Occupational Safety and Health Training

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Instructor: Karolina Silska – OSH specialist

Occupational Safety and Health

Training

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All OSH training should take place during the working hours and at the employer’s expense

The employee is obliged to confirm in writing that he/she is familiar with

the Occupational Safety and Health

regulations

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The aim of this training is to introduce the employee to:

• Basic regulations concerning Occupational Safety and Health as per the Labor Code, Collective Labor Agreement and labor regulations

• Company’s internal rules and regulations

• Rules concerning First Aid in case of accident

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Regulations concerning OSH trainings

• Introductory training, also referred to as the General Training

This type of training is obligatory for every

person who begins working in a given workplace, on a specific work station that may expose

him/her to harmful, burdensome or dangerous labor conditions

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Work station specific training

• Designed for newly hired employees, whose work station may expose them to harmful, burdensome or dangerous labor conditions

• For employees transferred to such work stations or in case of technically-

organizational change in labor conditions

During this training, it is advised to refer to

“user manuals” of the devices used on specific work stations

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The training is aimed to update and complement the employee’s

knowledge and skills concerning:

• Assessing risks and hazards related to the performed job

• Methods of protection against risks and hazards

• Shaping labor conditions in accordance with rules and regulations of OSH

• Procedures in case of accident and emergency situations

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Periodic training

Such training should be carried out as a course, seminary or guided self-learning class

• Manual worker – min. 8 hours of training, at least once every 3 years

• Office worker/teachers – min. 8 hours of training, at least once every 6 years

• Employers and managers – min. 16 hours of training, at least once every 5 years

• OSH specialists and related professionals – min. 32 hours of training, at least once every 5 years

• Employers carrying out security service tasks – min. 64 hours of training, at least once

every 5 years

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The training’s instructor confirms it’s completion and issues a

certificate which should be held in

employee’s files

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Some legal regulations concerning

Labor Law in relation to OSH

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Current regulations concerning obligations in relation to OSH and responsibility for braking the rules of OSH

Legal regulations concerning Labor Law:

International sources for polish labor law:

• EU directives

• Agreements and recommendations of ILO (International Labor Organization)

• European Social Charter of Council of Europe

Note!

EU law regulations are valid in Poland only after their ratification or introduction to Polish acts and regulations

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Legal regulations concerning Labor Law:

Polish sources of labor law:

• Polish constitution

• Polish legal acts, especially Labor Code

• Regulations of the Council of Ministers

• Polish labor norms

• Collective labor agreements

• Company’s rules and regulations

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The employer’s and the employee’s

obligations

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The employee’s obligations

It is the employee’s first and foremost obligation to follow the OSH rules and regulations

In particular, the employee is obliged to:

• Know the OSH rules and regulations,

complete the appropriate training and pass the mandatory verifying exams

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• Perform the work in accordance with the OSH rules and regulations and apply to the

supervisor’s commands and instructions in this matter

• Look after the machinery, tools and

equipment as well as order and tidiness in the workplace

• Apply the collective protection measures and use the appropriate individual protection

measures as well as clothing and shoes in accordance with their design

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• Complete the pre-employment, periodic and any other advised medical examinations as well as apply to all the doctor’s orders

• Immediately notify the supervisor about the accident in the workplace or any other

situation in which human life and health is endangered

• Cooperate with the employer and supervisor to carry out obligations concerning OSH

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The employee’s rights

1. The employee may stop working and immediately notify the supervisor if:

• Labor conditions do not comply with OSH regulations

• The performed work endangers other employees

2. If stopping to work does not eliminates the danger, the employee has right to leave the

workplace upon immediately notifying his/her supervisor

Note!

The time spent away from the workplace due to dangerous labor conditions should be fully

reimbursed

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The employee’s rights

3. Upon informing the supervisor first, the employee has right to stop to perform work that requires extraordinary psychophysic proficiency in case his/her current

psychophysic condition precludes safe performance and endangers others at the workplace

Note!

The rights enlisted in points 1-3 do not concern an employee whose professional duty is to save human lives or property

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The employer’s obligations

• Protect lives and health of his/her employees by ensuring safe and hygienic labor

conditions with the use of appropriate appliances and devices

• Arrange labor in a safe and hygienic manner

• Ensure following of the OSH rules and regulations at the workplace

• Ensure that not following the rules is eliminated

• Ensure that the orders, recommendations and decisions of the supervising bodies are

properly carried out and introduced

• Ensure that the advices of the Social Labor Inspector are followed

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The employer’s obligations – others

• Designate a coordinator to oversee safe labor conditions and safety of employees working at the same workplace

• Ensure preventive health care

• Manage work accidents and occupational diseases

• Ensure OSH trainings

• Ensure individual protections measures

• Follows the OSH rules and regulations

• Consults with OSH specialists and commissions

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Criminal liability

Article 220(1) of the Criminal Code

If the person responsible for occupational safety and health neglects his/her duties and thus puts the lives and health of the employees in danger shall be subject to a penalty of imprisonment of up to three years

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The consequences of violation of the OSH rules and regulations by the

employee

In accordance with the Article 108 of the Labor Code – the employer may impose a penalty of warning or reprimend or a financial penalty to an employee that fails to respect

the regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health. The penalty cannot be applied after the period of two weeks since the notification about the employee’s obligation breach and after three months since the breach occurred (article 109(1))

The penalty can be applied only upon hearing the employee’s testimony (Article 109(2))

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The consequences of violation of the OSH rules and regulations by the

employee

• In accordance with Article 110 – the employer has to notify the employee in

writing about the applied penalty, specifying the kind of breach and the date of the

incident. The employer informs the employee about his/her right to object and about when the objection has to be filed. The employer inserts a copy of the written notification to the employee’s files

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The consequences of violation of the OSH rules and regulations by the

employee

• In accordance with Article 112(1) – if the penalty was applied unlawfully, the employee may file an objection within 7 days of

receiving the notification. The objection may be accepted or dismissed by the employer, after he/she considers standpoint of the workplace trade union representing the

employee. Not dismissing the claim within 14 days since filing is equal to its acceptance.

The employee who filed the objection can, within 14 days since receiving the claim

dismissal, take legal action to Labor Court for remission of penalty (Article 112(2))

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The consequences of violation of the OSH rules and regulations by the

employee

• In accordance with Article 113(1) – the penalty is considered void and all the

documents confirming it removed after a year of impeccable work (the employer may

consider the penalty void sooner)

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Preventive medical examinations

• Pre-employment

• Periodic

• Check

• Sanitary-epidemiological

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Preventive health care for employees

Medical examination

• Pre-employment, periodic, check, sanitary- epidemiological

Legal basis

• Labor Code, section 10, “Occupational Safety and Health”, article 229

Legal basis

• An ordinance issued by the Minister of Health and Welfare on May 30, 1996 concerning

conducting medical examinations of the

workers as a means of preventive health care and medical certificates for purposes specified in Labor Code

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Pre-employment medical examination

• A newly hired person

• An underage person transferred to another position

• An employee transferred to a position with harmful or burdensome labor conditions

The employer

is incurred with the costs of medical examinations and all the other costs of preventive health care that stems from labor conditions

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Periodic medical examinations

• All employees

• Employees hired to work in conditions

exposing them to carcinogenic substances and factors as well as fibrotic dusts, and also after:

◦ Ceasing to work in environment with such substances, factors and dusts

◦ Termination of contract, if the person in question files a request to have such

examinations

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Medical checks

Employees after a period of incapacity for work longer than 30 days, which was caused by a disease

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Sanitary-epidemiological medical examinations

• On the basis of stool examination for sanitary-epidemiological purposes an occupational physician issues a medical

certificate for the examined person and the employer or a person who ordered the

examination

◦ Stating ability to work on a position where there is a possibility to transfer the infection or disease to another person

◦ Stating temporary or permanent

contraindications to work on a position where there is a possibility to transfer the infection or disease to another person

• Legal basis

◦ Act of December 5, 2008 on preventing and eliminating infections and infectious diseases (Journal of Laws 2008, no. 234, item 1570 with subsequent changes)

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Work accidents

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Legal bases

• Labor Code, section 10, “Occupational Safety and Health”, Article 234 (Act of June 26,

1974 – Labor Code, Journal of Laws 1998, no. 21, with subsequent changes)

• An ordinance by the Council of Minister of June 28, 1998 concerning determination of the circumstances and causes of work

accidents and the way of documenting them, as well as the character of information

detailed in the register of work accidents (Journal of Laws no. 115, with subsequent changes, Journal of Laws 2004, no. 14)

• An ordinance by the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy of December 24, 2002

concerning specific rules and procedures of determining an incident as an accident on the journey to or from work, the way of

documenting it, a sample document for reporting an accident on the journey to or from work and the deadline for filing it (Journal of Laws no. 237, with subsequent changes)

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An accident

• A person who suffered an accident at

work, if his/her condition allows to do so, immediately notifies employer or any other entity for whom this person

performed labor about the accident

• Every employee who noticed such

accident is obliged to report it. It is the injured party supervisor who should be notified about the accident

For documentary purposes, the report

should be in a written form

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Accident on the journey to or from work

An accident on the journey to or from work is a sudden event caused by an external factor which occurred on the way to or from a workplace or to carry out any other business activity which is

basis for social insurance, only if the way to or from workplace was the shortest route possible and it was not interrupted. However, such

interruption is allowed if it was caused by a

justifiable reason (e.g., a physiological need) and the stop did not expand the necessary time to

fulfill it; or if the route, although not the shortest, was the most convenient for the insured person

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Accident on the journey to or from work

The journey to or from work, besides the route from home to work and vice versa, is also:

• The route to or from a place of some other

form of employment or other business activity which is a basis for social insurance

• The route to or from a place of performing professional or social duties

• The route to or from a place to have lunch

• The route to or from school or the university

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The employer’s obligations in case of work accident

The employer should:

• Take actions to eliminate or reduce the danger

• Provide first aid to all injured persons

• Make sure to prevent such accident in the future

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The employer’s obligations in case of work accident

The employer should:

• Immediately notify the appropriate labor inspector and prosecutor about the mortal, severe or group work accident, and any other accident related to work if it can be

considered as such

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The employer’s obligations in case of work accident

The employer should:

• Systematically analyze the causes of work accident and on the basis of these analyses use appropriate preventive measures

• Make sure to determine the cause of accident (the related costs are covered by the

employer)

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The employer’s obligations in case of work accident

The employer should:

• Within 14 days from receiving the

notification about the accident (the post- accident report is drafted by an appropriate assembly), the employer should introduce the victim with that report (or the family of the victim, if the accident was fatal)

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Occupational Diseases

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The employer’s obligations in case of occupational disease

The employer should:

• Provide a medical examination

• Keep a register of occupational diseases

• Immediately notify the appropriate sanitary inspection body and labor inspector each case of a diagnosed occupational disease and

whenever there is a suspicion of such

• Establish the causes of occupational disease as well as its character and level of threat, while staying in cooperation with the

appropriate sanitary inspection body

• Systematically analyze the causes of

occupational diseases and other diseases in relation to the work environment. On the basis of these analyses use appropriate preventive measures

• Immediately eliminate the factors causing occupational disease and apply other

necessary preventive measures

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Compensations due to:

Work accident or

Occupational disease

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Compensations due to work accident or occupational disease:

• Sick benefit – for the insured, whose inability to work was caused by work accident or

occupational disease

• Rehabilitation benefit – for the insured, who has exhausted his/her sick benefit and is still unable to work, with further treatment or

rehabilitation being a chance to recover

• Compensatory benefit – for the insured

employee, whose remuneration was reduced due to permanent or long-lasting injury

• Single damages:

◦ For the insured, who suffered from a permanent or long-lasting injury

◦ For the family of the deceased insured or pensioner

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Compensations due to work accident or occupational disease:

• A pension due to inability to work – for the insured who has become unable to work due to work accident or occupational disease

• Training pension – for the insured who has become unable to work due to work accident or occupational disease and was declared in need of retraining in order to work at the same workplace but at different position

• A survivor’s pension – for the family of the deceased insured or a pensioner entitled to a pension due to work accident or occupational diseases

• An orphan’s pension – for an orphan

• Medical treatment coverage – covering

dental treatment and protective vaccination as well as to supply necessary orthopedic

equipment (in scope regulated by the appropriate Article)

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Accident insurance compensation will not be reimbursed if:

• The accident was caused by the insured who broke the regulations pertaining safety and health on purpose or as a result of

professional negligence

• The accident was caused by the insured who at the time was under influence of alcohol, narcotics or psychoactive substances

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Occupational risk

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Occupational risk

The likelihood of an occurrence of undesired events related to work that cause damage, in particular damages to health, as a result of occupational hazards related to workplace or performing work

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Accident and emergency procedures

For example, in case of fire or breakdown

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Obligations of the building’s managers and owners

• Follow fire protection technological and construction standards

• Equip the building with fire-fighting and life- saving equipment, as well as with

extinguishing agents

• Provide safety to the persons inside and mark out evacuation routes

• Prepare the building for rescuing action

• Introduce employees to fire regulations

• Set the evacuation procedures in case of fire or other threat

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Classification of fires

According to the type of material on fire and manner of its combustion

Type of fire (A)

Fire of organic solids, during which occurs the phenomenon of incandescence

for example: wood, paper, coal, plastic materials, fabrics, straw

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Type of fire (B)

Fire of flammable liquids and solids, which melt under high temperature

For example: petrol, alcohols, acetone, oils, varnishes, grease, paraffin, tar

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Type of fire ( C )

Fire of gases

For example: methane, acetylene, propane, hydrogen, city gas

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Type of fire (D) Fire of metals

For example: magnesium, sodium, uranium

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Type of fire (F)

Fire of grease and oil in kitchen appliances

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Emergency procedures in case of fire

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Obrazek:

IN CASE OF FIRE.

Warn others (Fire! It's burning!) Alarm and extinguish

• Keep calm!

• Report the fire immediately,

providing exact data on the location and size of the fire

• Warn other employees about the fire

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• Switch off the ventilation, transport and heating devices, cut off the

piping, close the main gas valve, if necessary disconnect the electrical devices from voltage

• Immediately leave the endangered

areas using staircases as well as

marked escape and fire routes

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• Do not use elevators

• Stay close to the floor (protection against smoke and hot air)

• Carry out the operation in

accordance with the fire safety instructions

• THE PRIORITY IS TO SAVE HUMAN LIFE, NOT TO

EXTINGUISH THE FIRE

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Emergency procedures in case of fire (2)

• Do not put your own safety at risk;

participate in extinguishing and rescue operations until the Fire Brigade arrives

• Never extinguish burning oil with water

• Cover burning people with fire blankets

• When the Fire Brigade arrives, give the commander the relevant

information, hand over the plans of the building, escape routes, and

emergency routes, as well as the

appropriate keys.

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Rules to follow during fire fighting

• Disconnect electronic equipment,

close gas valves, close windows and doors, turn off ventilation or air

conditioning systems

• Start using the fire extinguisher at the source of fire

• If possible, stand backwards to the

wind direction

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Be careful while opening the doors

1. Open the door slightly while hiding behind the door frame

or

2. Bring in a short stream of

extinguishing agent through the gap, then open the door and start

extinguishing the fire

When the Fire Brigade arrives, give the commander the relevant information, hand over the plans of the building,

escape routes, and emergency routes, as

well as the appropriate keys.

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Rules to follow during fire fighting (2)

• Keep the fire extinguisher upright!

• In case of fire of motor vehicle

engines, do not direct the stream to a closed engine cover but extinguish through the cooling holes from the bottom

• Fires of still liquids;

- do not disperse the liquid with a

strong stream, but cover the fire by mist (by sprayed extinguishing agent)

• Extinguish only by using the

provided handheld equipment

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Rules to follow during fire fighting

When extinguishing, the following rules need to be remembered:

(Obrazek – GOOD / BAD)

Extinguish fire in the direction of the wind.

Extinguish burning surfaces starting from the side.

Extinguish fires of liquids and dripping substances with a jet directed from the bottom to the top.

Extinguish fires of the walls with a jet directed from the bottom to the top.

Use adequate number of fire extinguishers; never one after the other.

Pay attention to the possibility of fire burning again.

Never put fire extinguishers after use in a permanent place. First, they must be refilled.

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Rules to remember:

Most fires start with a small fire.

With the exception of explosions, it is usually possible to control the fire if we use the correct type and size of the fire extinguisher within the first two minutes.

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The fire extinguisher should have a valid certificate issued by the

relevant institution.

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A portable fire extinguisher can save human life by extinguishing a small fire or stopping its spread until the Fire Brigade arrives.

Before attempting to extinguish a small fire, make sure that all people are outside the

building. It is important that someone calls the Fire Department. If the fire starts to spread or cut off your escape route,

withdraw immediately!

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You should know how to use a fire extinguisher without spending time reading instructions

during an emergency. Remember that the fire extinguisher should be regularly inspected and be refilled after each use.

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Extinguishing

Pull the pin.

This will unlock the fire extinguisher.

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Press the handle or lever to release the

extinguishing agent

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Direct the nozzle straight to the source of fire. If you aim at the flames (which is often tempting), the extinguishing agent will pass through it and nothing will help. You will not be able to

extinguish the fire in this way.

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Sweep the nozzle from side to side until the fire is put out. Remember to start

extinguishing at a safe distance from the fire and as it diminishes, you can get closer. After extinguishing, make sure that the fire does not burst again.

If necessary, use the extinguisher again.

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Most fire extinguishers should be used

as described above. However, not all of

them. Read and follow the instructions

on your fire extinguisher.

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When not to try to extinguish fire:

• If the fire can block your escape route

• If the fire spreads too fast

• If the type and size of the extinguisher is unsuitable (eg it is not intended to

extinguish a given type of fire)

• If the fire is too big

• If you do not know how to use an extinguisher

If any of the above threats exist, run away immediately!

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General rules to follow in smoke- filled rooms

Entering into smoke-filled room, from which smoke is coming out and there is presumably fire inside requires caution. Therefore you should:

Enter carefully, opening the door gradually and

partially (do not open the door with one move to the entire width)

Stay bend over or close to the floor

As far as possible, bring handheld extinguishing equipment (or other currently available alternatives)

Protect your head against mechanical injuries and high temperature impact (helmet or other alternative

solutions)

Protect your mouth and face from smoke (e.g., a handkerchief or towel soaked in water)

In the event of a large smoke, use a stream of water from the fire hose

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General rules to follow in smoke- filled rooms

It is necessary that in the smoky zones all activities are carried out by at least two people who can support and help each other

The search in a smoke-filled room for the person supposedly remaining, should involve accurate

checking of the places where he/she could hide and faint. Also everywhere, where under normal conditions it would seem impossible, e.g. under a stillage

Reduction of smoke in rooms can be achieved by:

▪ The use of a water stream from the water supply network

▪ Opening windows and doors

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Escape routes

ESCAPE ROUTES SHOULD BE MARKED IN A VISIBLE AND PERMANENT WAY.

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77 Signs marking out escape routes:

(znak nr 1 – kierunek drogi ewakuacyjnej) Direction of the escape route

The sign indicates the direction to the exit, which can be used in case of danger.

Shorts arrows - to use with other characters.

Long arrow - for self-use.

(znak nr 2 – Wyjście ewakuacyjne)

Emergency exit

The sign used to mark the exits used in case of danger.

(znak nr 3 – Drzwi ewakuacyjne) Evacuation door

The sign used above the wing doors, which are emergency exits (left or right door).

(znak nr 4 – przesunąć w celu otwarcia) Move to open

The sign is applied together with the sign No. 3 on the sliding door of the emergency exit.

(znak nr 5 – kierunek do wyjścia drogi ewakuacyjnej) Direction to the exit of the escape route

The sign indicates the direction of the escape route to the exit; can point to the right or left.

(znak nr 6 – kierunek wyjścia drogi ewakuacyjnej schodami w dół) Direction to the exit of the escape route down the stairs

The sign indicates the direction of the escape route down the stairs to the left or right.

(znak nr 7 - kierunek wyjścia drogi ewakuacyjnej schodami w górę) Direction to the exit of the escape route up the stairs

The sign indicates the direction of the escape route up the stairs to the left or right.

(znak nr 8 – Pchać aby otworzyć) Push to open.

The sign is placed on the door to indicate the direction of their opening.

(znak nr 9 – Ciągnąć aby otworzyć) Pull to open.

The sign is placed on the door to indicate the direction of their opening.

(znak nr 10 – Stłuc aby uzyskać dostęp) Break to gain access

This sign can be used:

a) in a place where it is necessary to break the glass in order to gain access to the key or the opening system b) in a place where it is necessary to break obstruction to clear the exit.

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Evacuation procedures

Guidelines for employees involved in evacuation:

• Open all escape doors

• Determine the exact location of the fire, the path of its spread and the threat to neighboring rooms

• Call a fire brigade or give information to the management

• Evacuate people according to the rules of conducting and organizing the evacuation action

• Inform the evacuation supervisor about difficulties in conducting the evacuation and strictly follow his

instructions

• Maintain regular contact with other people involved in evacuation in order to provide mutual assistance

• If the situation allows, check if someone has stayed in the facility. You should always take into consideration the fact that during evacuation may occur such

circumstances as injuries, fainting, etc. In this situation, you should move the injured to a safe place, give first aid and call the ambulance.

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First aid

Pre-medical activities that save lives

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Pre-medical activities that save lives

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Chain of survival

• Early recognition of threat and

immediate call for the emergency services

• Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation

• Early defibrillation

• Early advanced life support by paramedics

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What should you tell the dispatcher

Be brief and clear

• Give the exact place of the incident

• Give your name and surname

• Give the phone number you are calling from

• Give the number of injured people

• Assess the condition of the injured

➢ Conscious / unconscious

➢ Breathes / does not breathe

• Tell what you see

➢ E.g. “one person walks and the other lies in the car”.

• Inform the dispatcher about any change in the situation

• Answer the dispatcher's questions

• Follow the dispatcher's instructions

• Do not hang up until the dispatcher will allow you to

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Resuscitation can lead to the restoration of breath and heartbeat.

In addition, if the injured person’s awareness is restored, there is reanimation.

Breath + circulation = RESUSCITATION

Breath + circulation + awareness = REANIMATION

Resuscitation and reanimation are performed by identical emergency procedures.

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

THE ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

Secure the place of the event Approach the injured person

Assess the level of person’s awareness Clear the air passages

Call for help

Provide artificial respiration Provide heart massage

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Resuscitation

Rescue actions aim to stop or reverse the process of dying through heart

massage and artificial respiration.

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

ASSESMENT OF THE LEVEL OF AWARENESS

• Full awareness

• Reaction to voice

• Reaction to touch and pain

• No reaction

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

RESUSCITATION RULES

• Follow the safety rules

• Turn the person on the back

• Lay the person on a hard and even

surface

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CLEARING THE AIR PASSAGES

• Put your hand on the injured person's forehead

• Put the other hand on the bone parts of the mandible

• Gently tilt the person's head back

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION

• Keep the person's head tilted

• Clamp the soft parts of his/her nose

• Take a breath

• Blow air into his or her mouth for about 1 second

• Observe whether the chest has risen

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

If the chest did not rise:

• Check if there is anything in the person’s mouth

• Clear the air passages again

• Repeat the above steps up to two times

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

INDIRECT HEART MASSAGE

• Kneel next to the injured person

• Remove clothing from the chest

• Place your hands in the middle of his/her chest

• Straighten your elbows

• Compress his/her chest to a depth of 3-4 centimeters

• Make 100 compressions per minute

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

The ratio of compressions number to the number of inhales is

30:2

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Resuscitation steps

The injured person does not react Call for help

Clear the air passages No proper breathing Call an ambulance #999

2 rescue breaths

Repeat

the sequence

30 chest compressions

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Continue resuscitation until:

• Arrival of medical services

• Physical exhaustion

• Return of the person's awareness

• Appearance of signs of blood circulation

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Signs that the injured person’s blood circulates

• Spontaneous breath

• Cough

• Motion

• Opening eyes

• Speech

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

The most common mistakes during resuscitation

• Bending elbows

• Too strong or too weak chest compressions

• Relaxation mistake

• Removing the hands from the person's chest

• Wrong hands position on the person's chest

• Too weak or strong rescue breaths

• Incorrect frequency of chest compressions

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Choking: First aid

We speak of choking if the foreign body is in a person’s air passages and

as a result they are completely or

partially obstructed.

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Choking: First aid – first step

Cough

• Encourage the injured person to

cough as long as he/she is able to

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Choking: First aid – second step

GIVE BACK BLOWS

• Stand behind the person

• Lean the person forward

• Hit the person between the shoulders

• Administer up to 5 blows

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Choking: First aid – third step

ABDOMINAL THRUSTS

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Choking: First aid – third step

ABDOMINAL THRUSTS

• Stand behind the person

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Choking: First aid – third step

ABDOMINAL THRUSTS

• Stand behind the person

• Make a fist and place it directly

above the person's navel

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Choking: First aid – third step

ABDOMINAL THRUSTS

• Stand behind the person

• Make a fist with your hand and place it directly above the person's navel

• Put your other hand on top of the

first

(104)

Choking: First aid – third step

ABDOMINAL THRUSTS

• Stand behind the person

• Make a fist with your hand and place it directly above the person's navel

• Put your other hand on top of your first

• Thrust both hands backwards into

his/her stomach with a hard, upward

movement up to five times

(105)

105

Choking: First aid – third step

ABDOMINAL THRUSTS

• Stand behind the person

• Make a fist with your hand and place it directly above the person's navel

• Put your other hand on top of your first

• Thrust both hands backwards into their stomach with a hard, upward movement up to five times

• If necessary, repeat steps 2 and 3

alternately

(106)

Choking: First aid – summary

• Encourage the person to cough

• Give back blows

• Administer abdominal thrusts – up to 5 times

• (tekst na strzałce – Repeat)

If the above actions prove ineffective and the injured person falls unconscious - follow

resuscitation rules.

The loss of consciousness causes muscle relaxation. It is possible that this way the foreign body will get out of the air passages.

(107)

107

Recovery position

• Prevents choking hazard

Keeps the air passages clear and open

• Recovery position is for a person

who is unconscious but breathing

(108)

Recovery position facilitates breathing and blood circulation, keeps the air

passages open; in case of vomiting or bleeding from the mouth or air passages it protects liquid to enter lungs.

Recovery position provides relative body stability of an unconscious

person. After 30 minutes, turn the

unconscious person over to the other

side to ensure blood supply to the arm.

(109)

109

Hemorrhages

• Hemorrhages is blood escaping from the circulatory system

• The most common cause of hemorrhage is injury

• There is a division of hemorrhages into internal and external

• At the place of accident we can only help with an external hemorrhage

(110)

Hemorrhages: First aid

When providing help with

hemorrhage, protect yourself against contact with blood by wearing gloves.

When giving first aid, use sterile

bandage and do not disinfect wounds.

(111)

111

Hemorrhages: First aid

HEMORRHAGES FROM LIMBS WOUNDS

• Lift the wounded limb above the heart level

• Press the place of bleeding

• Put sterile gauze to the wound

• Apply a compressive bandage

(112)

Hemorrhages: First aid

HEMORRHAGES FROM HEAD WOUNDS

• The head is strongly supplied with blood

• Press the place of bleeding

• Apply a compressive bandage

(113)

113

Hemorrhages: First aid

NOSEBLEEDS

without injury or after a hit

• Tilt the person’s head forward so that the blood does not flow down his throat

• Clamp the soft parts of the nose for 10 minutes

• If the hemorrhage persists after 20 minutes, injured person should see a doctor

• The nosebleeds often stop by themselves

(114)

Hemorrhages: First aid

HEMORRHAGES FROM STAB WOUNDS

• Press the place of bleeding

• Apply a compressive bandage

(115)

115

Hemorrhages: First aid

HEMORRHAGES FROM STAB WOUNDS

• If there is a foreign body in the wound, we stabilize it and do not pull it out

• A foreign body can stop bleeding

• Exception. We can pull a foreign body out if:

- Foreign body prevents necessary resuscitation

- Bleeding cannot be controlled despite leaving the foreign body in the wound

(116)

FAINTING

Is a sudden and short-lived loss of consciousness caused by transient decrease in blood flow to the brain.

• Symptoms: short loss of consciousness, paleness, sweating, nausea, rapid breathing, feeling of weakness.

• Usually, it is not life-threatening and may result from dehydration,

excessive overloading of the body, especially on a hot and stifling day. It often happens in elderly people with impaired cardiovascular system, heart disease, hypertension. It may also be misdiagnosed as an epileptic seizure.

• Put unconscious person with legs up, after a while he or she should regain consciousness; then guide his or her to a shaded place, give something to drink, ask if he or she has any cardiovascular diseases (in this case, it is better to consider calling for qualified medical services for transport to the hospital) or diabetes (fainting may be caused by hypoglycemia; in this case give a sweetened drink or a piece of chocolate or another energetic product to eat). Check if the injured person has not suffered head injuries or injuries of other parts of body during the fall. Wait until he or she regains his strength and will be able to move independently. If person is still weak, call an ambulance.

• Warning! If after a few minutes (1-2 min)the injured person is still unconscious, call for help. Remember to check his or her breath frequently.

(117)

117

BROKEN BONES

• TRY NOT TO MOVE THE INJURED PERSON UNLESS HIS LIFE IS THREATENED

• CALL AN AMBULANCE (999)

• TRY TO STOP OR PREVENT ANY BLEEDING

• STIFFEN THE INJURED LIMB BUT DO NOT MOVE IT

• IF THE MEDICAL SERVICES ARE DELAYED,

IMMOBILIZE THE INJURED AREA BY PLANK OR BY ATTACHING TO THE SECOND LEG; USE

COMPRESSESS, BANDAGES OR A SLING

(118)

NECK AND BACK INJURIES

CERVICAL SPINE INJURY OCCURS WHEN THE HEAD IS STRONGLY JERKED BACK OR FORTH.

THE LIGAMENTS, MUSCLES OR NERVES MAY BE DAMAGED – SOMETIMES THE NECK BREAKS.

SEVERE PAIN IN NECK OR BACK

THE INJURED PERSON MAY NOT BE ABLE TO MOVE HIS OR HER FINGERS AND TOES,

WRIST OR ANKLES

THE INJURED PERSON MAY NOT FEEL THE TOUCH, ONLY TINGLING

(119)

119

NECK AND BACK INJURIES

FOLLOW THE REANIMATION STEPS

If the person is conscious, do not move him/her, unless his/her life is threatened

If there is a threat to person’s life, you can move him/her - the spine injury is in this case a secondary matter.

If the person fell out of the vehicle, leave him/her in this place, secure with blankets or covers and wait for

professional help.

(120)

BURNS

LARGE BURNS

• Start cooling the wound immediately, follow the resuscitation steps.

• Call an ambulance (999 or 112)

• Lay the person down in a comfortable position

• Continue pouring the wound with cold water for about 10 minutes or until the pain eases

• Remove jewelry, watch or clothing from the burn site, unless it has adhered to the skin

• Cover the skin with clean, non-fluffy fabric to prevent infection. Parts of clothing, a clean plastic bag or a kitchen foil can be used as a bandage

(121)

121

BURNS

SMALL BURNS

Hold the burned area under cool running water for about 10 minutes or until the pain eases

• Remove jewelry etc. and cover the skin with clean, non-fluffy fabric to prevent infection. Parts of

clothing, a clean plastic bag or a kitchen foil can be used as a bandage

ALL DEEP BURNS OF ANY VOLUMES REQUIRE IMMEDIATE HOSPITAL TREATMENT

DO NOT USE ANY CREAMS OR GELS.

(122)

SHOCK

May be caused by loss of body fluids, which is the result of internal or external bleeding, burns, diarrhea or vomiting,

SYMPTOMS:

• RAPID, WEAK PULSE, WHICH CAN STOP AT ANY TIME

• RAPID AND SHALLOW BREATHING

• THE PERSON FEELS BAD AND WEAK; HE/SHE IS THIRSTY AND DIZZY; ALSO THE PERSON CAN BE RESTLESS

• COOL, WET, ASHEN AND PALE SKIN

• LIPS, NAILS AND EARS ARE ASHEN AND BLUE

(123)

123

SHOCK

FOLLOW REANIMATION STEPS.

CALL AN AMBULANCE IF IT IS NECESSARY

LAY THE PERSON DOWN WITH THE HEAD PLACED LOW

ELEVATE THE LEGS AND FEET

LOOSEN TIGHT CLOTHING

COVER THE PERSON WITH A BLANKET TO PREVENT FROM CHILLING

DO NOT USE HOT WATER OR DIRECT SOURCE OF HEAT TO KEEP THE PERSON WARM

KEEP THE PERSON STILL

(124)

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

KAROLINA SILSKA 504 743 596

Figure

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References