AP Psychology Exam Review - Brain, S and P, Other [Autosaved]

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AP Psychology Exam Review

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Neuroscience

• What are the parts of a neuron?

• What is the function of each?

1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

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Neural Communication – Fill in the

blanks of the following paragraph.

The fluid outside of the axon membrane is largely made up of _________ charged ions, but the fluid inside the membrane is primarily made up of

___________ charged ions. This state is referred to as the ________________. We refer to the axon’s surface as _________ permeable since it will only allow particular ions to pass through. When a neuron fires, the axon membrane

becomes permeable and ______________ sodium ions flow into the cell. This __________ that part of the axon and then causes the next section of the

membrane to become permeable. This occurs over and over down the line of the axon and serves to push the nerve impulse down the neuron. During the ______________, the _______ ions are pumped back out of the cell and the axon returns to the original state of polarity, called the ______________, prepared to fire again.

positively

negatively Resting potential

selectively

Positively charged depolarizes

Refractory period positive

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Neuroscience

• Action Potential – Depolarization

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What Neurotransmitter am I?

1. I enable muscle action, learning and memory. If you suffer from Alzheimer’s disease, then I will start to deteriorate.

- Acetylcholine (Ach)

2. If you have too much of me, you might have Schizophrenia. If you don’t have

enough of me, the brain produces tremors relating to Parkinson’s disease.

- Dopamine

3. If you do not have enough of me, you might suffer from depression. I affect mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal.

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What Neurotransmitter am I?

4. If you have too many of me, you might get migraines or seizures.

I am considered a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in

memory.

Glutamate

5. I am a neurotransmitter and hormone linked to mood, alertness,

and arousal.

Norepinephrine

6. If you have too many of me, you could have seizures, tremors,

and insomnia. I am a major inhibitory neurotransmitter.

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Neural Transmission

When an individual receives a Botox

injection, the chemical botulin is injected just below the surface of the skin. Botulin causes paralysis by blocking the release of Ach. In this instance, is botulin an agonist or antagonist? Explain.

• Answer: antagonist  decreasing the ability of the neuron to fire

• Explain how an agonist works.

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Types of Neurons

1. You run the last leg of the 4

by 1 relay for the HPHS track

team. This is a blind hand-off,

meaning you are receiving the

baton from someone you cannot

see. Explain the process of

handing off the baton using the

following terms:

• Interneuron

• Motor neuron

• Sensory neuron

Sensory Neuron:

takes in information

regarding the position and feeling of

the baton in your hand

Interneuron

: carries the message up

your spinal cord to your brain for

processing; carries the message

down your spinal cord

Motor neuron:

the message to start

contracting your leg muscles to

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Neuroscience: Cerebral Cortex - Matching

1. Occipital lobes - b

2. Temporal lobes - c

3. Parietal lobes - d

4. Frontal lobes - a

a. Involved in speaking and muscle movements; making plans and judgments

b. Receives visual information

c. Receives auditory information

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Neuroscience: Older Structures of the Brain

1. Reticular formation - b 2. Medulla - a 3. Thalamus - c 4. Cerebellum - d

a. Damage to this will cause a person’s heart to stop

beating; stop breathing b. If this is damaged, you could lapse into a coma c. This is the sensory

switchboard in the brain; sends messages to sensory receiving areas in the cortex d. If this is damaged, you will

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Neuroscience – Limbic System: Who am I?

1. I help control emotion, especially rage and fear; I am a twin.

- Amygdala

2. I control the reward centers in the brain -- eating, drinking, body temperature, and sexual behavior; I also control the pituitary gland.

- Hypothalamus

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Neuroscience

1. Glial Cells - b

2. Cerebral Cortex - c

3. Broca’s Area - a

4. Wernicke’s Area - d

5. Angular Gyrus - e

a. Located in the left hemisphere, frontal lobe; directs muscle movements involved in speech

b. Support, nourish, and protect neurons

c. The body’s ultimate control and information-processing center

d. Located in the left temporal lobe; involved in language comprehension

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Nervous System

• After finishing the AP Exam and realizing you probably scored a 5 because you

worked so hard to prepare this year, what physical

reactions will your body have due to the parasympathetic

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Brain Imaging - Matching

• 1. EEG - D

• 2. CT Scan - B

• 3. PET Scan - A

• 4. MRI -C

• 5. fMRI - E

A. shows brain activity by tracking glucose absorption

B. Reveals brain damage through use of x-rays

• C. depicts brain structures through the use of magnetic fields and radio waves

• D. provides an amplified readout of brain waves by using electrodes on the scalp

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Determine which term does not belong in the

group and explain why:

Group 1:

• Convergence

Relative height • Interposition

• Linear perspective

Group 2:

Closure

Similarity

Figure-ground

Texture

gradient

Group 3

Difference

threshold

Signal detection

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Determine which term does not belong in the

group and explain why:

Group 4:

• Cochlea

Oval window

• Basilar membrane

• Eardrum

Group 5:

Fovea

Retina

Cones

Pupil

Group 6:

Afterimages

Trichromatic

theory

Opponent process

theory

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Determine which term does not belong in the

group and explain why:

Group 7

Perceptual Set

Bottom-up

Processing

Schemas

Context Effects

Group 8

Transduction

Cilia

Anvil

Rods and

Cones

Group 9

McGurk Effect

Synesthesia

Priming

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Determine which term does not belong in the

group and explain why:

Group 10

• Retinal disparity

Visual cliff

• Monocular cue

• Phi Phenomenon

Group 11

• Sensory neural hearing loss

• Eardrum

• Auditory nerve

• Cochlea

Group 12

• Kinesthesis

• Vestibular Sense

• Semicircular Canals

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5.1 - Review of Vision Worksheet

• 1. electromagnetic

• 2. wavelength

• 3. Hue

• 4. amplitude

• 5. intensity

• 6. cornea

• 7. pupil • 8. iris

• 9. lens

• 10. accommodation

• 11. retina

• 12. rods

• 13. cones

14. bipolar cells • 15. ganglion cells

• 16. optic nerve

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5.2 Review Worksheet - Hearing

• 1. frequency

• 2. pitch

• 3. amplitude

• 4. loudness

• 5. auditory

• 6. eardrum

• 7. hammer

• 8. anvil

• 9. stirrup

• 10. oval window

• 11. cochlea

12. basilar membrane • 13. hair cells

• 14. nerve

• 15. auditory nerve

• 16. cortex

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Determine which term does not belong in the

group:

Group 13:

Bipolar Disorder

Dysthymia

OCD

Major

Depressive

Disorder

Group 14:

Latency

Identification

Fixation

Inferiority

complex

Group 15:

Fixed interval

Continuous

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Determine which term does not belong in the

group:

Group 16:

Maladaptive

Disorganized

Catatonic

Paranoid

Group 17:

Caffeine

Methampheta

mine

Cocaine

Morphine

Group 18:

Grammar

Syntax

Determinism

Figure

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References

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