles. Teaching aids can be held
by hand or mounted on walls. Teaching aids can be used in many different ways,
however they all aim at achieving the same objective of making learning interesting and
helping children to grasp different concepts and procedures that could seem complicated
without demonstrations and use of teaching aids.
Learning and development of cognitive in early years holds the key foundation to
learning. Lindegue (1996). and Mwamwenda (1994) and Spencer (1988) concluded that
there is a correlation between the child development stages and the process of acquiring,
organizing, retention and use of knowledge. Pre-schools that are in more affluent urban
communities are often heavily resourced and teachers have many teaching aids from
which to choose. In the poor rural communities that may not even have electricity the
selection of teaching aids is often a challenge to teachers. The strategic improvement of
teaching aids in the preschool requires teachers or the procurement teacher to carefully
plan the selection, production and acquisition of teaching aids responsibly taking into
consideration factors such as learner and level of development, education objective to be
achieved, the relevance of the teaching aid and the negative aspects of the teaching aid.
Merwe (1996) teaching aid must be suitable to a particular group of learners.
Complicated models can easily confuse the young child. The pre-schoolers should also be
able to handle the teaching aids therefore fragile material is not appropriate for them.
Pre-school teachers should guard against the selection of any teaching aid but preserve the
right to meet the set objectives of the curriculum. They should never be used to keep the
learner busy while the teacher is engaged elsewhere. The selected aid should convey the
relevant information that the learner has to learn. Incorrect use of teaching aid by teachers
can lead to ineffective teaching-learning situation (Rooyen & Merwe, 1996). The choice
of colour in teaching aid is a very important strategy to help the teacher meet set
objectives by combining his skills and the teaching aid presentation to deliver better
lessons (Romiszowiski, 1968).
Colour enhances presentation; colours should be avoided unless the subject is relatively
dull. Colour should be used to evoke different responses, to support the presentation, to
stress the important parts and to summarize and reinforce the key points in the
presentation. Different colours of marker pens should be used to do this. Coloured
'backgrounds can also be used where there is poor lighting in the class to enhance the
vision of the pre-schooler so that they are able to see and participate in the class. Colours
if used effectively provide interest, contrast and are powerful in creating a stimulated
environment which is essential in improving the grasping rate of the learners. However
caution should be taken that there might be colour blind children in the preschool. There
should be a special assessment for these colour blind children so that they too gain
Many preschools are filled with children ready to learn and materials designed to teach
them. To be sure these valuable materials remain valuable as they were just when they
were purchased, they should be maintained regularly. By carefully monitoring the
teaching aids and creating an environment for frequent inspections the management can
be sure the teaching aids are in their best condition to play their role. Store the teaching
aid in a safe place, not in a class room but in a locked closet where only authorized
persons can get access. The teaching staff should have a person in charge of the materials.
This is relevant in keeping the records of check outs. This also helps to track the materials
and ensures return 'of teaching aid after use. If the teaching aid are circulated around the
room, the teacher should make sure instructions are given to the children on how to use
the materials and when returned, the teacher. should survey them to ensure none is
destroyed but if destroyed he should arrange for their repair and maintenance. Dealing
with damaged materials will help the teacher prevent them from getting worse or even
replacing them (National Teacher Institute, 2006). The study sort to fill the gap that exists
in establishing the appropriate strategies that can be adopted to enhance use of teaching
aids in learning especially in rural settings.
2.4 Summary of Literature Reviewed
As per the literature reviewed, many scholars have researched a lot pertaining the use of
teaching aids by teachers to enhance teaching and learning among pre-school children.
However, after careful consideration of the available literature empirical evidence for
Moreover, most of the reviewed studies on the use of teaching aids in pre-schools have
been done on an international platform, national and regional levels. This study
investigated the use of teaching aids in local platform in Kenya and particularly in
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
In this chapter the research methodology, methods and procedures used are described.
The chapter further discusses research design, target population, sample size, sampling
procedure; research instruments, piloting of instruments, validity and reliability of
instruments, and data collection procedures and data analysis techniques. It also includes
logistical and ethical considerations.
3.1 Research Design
Descriptive cross sectional research design was appropriate for this study as it can collect
information on people's attitudes, opinions and habits (in the area) hence will be used to
establish pre-primary school teachers' use of teaching aids to enhance teaching and
learning among pre-school children.
3.2 Study Variables
They are described in the following sections;
3.2.1 Dependant Variable
It was teacher's use of teaching aids to enhance learning which was measured by
determining the teaching aids used to enhance learning and how they were used.
3.2.2 Independent Variables
3.3 Location ofthe Study
In order to meet the objectives, the study was conducted in selected pre-schools in Isinya
Sub- County, Kajiado County. Isinya Sub-County was selected as it is in rural pastoralist
area that does not give pre-school education priority and also based on the fact that very
few similar study has not been done inthe area, Sachedina and Nelson (2010). It is also a
rural area with public pre-primary schools that enabled the researcher to have a wider
3.4 Target Population
The study targeted 30 pre-schools in lsinya Sub-County with approximately 87
pre-school teachers. There were only 29 public pre-schools in Isinya and data was collected
from the targeted pre-schools only.
3.5 Sampling Techniques and Sample Size
They are described in the following sub-sections;
3.5.1 Sampling Techniques
The study adopted cluster sampling technique. The location has (5) sub zones which
includes Olooloitikush, Noon Kopir, Sholinke, Nyompopong and Emakoko. The zones
formed the five clusters each with four schools. Each of the (5) clusters was divided into
(4) sub clusters (schools) totalling to 20 schools. The sample of the population was
3.5.2 Sample Size
The total sample size comprised of pre-primary school teachers in the pre-schools
selected. Five clusters formed part of the study. Each cluster zone had four schools; each
school provided three pre-school teachers who formed part of the respondents. Random
sampling was used to select the three teachers. This brought the sample size of this study
to 60 (69%) pre-school teachers. A sampling frame with all the pre-schools in Isinya Sub
County was obtained from the sub-county education office.
3.6 Research Instruments
A questionnaire and observational checklist were used to collect data. Close ended
questions helped in collecting quantitative data while open ended questionnaire was used
to generate qualitative data.
(i). Questionnaires were administered to pre-primary school teachers in pre-schools
selected. Section one was for obtaining the general information on the respondent's
characteristics. The second part was to determine pre-primary school teachers' use of
I' teaching aids to enhance teaching and learning in pre-primary schools. Since the
sample size was considered to be big enough, the information that was collected was
useful and generated data that was considered as reliable to make generalizations and
conclusions. This enabled a rich source of information to be gathered.
(ii). Observation checklist was also used in the study. The researcher observed the
availability and adequacy on use of teaching aids while teaching pre-school children.
This enabled the researcher to gain real detailed and in-depth knowledge of the
situation on the ground.
3.7 Pilot Study
A pilot study was conducted in four schools in Isinya Sub-County to establish reliability
and validity of research instruments. Questionnaire was pre-tested on pre-primary school
teachers. This helped to make corrections on the final questionnaire. The pre-schools that
formed part of the pre-test were not included in the final study. This exercise ensured that
the research instruments administered are in line with the research topic and objectives.
The results of the pilot study were used to make corrections concerning the data
collection tool. The pre-testing of tools also helped in reducing the degree of biasness.
This established the validity of the data collection tools, that is, questionnaire and
observation checklist, whether or not the questions were well understood and finally the
tool was tested on varied respondents. The pilot study enabled the study to identify items
that require modification, from the pilot results which helped the study to correct
inconsistencies arising from the instruments.
3.7.1 Instrument Validity
Content was used to ensure the instruments were valid. Validity is the extent to which
results obtained from the analysis of the data actually represent the phenomenon under
study Mugenda and Mugenda, (2003). The researcher adhered to strict research
techniques, in order to ensure validity of the instruments, the data analysis and
interpretation of the findings were done and cross examined against the objectives of the
study. Outcomes from the pilot study were also used in validating the instrument by
that the results obtained meet the set objectives.
3.7.2 Reliability of the Instruments
According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003), reliability is a technique to assess the extent
to which the study meets the objectives of the study through repeated trials. However for
the purpose of this study, the researcher conducted apilot study in four schools which did
not take part in the actual study. Moreover, test-retest method was conducted before
conducting the actual study to further test the reliability of the tools, that is,
questionnaires. The exercise entailed having a group of participants responding to the
questions and administering the same questions to the same group of participants after
some time. The correlation between results on identical tests given at different times
operationally defines its test-retest reliability.
3.8 Data Collection Techniques
Data was collected in two stages as follows;
Stages I. Administration of questionnaires to teachers
The questionnaire consisted of both open ended and close ended questions. The
questionnaires were handed over to the concerned pre-school teachers, who were
properly oriented, then urged to fill inthe blank using a pen.
StageII. Conduction of observation
The researcher observed the availability and use of teaching aids. This was done by
3.9 Data Analysis
The data collected was processed before it was analysed, this was in form of
organization, entailing identifying and correcting error, coding the data and sorting in
appropriate forms. Qualitative data was ana lysed by performing a quick impressionist
summary which entailed summarizing key findings from questionnaires, explanation and
conclusion using key themes as per the study objectives.
Data collected in qualitative form were summarised and presented in prose form to
ensure easy interpretation and presentation. Quantitative data were however analysed
using descriptive statistics using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results
from data analysis were presented in form of frequency tables, figures and in text.
3.10 Logistical and Ethical Considerations
Permission for the study was sought from Kenyatta university graduate school. A
research permit to enable the researcher to conduct the study smoothly was obtained from
National Commission for Science Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI). The
willingness of respondents to participate in the study was considered before the actual
data collection. All the information given by respondents was treated confidential. The
respondents were informed about their rights before the commencement of the study and
FINDINGS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSIONS
This chapter presents data analysis and results. The study used descriptive statistics to
summarize the data.
4.2 General and Demographic Information of the Respondents
A total of 60 questionnaires were administered to the respondents on a personal basis in
order to maximize the response rate. The study achieved a 100% response rate and all the
filled questionnaires were obtained and used in the analysis.
4.2.1 Gender of Respondents
Gender of respondents
Figure 4.1 Gender of the Respondents
teachers were female (41) representing 68.33%, while the male teachers were 19 representing 31.67%.
4.2.2 Age of Respondents
Age of Respondents
AGe of Respondents
Figure 4.2 Age of Respondents
"'According to :figure 4.2, majority of the teachers were within the age group of 30-39 years representing 55.0%, this was foUowed by teachers within 18-29 years age bracket
(35.0%). Teachers whose ages fall in 40-59 years age bracket were 6 representing 10.0%
while none of the teachers had 60 years and above.
4.2.3 Level of Education
The teachers who participated in the Study were required to indicate the highest level of
Table 4.1 Respondents Level of Education
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid completed primary 0 0 0 0.0
Secondary 9 15.0 15.0 15.0
College 45 75.0 75.0 90.0
University 6 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 60 100.0 100.0
As shown in Table 4.1, majority of the teachers had acquired middle level college
education representing 75.5 %, this was followed by those who had attained secondary
education representing 15.0%, while teachers who had attained University education
were 6 representing 10.0% while none of the teacher had attained primary education as
the highest level of education (0.0%).
4.3 Teachers' Use of Teaching Aids toEnhance Learning
The first objective of the study was to determine how teachers used teaching aids to
enhance learning. To achieve this objective, teachers were asked whether they used
Figure 4.3 Pre-school Teachers' Use of Teaching Aids to Enhance Learning.
As shown in figure 4.3, majority of the teachers had reported that they were using one or
more teaching aids in classrooms while instructing children representing 78.33%.
However, 21.67% of the teachers were not using any kind of teaching aid while teaching
The types of teaching aids used by teachers were determined and the results are shown in
Figure 4.4 below.
II I I I
-Figure 4.4 Distributions of Teaching Aids Used to Enhance Learning
The teachers who used at least one teaching aid were further required to indicate the
specific teaching aides) which they used in instructing children. Figure 4.4 shows the
distribution of the specific teaching aids used by teachers.
The study affirmed Sarah (2007) finding that majority of the teachers used black/white
boards as the only teaching aid representing 28.6%, while 17.9% of the teachers used
charts as the only teaching aids. Those who used post cards, Magazines, videos and maps
represented 3.6%, 7.1%, 1.8% and 1.8% respectively. Some teachers had also reported
using more than one teaching aid to instruct children. Teachers who used both
black/white boards and flashcards represented 14.3%, while those who used black/white
boards, flashcards and charts represented 10.7%. The findings are also in agreement with
the position taken by Oguntuase (2008), who argued that teachers usually use the readily
available teaching aids such as black boards and charts. This is attributed to the
non-corporation among stake holders.
The teachers' perception of teaching aids was determined, figure 4.5 presents the results.
Table 4.2 Teachers' Perception of Use of Teaching Aids
Very Important 26 43.3%
Important 16 26.7%
Not sure 8 13.3%
Unimportant 8 13.3%
Not Important at all 2 3.3%
As shown in table 4.2, majority of the teachers' perceived teaching aids as very important
in instructing children representing 43.3%, this was followed by those who said it was important (26.7%). This confirms Farris, (2000) suggestion that many teachers were
aware of teaching aids but they ignored them. The percentage of those who reported to be not sure was equal to the percentage of those who said it was unimportant representing
13.3% each, while only 3.3% said that use of teaching aids was not important at all.
4.4 Factors InOuencing Teachers' Use of Teaching Aids
In the second objective the researcher was to find out the factors influencing teachers' use
of teaching aids. To achieve the objective, teachers were asked to indicate the different
factors that influenced them to use teaching aids. Figure 4.6 presents the results .
Figure 4.6 Factors InOuencing the use of Teaching Aids
=:rAYIIiIIIbayofteec:Hng Teea-a SIIudesIn1
IIids In1 r . use of
Figure 4.6 shows that majority of the teachers had reported that all the listed factors
greatly influenced their use of teaching aids in instructing children representing 27.59%,
that is, non-availability of teaching aids, teachers' attitude and perceptions on particular
teaching aid and repetitive use of a particular teaching aids. However 25.86% reported
that repetitive use of teaching aid was the main factor while equal number of teachers
said that the teachers' attitude and perceptions on particular teaching aids and
non-availability of teaching aids were the main factors affecting the use of teaching aids each
This confirmed Borich (1998) conclusion that many factors influence the use of teaching
aids inenhancing learning. Those who reported social economic conditions were 12.07%.
Lastly 3.45% said that both non-availability ·of teaching aids and repetitive use of
particular teaching aids were the main factors. This however contradicted Halle (2004)
findings on factors affecting teaching methods. He argued that the main factors that
contributed to use of different teaching methods was the availability and accessibility
relevant resources. The findings also align with the findings made by Puthen (2000),
whose study showed that use of non-repetitive and eye-catching teaching aids greatly
influence learners ability to understand new concepts. Similarly, in their study, Ackerman
and Barnett (2005) concluded that availing teaching aids to pre-schools would result to a
more conducive learning environment hence changing the perspective of teachers
4.5 Strategies to Enhance the Use of Teaching Aids
In the third objective, the researcher was to determine the strategies that could be used to
enhance the use of teaching aids in the selected pre-schools. To achieve this objective,
teachers were asked to state the strategies which they could suggest to improve the use of
teaching aids in pre-schools.
Some teachers suggested that providing enough materials for children will help to
enhance the use of teaching aids. This will enable each child to have humble time in
learning with the teaching aids as they will not be scrambling for few available teaching
aids. Availability of enough teaching aids facilitates smooth learning and children find it
interesting to learn and interact with their colleagues. The pre-school teachers also said
that the teaching aids should be designed in different varieties to meet the diverse needs
of children. Providing variety of teaching aids will also help to make learning less
monotonous. However, this finding contradicts other studies carried out in the same area.
For example, Alaku (1998) has demonstrated that teacher's competency depends on use
of appropriate teaching aid and instructional strategy.
However the study agrees with Sarah (2007) who supported the strategy of availing
affordable teaching aids to pre-schools. Several pre-school teachers who participated in
the study suggested that the best strategy would be making the teaching aids affordable to
all pre-schools. They further stated that most of the pre-schools cannot afford some of the
teaching aids especially the one using certain advanced technology such as projectors and
in providing free teaching aids through the Ministry of Education to meet the needs of all
pre-schools. This will relieve parents the burden of contributing funds to buy teaching
aids for children. This will also help in ensuring that all the teaching aids used in pre
-schools meet the minimum requirements and they are uniform across all the pre-schools.
The study suggested that the best strategy would be coming up with safe, durable and
portable teaching aids. This would ensure safety when children are interacting with the
teaching aids. This seemed to agree with Mkhahatshwa (1990) finding that teaching aids
should be convenient and easily relocatable. Heavy teaching aids with sharp edges should
be avoided on order to ensure that the safety of our children is guaranteed. Moreover,
children should not handle electricity powered teaching aids such as projectors without
the teacher to avoid cases of electric shock which can result to death of children.
A section of the teachers suggested that the best strategy would be providing attractive
teaching aids and to make sure they are in relation to the theme of the lessons. Attractive
teaching aids enable children to concentrate for more hours and avoid monotony among
children, this asserts Romiszowiski (1968) conclusion on the choice of teaching aids. As I'
an effective way of passing knowledge to the children, the teaching aids should be related
to the theme or objective of a particular topic/lesson. A suggestion to have teachers form
group to develop teaching aids materials was also proposed as a strategy by some
teachers. This strategy would be effective since every teacher would bring in the needs of
his/her children hence ammonizing all the needs of children from different environs.
and fast learners. Making use of locally available materials was also suggested to be a
strategy that could help improve the use of teaching aids while instructing children. This
calls for creativity and innovation among the teachers in order to use the locally available
materials and come up with new teaching aids to cater for all the different needs of the
Creating awareness to teachers on the importance of using teaching aids was supported
by several teachers as the best strategy that can be undertaken to improve the use of
teaching aids in pre-schools. This contradicted with Borich (1998) who asserted that
training colleges f~r teachers should train teachers on the use of teaching aids effectively.
Szendrei (1996), Grooves and Doig (1999) also asseted that teachers should be trained on
all the teaching aids including the modern ones. Some pre-school teachers are not fully
informed about the importance of using teaching aids in instructing children and creating
awareness to all the teachers would greatly improve the manner in which teachers use
teaching aids. Lastly, several teachers also suggested that the use of computerized
teaching aids would be a good strategy in improving the use of teaching aid in
pre-schools. This will help in exposing the children to technology in early stages. They noted
that the challenge in implementing this strategy would be the initial cost which could be
SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents summary findings, conclusions and makes recommendations based
on study findings in chapter four. It also gives suggestions for further studies which can
be conducted in the future.
5.2 Summary of Findings
The purpose of the study was to establish pre-primary school teachers' use of teaching
aids to enhance learning in pre-schools in Isinya Sub-County and the factors influencing
their use. From the study findings, majority of the teachers were using teaching aids in
instructing the learners while the rest were not using any teaching aids. The study further
revealed that most of the teachers adopted only one teaching aid with majority using
black/white board. The findings also depicted a relatively positive perspective of the
teachers on the teaching aids.
.The study revealed that several factors influenced the use of teaching aids in enhancing
learning. Majority of the teachers said that all the four factors greatly affected the use of
teaching aids, namely, Non-availability of teaching aids, teachers' attitude and
perceptions on particular teaching aids, Social economic conditions of the child at home
On the strategies that could be used to improve the use of teaching aids in pre-schools.
Some teachers suggested that providing enough materials for children will help in
enhancing the used of teaching aids. This will enable each child to have humble time in
learning with the teaching aids as they will not be scrambling for few available teaching
aids. The pre-school teachers also said that the teaching aids should be designed in
different varieties to meet the diverse needs of the children. Providing variety of teaching
aids will also help making learning less monotonous.
Several pre-school teachers suggested that the best strategy would be making the teaching
aids affordable to all pre-schools. They further stated that most of the pre-schools cannot
afford some of the teaching aids especially advanced technology such as projectors and
tape recorders. The government can help in providing free teaching aids through the
Ministry of Education to all pre-schools. However, other pre-school teachers suggested
that the best strategy would be coming up with safe, durable and portable teaching aids.
This would ensure safety when the children are interacting with the teaching aids.
From the study it is evident that the best strategy to promote the use of teaching aids
would be providing attractive teaching aids and to make sure they are in relation to the
theme of the lessons. Attractive teaching aids enable children to concentrate for more
hours and avoid monotony among children. As an effective way of passing knowledge to
the children, the teaching aids should be related to the theme or objective of a particular