International Journal Advances in Social Science and Humanities
Available online at: www.ijassh.com
A Study on Job Involvement among the Employees of BEML
, M. Kannan2
, S. Murugesan2*
, P. Ramasamy2
1Group IRM, Madura Coats, Ambasamuthram.
2Madurai Institute of Social Sciences, Madurai.
Job involvement has been identified as key component of motivation. Job involvement has negatively related to intention to quit, and has positively job satisfaction, organizational climate. Active job involvement leads to better job performance. The present study aims to understand and measure the level of job involvement among the executives working in BEML limited. The study has conducted among the 674 executives working in BEML KGF Complex and BEML Bangalore Complex. The data obtained were analysed by using ‘t‘ test, Anova and Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation. The results indicate that there is no association between age, monthly income, years of service, no. of awards , no of promotion of executives and the job involvement. The mean score of job involvement of executives working on BEML KGF complex is higher than the executives working in BEML Bangalore complex.
A number of studies have been done on job involvement and it has been seen as being key to motivation and giving companies competitive advantage . Brown suggests that increasing job involvement can enhance productivity by, “…engaging employees more completely in their work and making work a more meaningful and fulfilling experience.” Brown’s article (a meta-analysis of job involvement research) suggested that Kanungo’s definition and scale of job involvement is the clearest and most precise. Brown’s model of job involvement suggested the antecedents of the construct are personality variables; certain job characteristics such as autonomy, skill variety, and feedback; certain supervisory variables such as consideration and participation; and role ambiguity or role conflict. Consequences of involvement were identified as effort, performance, absenteeism, turnover, job satisfaction, organizational commitment (this may also be an antecedent, however, typically a person first becomes involved in a job, then develops commitment to the organization), turnover intentions, stress, and life satisfaction .
There are many definitions of job involvement. Job involvement is defined as the degree to which a person psychologically identifies with. Job involvement is related with the work motivation that a person has with a job [4,5,6].Job involvement is the internalization of values about the work or the importance of work according to the individual. Job involvement may appraise the ease with which a person can be further socialized by an organization. Organizational socialization is the process by which an individual understands the values, abilities, behaviors, and social knowledge indispensable for an organizational role and for taking part in as a member. It is a belief about one’s current job and is a function of how much the job can satisfy one’s wishes. Highly job involved individuals make the job a central part of their personal character. Besides, people with high job involvement focus most of their attention on their job .
Job involvement is grouped into four diverse categories. These categories: 1) work as a central life interest, 2) active participation in the job, 3) performance as central to self-esteem, and 4) performance compatible with self-concept. In work as a central life interest, job involvement is thought of as the degree to which aperson regards the work situation as important and as central to his/her identity because of the opportunity to satisfy main needs. In active participation in the job, high job involvement hints the opportunity to make job decisions, to make an important contribution to company goals, and self-determination. Active participation in the job is thought to ease the achievement of such needs as prestige, self-respect, autonomy, and self-regard. In performance as central to self-esteem, job involvement implies that performance on the job is central to his/her sense of worth .
Job involvement is a function of individual difference and the work situation. Thus demographic and work experience variables are expected to relate to job involvement. Positive relationships are expected with age, tenure, years in occupation, education, having children, and gender. There is no evidence for a strong relationship between job involvement and performance.
Job involvement is negatively associated with intentions to quit and positively related to job satisfaction and organizational climate perceptions. In the same way, Blau and Ryan put forward that  job involvement and organizational commitment are negatively related to absence, withdrawal intentions and turnover as well as lateness and leaving work early and job involvement is positively related to work effort and performance. Individuals with high levels of both job involvement and organizational commitment should be the most motivated to go to work and to go on time. Individuals with low levels of job involvement and organizational commitment should be the least motivated. Both highly motivated and non-motivated employees may miss work or come late for excusable reasons (e.g., illness, religious holiday, vacation time, and transportation problems). However, highly motivated employees cannot be thought as non-motivated employees to miss work or come late for inexcusable reasons. Individuals with higher levels of job involvement and organizational commitment are likely to exhibit less unexcused lateness and unexcused absence than individuals with lower levels of job involvement and organizational commitment [2,6].
Blau and Boal  portray four different groups to classify employees by: (a) high job involvement -high organizational commitment; (b) high job involvement-low organizational commitment; (c) low job involvement-high organizational commitment; and (d) low job involvement-low organizational commitment. Employees in the first group are labeled “institutionalized stars”, in the second group “lone wolves”, in the third group “corporate citizens” and in the fourth group “apathetic employees”.
nurses with higher levels of job involvement and organizational commitment had significantly less unexcused absences than nurses with lower levels of job involvement and organizational commitment. Yet, no study into organizational commitment and job involvement of the state employees at Ministry of Health has been performed.
Job Involvement as a Key Component of Work Motivation: Search for Predictors based on primary data collected from a sample of 98 senior managerial personnel working in a Central Public Sector Undertaking, this paper tries to assess their level of job involvement and identify the predictors there of. The variables examined as the potential predictors included certain personal attributes of the employees and several situational factors in the form of various dimensions of organizational climate. Regression analysis of data helped in identifying three critical predictors of job involvement, which belong to both personal attributes as well as situational factors. Demographic factors such as age, experience and grade were found to have no influence on job involvement. Job involvement has got two factor analyses namely a) Identification with the job, b) Job centricity.
Identification with Job
Identification with Job: It refers to the composition of motivating job, identification with job, interesting job, job satisfaction, liking for the job and enjoying work.
Job Centricity: It refers to the composition of importance of job; care for job, work is not burden happiness out of job completion Need for the Study
No matter whether a person is a Worker, Supervisor or Executive, One need to know whether or not the person is committed, engaged, fully involved in the task or work that are assigned to them in any organization. In multinational companies the persons in the organizations should be in line with the expectation of the organization. However in a public sector organization like BEML there is no much restriction or conditions for the executives. It is the responsibility and accountability of the executives when they are working in public
sector organization. Many factors are associated with regard to Job Involvement. If one studies in Job Involvement objectively then factors affecting Job Involvement could also be studied.
The main aim of the present study is to understand and measure the level of Job Involvement by the executives of BEML Limited with the following specific objectives.
To portray the selected demographic profile of the executives.
To understand and measure the level of Job Involvement of the executives.
To find out the relationship between the selected socio demographic profile and the level of Job Involvement.
After having reviewed previous research studies the following research hypotheses have been formulated
Male executives have more job involvement than the female executives. Married executives will have more Job
Involvement than unmarried executives. Executives from Joint family will have
more Job Involvement than their counter parts.
There is no association between the age, monthly income, years of service, number of awards received, number of promotions and job involvement
Complex) were selected by randomly. The universe consists of Executives working in BEML Limited, Bangalore Complex, BEML Limited, KGF Complex who are working in various departments like Production. Planning, Human Resources, R&D, Quality Control, Facility Planning, Purchase, Accounts departments etc., The authors had detailed discussion with Plant HR Manger of at BEML Limited, Bangalore Complex, BEML Limited, KGF Complex, explained the purpose and got permission to undertake the study.
There are 452 Executives working in BEML Limited, Bangalore Complex and 901 Executives working in BEML Limited, KGF Complex in various departments. A good sample must be the representative of the universe. The list of executives was prepared and with the clear instructions, the questionnaires were distributed to all the executives. The researcher collected data from the executives in each department such as Production. Planning, Purchase, Human Resources, Accounts, R&D, etc. Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling method was adopted for the present study, and a total of 674 executives have been selected for the study (Bangalore: 225, KGF: 449). The executives from two different
places were considered as strata and 50 percent of the universe has been selected as samples by using Random Number Table method.
Tools for Measurement
To study the selected socio demographic profile, the authors have prepared questionnaire which consists of open ended and closed ended questions. To understand and measure the level of Job Involvement the 10 items Job Involvement scale. The scale has got 5 points namely Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly Disagree with two sub dimensions namely a). Identification with the job (6items) b). Job Centricity (4 items). The score ranges between 10 and 50. The authors, who have developed the scale, have stated that higher the score, higher will be the Job Involvement. The reliability and validity scores are 0.71 and 0.83 respectively.
The collected data were edited, coded and classified based on the place of study. With the help of SPSS 14(Trial Version), the required statistical technique to be used to verify the hypotheses, such as ‘t’ TEST, One Way ANOVA, Karl Pearson’s Co efficient of correlation were used.
Table 1: Demographic profile of employees
Demographic factors Factors N (674) %
Place Bangalore 225 33.38
KGF 449 62.62
Under Graduate 361 53.60
Post Graduate 266 39.50
Others 47 7.00
Age of the employee
Below 30 191 28.3
(31 to 40) 176 26.1
(41 to 50) 215 31.9
(51 & Above) 92 13.6
Gender Female Male 640 34 95.0 5.0
Marital status Unmarried 120 17.8
Married 554 82.2
Below 30K 109 16.2
30K to 40K 295 43.8
40K to 50K 138 20.5
50K & Above 132 19.6
Type of family Joint Family 274 40.7
Nuclear Family 400 59.3
No.of dependents in the family
Below 2 323 47.9
3 to 4 278 41.3
5 & Above 73 10.8
Total years of experience
Below 10 277 41.1
11 to 20 190 28.2
21 to 30 167 24.8
The above table clearly explains the distribution of executives on various socio demographic factors. Just above half of the respondents (53.60%) are educated up to under graduation, 39.50 per cent have completed PG Courses. Nearly one third of the executives (31.9%) are from (41-50) years of age, whereas only 13.6 per cent of them are in (Above 51) years. Very high majorities (95%) are males and the remaining 5 per cent are females. Majority
of them (82.2%) are married. Just above two fifth of the executives (43.8%) are earningRs30 to 40 thousand as their monthly income. Almost three fifth of the executives (59.3%) are from nuclear family. One tenth of the executives have more than five dependents in their family. 41.1 per cent of them have had below 10 years of experience, whereas 5.9 per cent of them have been serving more than 31 years.
Table 2: Correlation values for selected quantitative demographic variables and total job involvement for the executives
S. NO Factors N Job involvement
1 Age 674 0.501 ** P<.000
2 Monthly Income 674 0.692 ** P<.000
3 Years of Service 674 0.764 ** P<.000
4 No. of awards 674 0.675 ** P<.000
5 No. of promotions 674 0.407 ** P<.000
An attempt has been made to find out the correlation between the selected quantitative variables like Age, Monthly Income, Years of service, no of awards and no of promotions with study variable, i.e. Job involvement by using Karl Pearson coefficient of correlation.
It has been found that the age, monthly income, years of service, no of awards and no
of promotion have been positively associated with Job involvement. It is inferred that with the increase in age, monthly income, years of service, no of awards and no of promotion of executives, the job involvement also increase. The hypothesis namely (2), namely there is no association between the age, monthly income, years of service, no of awards and no of promotion of executives, and the job involvement is rejected
Table 3: Analysis of job involvement based on selected demographic profile.
N Mean S.D Stat Result SIG Scheffe Result
Bangalore 225 84.68 10.57
‘t’ value 3.781 P<.000 ---
KGF 449 87.74 9.55
Total 674 86.72 10.00
Under Graduate 361 86.76 9.37
F- Ratio 1.426 P<.241 ---
Post Graduate 266 86.27 10.87
Others 47 88.94 9.48
Total 674 86.72 10.00
Age of the employee
Below 30 191 82.38 10.95
Gp 1 Vs 2 3 4 Gp 2 Vs 3
(31 to 40) 176 87.73 8.20
(41 to 50) 215 88.90 9.17
(51 & Above) 92 82.38 10.95
Total 674 86.72 10.00
Male 640 86.88 10.01
‘t’ value 1.809 P<.071 ---
Female 34 83.70 9.40
Total 674 86.72 86.72
Unmarried 120 81.77 11.28
‘t’ value 6.139 P<.000 ---
Married 554 87.79 9.37
Total 674 86.72 10.00
Below 30K 109 87.09 9.21
F- Ratio 2.358 P<.071 ---
30K to 40K 295 85.60 10.44
40K to 50K 138 87.99 9.29
50K & Above 132 87.58 10.18
Total 674 86.72 10.00
Total years of
Below 10 277 84.30 10.59
F- Ratio 9.648 P<.000 Gp 1 Vs 2 3
11 to 20 190 88.15 8.77
21 to 30 167 88.78 9.17
31 & Above 40 88.04 11.39
Total 674 86.72 10.00
Awards in service
NOT AWARDED 408 85.83 10.62
‘t’ value 2.868 P<.004 ---
AWARDED 266 88.08 8.82
Promotions in services YES 498 88.23 9.16 ‘t’ value 6.818 P<.004 ---
Total 674 86.72 10.00
The mean, SD and Statistical Results for the subject variable namely Job Involvement against selected socio demographic profile are presented in the above table.
Place of living
It has been found out that mean score on Job Involvement of all the executives (N=674) is found to be 86.72 per cent, which clearly indicates that the executives are involving in their job more than 85 per cent, which specifies the executive’s job Involvement is higher. Further, it is obvious from the table that executives of BEML, KGF Complex have scored more (87.74) when compared to executives from BEML, Bangalore Complex (84.68).This observed difference is statistically significant, since the‘t’value (3.781) is significant at 0.00 level. It can be concluded that all the executives have scored higher, whereas executives from BEML, KGF Complex have scored more on Job Involvement than executives from BEML, Bangalore Complex.
The executives from different educational qualification and the level of Job Involvement is compared and it has been found out that executives who have studied other than UG/PG courses have shown more involvement(88.94 %) in their Job when compared to executives studied UG (86.76 %) and PG(86.27%). Irrespective of the educational level of the Executives, all of them have near equal Job Involvement (F ratio (1.426 P > 0.05 Not Sig).
It has been found that the mean score of the executives in the age group of ( 41 to 50) is higher than the other age groups, namely below 30 years( 82.38), between ( 31-40) years (87.73), and (above 51) years(82.38). The executives in the age group of 41-50 years have shown more involvement in their Job. The executives with different age group differ with regard to job involvement (F ratio 18.514 P < 0.05 sig ).
The mean score of the male executives (86.88) with regard to job involvement is higher than the female employees (83.70). However, the male and female executives do not differ with regard to job involvement (t = 1.809 P > 0.05 Not sig.)
It has been found that the mean score of married executives is higher than the female executives with regard to job involvement. The married and unmarried executives differ with regard to job involvement statistically ( t= 6.139, P < 0.05 sig ) .
It has been found that mean score of the executives drawing monthly salary between 40000 to 50000 is higher than the other income groups. The executives with different monthly income group do not differ with regard to job involvement (F ration 2.358, P > 0.05 not sig )..
Total Years of Experience
Mean score of executives having experience between 21 to 30 years is higher than the other experience groups. It is inferred that the executives having experience between 21 to 30 years have shown more involvement in their job. The executives with different experience group differ with regard to job involvement (F raio= 9.648 P < 0.05 sig )
It has been found that the mean score of executives who are awarded during their service is higher than executives who are not awarded during their service with regard to job involvement (t=2.868 P < 0.05 sig) .
Mean scores of executives who are promoted in their service is higher than the executives who are not promoted in their service ( t=6.818 P < 0.05 sig )
Table 4: ‘t’ Test Results for the Sub Dimensions of Job Involvement based on Place.
Dimension of Job
BEML Bangalore ( 225)
BEML KGF ( 449) ‘t’
Mean SD Mean SD
Identification with job 80.61 13.44 86.21 10.81 5.840 P<.000 sig
score 84.68 10.57 87.74 9.55 3.871 P<.000 sig
The above table displays that mean score of identification with job factor of executives working in BEML KGF Complex is higher than the mean score of executives working in BEML Bangalore complex. However the observed difference is statistically significant. So, it is inferred that the executives working in BEML KGF complex have shown identification with job is higher than the employees from bangalore. The mean score of mean score of Job centrality factor of executives working in BEML KGF Complex is also higher than the mean score of executives working in BEML Bangalore complex. The observed difference is statistically not significant. Therefore, it is inferred that Job centrality factor of the executives working in BEML KGF Complex and the executives working in BEML Bangalore complex is similar. The total mean score of job involvement of executives working in BEML KGF Complex is higher than the executives working in BEML Bangalore Complex. However, the observed difference is statically significant. So, it is inferred that the executives working in BEML KGF complex have shown Job involvement is higher than the employees .
Job involvement is the key motivation, provides more advantages to the employees and enhances the productivity. It is an indicator for whether or not an employee is leading meaningful and fulfilling experiences with company during his stay. Present empirical study clearly depicts that the levels of job involvement is more than 85 percent which is very high. Further the age, monthly income, years of service and number of awards are positively significantly correlated with job involvement. This research work is done in public sector organization and the findings are confirmed with previous work done by the various researchers.
In addition to the selected socio demographic indicators which affects the level of Jon involvement, other selected psychological variables like emotional intelligence, leadership styles, value profile, personality factors etc along with the organizational factors like organizational stress, culture, commitment could also be studied to establish the answers for two questions (a) Factors contributing job involvement, (b ) How job involvement is contributing to other psychological and organizational factors.
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