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Intermodal Passenger Flows on London’s Public Transport Network

Automated Inference of Full Passenger Journeys Using Fare-Transaction and Vehicle-Location Data

by

Jason B. Gordon

B.A., University of California, Berkeley

Submitted to the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Department of Urban Studies and Planning

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degrees of

Master of Science in Transportation

and

Master in City Planning

at the

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

September 2012

© 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.

Signature of Author . . . .

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department of Urban Studies and Planning August 10, 2012

Certified by . . . .

Nigel H.M. Wilson Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering Thesis Supervisor

Certified by . . . .

Harilaos N. Koutsopoulos Professor of Transport Science, Royal Institute of Technology

Thesis Supervisor

Certified by . . . .

John P. Attanucci Lecturer & Research Associate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Thesis Supervisor

Accepted by . . . .

Alan Berger Professor of Urban Studies and Planning Chair, Master in City Planning Committee

Accepted by . . . .

Heidi M. Nepf Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering Chair, Departmental Committee for Graduate Students

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AbstrAct

Urban public transport providers have historically planned and managed their networks and services with limited knowledge of their customers’ travel pat-terns. While ticket gates and bus fareboxes yield counts of passenger activity in specific stations and vehicles, the relationships between these transactions—the origins, interchanges, and destinations of individual passengers—have typically been acquired only through costly and therefore small and infrequent rider sur-veys. Building upon recent work on the utilization of automated fare-collection

and vehicle-location systems for passenger-behavior analysis, this thesis presents methods for inferring the full journeys of all riders on a large public transport network.

Using complete daily sets of data from London’s Oyster farecard and iBus vehicle-location system, boarding and alighting times and locations are inferred for individual bus passengers, interchanges are inferred between passenger trips of various public modes, and full-journey origin–interchange–destination matrices are constructed, which include the estimated flows of non-farecard passengers. The outputs are validated against surveys and traditional origin– destination matrices, and the software implementation demonstrates that the procedure is efficient enough to be performed daily, enabling transport provid-ers to observe travel behavior on all services at all times.

Thesis Supervisor: Nigel H.M. Wilson

Title: Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering Thesis Supervisor: Harilaos N. Koutsopoulos

Title: Professor of Transport Science, Royal Institute of Technology Thesis Supervisor: John P. Attanucci

Title: Lecturer & Research Associate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Thesis Reader: Frederick P. Salvucci

Title: Senior Lecturer & Senior Research Associate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Intermodal Passenger Flows on London’s Public Transport Network

Automated Inference of Full Passenger Journeys Using Fare-Transaction and Vehicle-Location Data

by

Jason B. Gordon

Submitted to the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Department of Urban Studies and Planning

on August 10, 2012

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degrees of

Master of Science in Transportation

and

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Acknowledgements

The research that culminated in this thesis evolved over a three-year pe-riod, during which I was extremely fortunate to have the guidance of multiple faculty members. Nigel Wilson and John Attanucci guided this work from its inception. Their intuitive knowledge of transit, standard of academic rigor, and complementary analytical styles guaranteed stimulat-ing and fruitful discussion at each weekly meetstimulat-ing. Haris Koutsopoulos brought a similarly valuable perspective to the latter half of the project: his expertise and ingenuity strengthened the methodologies of Chapters 3 and 4 while providing the guidance to overcome the challenges addressed in Chapter 5. Haris and Nigel’s detailed reviews of the manuscript greatly strengthened it—their interest and close attention are sincerely appreci-ated. Jinhua Zhao played a key role in guiding the early stages of this work, and the vision that he instilled was in mind throughout the project. Fred Salvucci kindly reviewed the manuscript as well. His policy insights were invaluable as always, and I’ll miss his thoughtful weekly provision-ing of yucca donuts.

This work would not have been possible without the support of Transport for London (TfL). Shashi Verma, Lauren Sager Weinstein, and

John Barry provided the invaluableopportunity to work with and learn

from their exceedingly talented teams, while their own feedback and support for the project were truly encouraging. Andrew  Gaitskell an-swered countless arcane technical questions and extracted mountains of data. James McNair explored the algorithms and the code itself, lending a welcome (and clever) second perspective in what had previously been a solitary endeavor. Malcolm Fairhurst and Tony Richardson presented an opportunity to test this research with a real-world problem, while

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Duncan Horne, Mark Roberts, Carol Smales, Mark Butlin, David Warner, Liam Henderson, Geoffrey Maunder, Dale Campbell, and Tim Cooper shared expert insights about all aspects of TfL and its data.

The staff of London Buses were equally instrumental in this project. Steve Robinson shared his unparalleled iBus expertise and, along with Nigel  Hardy, Lisa  Labrousse, Aidan  Daly, and George  Marcar, gener-ously and patiently answered complex technical questions. Steve and Kevin Field tediously extracted large volumes of data, Annelies de Koning created indispensable data-extraction tools, and Bob  Blitz and Fergus McGhee shared their expert knowledge of the bus network. Alex Phillips and Keith  Gardner developed a user-requirements framework which strengthened and refined the tools developed in this research. Special thanks to Rosa McShane for her friendship and hospitality, and for al-ways handling logistic and bureaucratic issues.

Additional support was provided by the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering through a Schoettler fellowship and a teach-ing assistantship, in which I had the rewardteach-ing experience of teachteach-ing with and learning from George Kocur. Tomer Toledo gave valuable feed-back on the scaling problem, while Ginny Siggia and Kris Kipp guided me expertly through all manner of institutional hurdles.

This project grew from an initial collaboration with Albert Ng, whose talents and creativity are as valued as his friendship. Mike Frumin gener-ously sacrificed hours of thesis-writing time to share his (locally) unparal-leled knowledge of London’s transport and information systems, while Winnie Wang and Yossi Ehrlich similarly lent their code, data, and meth-odological insights. Kevin Muhs exemplified the virtue of patience with his cheerful (and brave) de facto alpha testing, which yielded many valu-able discoveries and suggestions (among many mutual tangential but wel-come diversions). Gabriel Sánchez-Martínez shared his IPF source code, and helped vet scaling algorithms through numerous engaging white-board discussions (which also benefitted from the insights of Sam Hickey, Nihit Jain, and Kari Hernandez). These and the other transit-lab students of 2009–2012 made the countless hours in the office far more enjoyable.

Lastly, thanks to my family for their encouragement and support, and to Dini for absolutely everything. The work in these pages was sustained by your love and sacrifice.

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Contents

LIst oF FIgures

. . . . 11

LIst oF tAbLes

. . . .14

LIst oF Acronyms

. . . .15

1 IntroductIon

. . . .17 1.1 Motivation . . . .18

1.1.1 Full Journeys and Intermodal Travel. . . .19

1.1.2 The State of the Art . . . .19

1.1.3 Application to London . . . .20

1.2 Objectives. . . .21

1.3 Thesis Organization . . . .22

2 PubLIc trAnsPort In London

. . . .23

2.1 London’s Public Transport Network . . . .23

2.1.1 London Buses . . . .23

2.1.2 The London Underground. . . .24

2.1.3 National Rail . . . .24

2.1.4 London Rail . . . .25

2.2 Data Sources . . . .25

2.2.1 Oyster . . . .25

2.2.2 iBus . . . .29

2.2.3 Gateline and etm . . . .29

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3 bus orIgIn And destInAtIon InFerence

. . . . 31

3.1 Previous Research . . . .32

3.1.1 Inferring Bus Origins Using AFc and AVL Data . . . .32

3.1.2 Inferring Bus Destinations Using AFc and AVL Data. . . .33

3.2 Origin Inference . . . .34

3.2.1 Exploratory Analysis of Input Data . . . .35

3.2.2 Origin-Inference Methodology . . . .38

3.2.3 Origin-Inference Results and Sensitivity Analysis . . . .40

3.3 Destination Inference. . . .43

3.3.1 Input Data . . . .44

3.3.2 Destination-Inference Methodology . . . .47

3.3.3 Destination-Inference Results and Sensitivity Analysis. . . .52

3.4 Summary . . . .58

4 InterchAnge InFerence

. . . .59

4.1 Concepts and Terminology . . . .60

4.2 Previous Research . . . .62

4.2.1 Discerning Activities Using AFc Data . . . .62

4.2.2 Interchange Inference Using AFc Data. . . .62

4.3 Methodology . . . .64

4.3.1 Binary Conditions . . . .66

4.3.2 Temporal Conditions. . . .68

4.3.3 Spatial Conditions . . . .70

4.4 Results and Sensitivity Analysis . . . .73

4.4.1 Sensitivity Analysis . . . .73

4.4.2 Results . . . .80

4.4.3 Comparison with the London Travel Demand Survey . . . .82

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5 FuLL-Journey mAtrIx exPAnsIon

. . . .85

5.1 Problem Definition . . . .85

5.2 Previous Research . . . .88

5.2.1 Iterative Proportional Fitting on Closed Networks. . . .88

5.2.2 Application of IPF on London’s Public Transport Network. .90 5.3 Input Data . . . .94

5.4 Methodology . . . .95

5.4.1 Problem Definition Revisited . . . .95

5.4.2 Problem Formulation and Solution . . . .98

5.5 Example: the Test Network . . . 101

5.5.1 Validation . . . 101

5.5.2 Comparison to Iterative Proportional Fitting . . . . 105

5.6 Application to the London Network . . . 108

5.6.1 Results . . . 109

5.6.2 Validation Against IPF on the London Network. . . 112

5.7 Summary . . . 114

6 ImPLementAtIon

. . . 115

6.1 Overview . . . 116

6.2 Process . . . 118

6.2.1 Step 1: Preprocessing and Nearest-Stop Calculation . . . . 118

6.2.2 Step 2: Origin Inference and Daily History Reconstruction . . . 120

6.2.3 Step 3: Destination and Interchange Inference . . . 122

6.2.4 Step 4: Full-Journey Construction . . . 123

6.2.5 Step 5: Full-journey Matrix Expansion . . . 124

6.3 Results and Performance . . . . 126

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7 APPLIcAtIons

. . . . 127

7.1 Bus Applications . . . 128

7.1.1 Boarding/Alighting/Flow Profiles and Route-Level od Matrices . . . 128

7.1.2 Bus Passenger Travel Time and Distance . . . 130

7.2 Cross-Modal and Full-Journey Applications . . . 132

7.3 Observing Changes in Rider Behavior and Demand . . . 134

7.4 Summary . . . 136

8 concLusIon

. . . 139

8.1 Summary and Findings. . . . 139

8.2 Recommendations . . . 141

8.3 Future Research . . . 143

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List of Figures

2-1 Schematic travel-zone map of London rail services . . . .26

2-2 Geographic map of London rail services . . . .27

2-3 Underground, National Rail, and dLr services in Central London . . .28

3-1 Oyster, bcms, and iBus data for a portion of a single bus route . . . . .36

3-2 Activity diagram of the origin-inference process . . . .39

3-3 Distribution of origin-inference error for all Oyster bus boardings . .42 3-4 Letter-designated bus stops near Elephant and Castle Tube station . . .45

3-5 Elephant and Castle stops S and T . . . .45

3-6 Stop and station locations in Greater London . . . .46

3-7 Activity diagram of the destination-inference process. . . .49

3-8 Example of destination inference. . . .50

3-9 Distribution of average out-of-system speeds . . . .53

3-10 Distribution of Euclidean distances between candidate alighting stops and next fare transaction . . . .55

4-1 Activity diagram of the interchange-inference process . . . .67

4-2 Two potential interchange locations yielding equal cumulative Euclidean distances . . . .71

4-3 Interchange boundaries for various circuity ratios. . . .72

4-4 Time between cardholders’ successive journey stages . . . .74

4-5 Distribution of elapsed times between candidate bus-stop arrivals and subsequent bus boardings. . . .77

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4-6 Distribution of circuity ratios for potential interchanges . . . .78

4-7 Honor Oak Park to Bond Street via London Bridge . . . .79

4-8 London Fields to Angel via Hackney or Liverpool Street . . . .79

4-9 Distribution of potential full-journey distances . . . .80

4-10 Distribution of inferred journey durations. . . .82

4-11 Full journeys per passenger per day. . . .83

4-12 Stages per journey. . . .83

5-1 The test transit network . . . .86

5-2 IPF contingency table for the test network . . . .89

5-3 Example of the control-total adjustment process . . . .93

5-4 Example of estimated passenger flow on the test network . . . .97

5-5 Formulation and results of the full-journey scaling process, as applied to the test network. . . . 102

5-6 Convergence of scaled transaction-node flows toward control totals . . . 104

5-7 Comparison of actual and estimated itinerary flows. . . . 104

5-8 Comparison of passenger flows for the test network . . . 107

5-9 Hourly control totals for Victoria Underground Station . . . 108

5-10 Histograms of scaling factors . . . 110

5-11 Comparison of sample (or seed) flows to scaled flows . . . 111

5-12 Distributions of od-pair scaling factors on London's rail network . . 112

5-13 Comparison of full-journey scaling and IPF by od pair . . . 113

6-1 Overview of processes, inputs, and outputs . . . 116

6-2 Class diagram of origin-, destination-, and interchange-inference package . . . 117

6-3 Activity diagram of origin-, destination-, and interchange-inference processes . . . 119

6-4 Activity diagram of full-journey matrix-expansion process . . . 125

7-1 Boarding/alighting/flow profile for Route 488 inbound . . . 129

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7-3 Comparison of average journey-stage lengths: gLbPs vs.

od-inferred Oyster . . . 130 7-4 Comparison of average journey-stage lengths by bus route:

gLbPs vs. od-inferred Oyster . . . 131 7-5 Origins of full journeys ending at Oxford Circus station . . . 133 7-6 Frame from a time-lapse animation of a full day’s inferred

Oyster activity. . . . 134 7-7 First origins of day for riders of route 205x . . . 135 7-8 Boarding/alighting/flow profile for route 488, before and after

its extension to Dalston Junction . . . . 137 7-9 Origin–destination matrix for the extended Route 488 inbound . . . 137

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List of Tables

3-1 Detailed origin-inference results, ten-day average . . . . 41

3-2 Summary of origin-inference results . . . . 43

3-3 Cumulative frequencies of observed inter-stage distances. . . . 55

3-4 Destination-inference results . . . .57

4-1 Median elapsed times between Oyster cardholders’ consecutive bus boarding transactions . . . .64

4-2 Tests applied during the interchange-inference process . . . .66

4-3 Interchange-inference results: ten-day average . . . 81

5-1 London Underground weekday time periods . . . 91

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List of Acronyms

AFc Automatic fare collection

APc Automatic passenger counter

Atoc Association of Train Operating Companies

AVL Automatic vehicle location

bcms Bus Contract Management System

bods Bus Origin–Destination Survey

dLr Docklands Light Railway

eLL East London Line

etm Electronic ticket machine

gLbPs Greater London Bus Passenger Survey

IPF Iterative proportional fitting

LAts London Area Travel Survey

Ltds London Travel Demand Survey

mbtA Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority

mLe Maximum likelihood estimate

nLc National location code

od Origin–destination

odx Origin–destination–interchange

osI Out-of-station interchange

rods Rolling Origin–Destination Survey

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Introduction

Urban public transport providers have historically planned and managed their networks and services with limited knowledge of their customers’ travel patterns. Unlike airlines or interurban rail providers, who typically issue tickets specifying distinct origins, destinations, and transfer points— often in designated vehicles and seats—the nature of urban transit opera-tions has necessitated fare-payment schemes which yield only aggregate ridership data, at resolutions no finer than that of the station gate or bus farebox.1 Put simply, transit agencies have not been able to easily observe where their passengers travel.

Farebox and station-gate data are useful for describing ridership from the perspective of the transit system, but passenger-centric data, such as the origins, destinations, and transfer points of individual customers, have traditionally been collected only through costly surveys (which are therefore conducted infrequently using small rider samples). The grow-ing adoption of automated data-collection systems, however, is provid-ing transit operators with vast stores of disaggregate data, which can be manipulated to reveal travel information from a rider-focused perspective. But the distillation of passenger-centric information is not trivial, as most automated data-collection systems—namely automated fare collection (AFc), automated vehicle location (AVL), and automated passenger

coun-1 High peak-period passenger volumes, high but often variable service frequencies, and dense, complex networks have led most transit agencies to adopt flat or zonal fare policies, designed to expedite fare processing and maximize passenger throughput.

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ter (APc)—have been designed for other purposes: their applicability to rider-perspective analysis is mostly serendipitous.2

This thesis builds upon recent work in the synthesis of passenger-cen-tric public transit information and demonstrates the feasibility of pro-cessing the complete set of data for a large multi-modal transit provider in a way that is suitable for execution on a daily basis. Using London’s transit network as an example, origins and destinations are inferred for bus journey stages, transfers between stages of various modes are inferred, and a multimodal origin–interchange–destination matrix of full journeys is constructed, including estimated flows for non-AFc passengers. Ap-plications are presented at various spatial and temporal scales from both the customer and system perspectives, including applications for service planning, rider behavior analysis, and project impact analysis.

The remainder of this chapter elaborates on the motivation for this research, presents its specific objectives and the approach taken, and out-lines the structure of this document.

1.1 motIVAtIon

Passenger-centric transit information has historically been costly to cap-ture. Origin–destination (od) information for an individual bus route could be estimated at the stop level from manual boarding counts com-bined with a sample of rider surveys (Ben Akiva et al 1985) or, at the expense of accuracy, with boarding counts alone (Simon and Furth 1985, Mishalani et al 2011). As survey response rates continue to decline, how-ever, increasing their cost and bias (Stopher 2008, qtd. in Simon 2010), AFc data (supplemented in many cases by AVL data) have been shown to provide similar od information at larger scales and at lower cost (Park et al 2008). A similar approach can be taken for rail networks requiring both exit and entry transactions, since AFc transactions can be associated by card number (Gordillo 2006, Chan 2007).

2 AFc systems, which read magnetic-stripe or rFId “smart” cards containing transit passes or credit, were designed to streamline fare collection. AVL systems track vehicle locations for the onboard announcement of stop information and to provide control centers with real-time fleet-management capability. APc systems track aggregate boardings and alightings but are not directly linked to specific passengers or origin–destination pairs.

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1.1.1 Full Journeys and Intermodal Travel

In addition to relating entry and exit records, AFc data can be used to as-sociate all of a cardholder’s daily transactions, enabling transit providers to more easily discern interchanges from activities in order to infer cus-tomers’ true origins and destinations. While analysis of the resultant full journeys and daily travel histories can provide valuable information for transport planners and operators, interchanges themselves are worthy of study because of their influence on customers’ travel decisions (Wardman and Hine 2000, Hine and Scott 2000, Guo et al 2007, Eom et al 2011) and their role in enabling intermodal travel (Institute of Logistics and Trans-port 2000, Seaborn et al 2009, TransTrans-port for London 2002 & 2009).

The acceptance of AFc cards on multiple modes allows for the obser-vation of intermodal transit journeys, which are becoming increasingly important to transit providers and policy makers as a means of improving mobility through the elimination of barriers to cross-modal travel. De-scribing London’s public transport strategy at the turn of the twenty-first century, then-mayor Ken Livingstone argued that “[modal] integration is not just about making the public transport network more attractive to existing and potential passengers, it is also about how the transport sys-tem can contribute to the achievement of broader economic, social, and environmental objectives” (Transport for London 2001). The economic benefits of increased mobility are supported by the work of Krizek (2003) and by Anas (2007), who notes that time savings from chained trips tend to be reinvested in additional travel and activities, yielding an overall in-crease in utility. London’s exceptionally large, dense transit network and the acceptance of the Oyster smart card on the region’s several historically independent but now unified transit modes provides a valuable opportu-nity for intermodal integration and its monitoring through automatically collected data.

1.1.2 The State of the Art

Several scholars and practitioners have advanced the application of auto-matically collected transit data in the past decade. Building upon earlier work, Chu and Chapleau (2008) infer full passenger journeys for a bus network, then analyze multiple days of AFc data to estimate general activ-ity types for cardholders’ recurrent journeys (2010). Farzin (2008)

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auto-mates the majority of the destination-inference process on a portion of a large bus network and constructs a zonally aggregated od matrix. Mu-nizaga et al (2011) automate the inference of origins and destinations for a large multi-modal network and, using a simple interchange-inference algorithm, construct a full-journey origin–destination matrix for AFc cardholders.

The synthesis and refinement of previous research, coupled with more robust and efficient processing algorithms, holds promise for the prospect of implementing passenger-centric data analysis in ways that can be ap-plied by transit operators on a daily basis.

1.1.3 Application to London

Utsunomiya et al (2006) conclude that the market penetration of AFc cards is critical to the accuracy of passenger-centric analyses. With penetration rates of over 90 percent on buses and 80 percent on the London Under-ground system, Oyster’s six million daily bus boardings and five million station entries provide an exceptionally large sample from one of the world’s foremost transit networks. Transport for London (TfL), the trans-portation agency for the Greater London metropolitan area, oversees the city’s transit system and maintains complete databases of recent AFc, AVL, and ancillary transit data. TfL’s data have been used to construct od ma-trices for the gated Underground system (Gordillo 2006, Chan 2007), one of its ungated light rail systems (Henderson 2010), and for individual bus routes (Wang et al 2011). The data have also been used to track service reli-ability and to inform service-planning proposals (Chan 2007, Uniman et al 2010, Ehrlich 2010, Frumin 2010).

TfL’s data sources have recently been used to assess the impacts of new capital projects (Ng 2011, Muhs 2012), fare policy changes ( Jain 2011), and service-reliability metrics (Schil 2012).3 The incorporation of previous London research with methodologies from other case studies presents an opportunity to extend traditional analyses to the observation of travel patterns before and after the introduction of new (or the alteration of existing) public transport services in London. And by developing an ef-ficient and flexible way to repeat and extend such analyses, TfL can be

3 Muhs (2012) and Schil (2012) used the tools and algorithms developed in this thesis for part of their analyses.

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equipped to internally analyze rider behavior during upcoming events such as the city’s hosting of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games and the launch of Crossrail service later in the decade.

1.2 obJectIVes

This research tests the hypothesis that a flow matrix of full intermodal passenger journeys can be estimated flexibly and efficiently using entire populations of automatically collected data from a large public transit network, in a way that can be performed by a transit provider on a daily basis. More specifically, this thesis seeks to fulfill the following objectives:

· Infer boarding and alighting locations and times for bus journey stages. Bus AFc transactions typically include service information and boarding times but lack spatial information, while alighting information is not recorded at all. Error-correction algorithms should be applied to ensure the highest possible origin- and destination-inference rates.

· Infer interchanges between journey stages of any AFC-enabled mode. Infer terchanges as accurately as possible, taking into account observed or in-ferred access and egress distances, observed bus headways, path circuity, and transfer time.

· Generate an intermodal full-journey origin–interchange–destination matrix cover-ing all modes in the transit network for which data are available. Generate counts of each unique itinerary observed to have been taken by one (or more)

passengers, where itinerary is defined as a unique combination of origin,

destination, and transfer locations. Expansion factors, which are used to scale itinerary flows to account for unobserved travelers, should be esti-mated in such a way that the counts of their constituent journey stages satisfy the various control totals that are available for each transit mode.

· Conduct all inference and expansion processes at the finest possible level of disag-gregation. Doing so will afford downstream processing and reporting tools the flexibility to choose a level of aggregation appropriate for a given task.

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· Allow parameters to be adjusted at runtime. Bagchi and White (2003, 2004) note the importance of calibrating the parameters of rule-based processes in accordance with empirical observations or surveys, while Timmermans et al (2002) show that travel parameters vary across networks and societies. Parameters should be adjustable by the user and should not be embedded in code.

· Streamline the processing tools so that they can be run on a daily basis. Tools should be able to complete their processing overnight, and should ideally run in less than 30 minutes so that users can more easily experiment with differ-ent parameter values.

· Demonstrate applications. Applications of each process should be demon-strated (e.g., bus journey stages, full journeys, and the expanded od ma-trix), from both the operational and passenger perspectives, and at various levels of aggregation.

1.3 thesIs orgAnIzAtIon

The methods developed in this thesis can be grouped into three catego-ries: bus origin and destination inference, interchange inference, and full-journey matrix expansion. Since each category has a distinct method-ological background, each is presented in its own chapter. Following an overview of London’s public transport system and operations in Chapter 2, the three phases of the problem are presented in chapters 3, 4, and 5, with each including a review of the relevant literature and a discussion of their validation and results. The technical implementation of the meth-ods is discussed in Chapter 6 followed by a demonstration of applications in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 reflects on the study’s findings and presents its conclusions and recommendations.

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Public Transport in London

The methods presented in this thesis were developed and tested using data from London’s public transport network. This chapter describes the network’s structure and services, and introduces the data sources used to conduct this research.

2.1 London’s PubLIc trAnsPort network

London’s transit network is planned and managed—and partially oper-ated—by Transport for London (TfL), a government body serving the Greater London metropolitan area and led by a 17-member board ap-pointed and chaired by the Mayor of London (Transport for London 2011). TfL oversees most transportation services in Greater London, in-cluding public transport, taxis, street management (inin-cluding congestion charging in the city center), river services, bicycle sharing, and paratransit.

2.1.1 London Buses

London Buses, a subgroup of TfL’s Surface division, plans and man-ages the metropolitan area’s network of over 800 routes and 21,000 stops, which provide roughly six million passenger trips daily. London’s fleet of

over 8,500 iconic red double-decker (and single-deck) buses is operated by private companies, who bid for contracts awarded by the agency (Trans-port for London 2011, 2012).

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Bus riders are charged a flat fare, regardless of travel location or time of day (although some riders are eligible for discounts). Fares can be paid in cash on board (or compulsorily at roadside ticket-vending machines at some Central London bus stops) or riders can tap their Oyster cards upon boarding, to deduct credit or validate travel passes stored on the card.

2.1.2 The London Underground

The Underground, or Tube, is London’s metro system, offering high

fre-quency service on 11 lines, several of which include multiple branches (see figures 2-1 and 2-2).1 Underground fares are assessed according to the geographic travel zone of the rider’s starting and ending locations (Figure 2-1), requiring users to validate their fare instruments upon both entry

and exit.

The Underground system often operates at capacity during peak hours, and relieving this congestion is a major goal of many of TfL’s fare policies and capital projects. Higher fares are charged during peak periods to incentivize off-peak travel, while recent and current projects such as the East London Line Extension and Crossrail were designed in part to provide alternatives to Underground service at key bottlenecks.

2.1.3 National Rail

National Rail is the collective brand name of the Association of Train Operating Companies (Atoc), a group of 24 private firms that provide commuter and intercity rail services throughout Great Britain. Several National Rail lines serve London, but all terminate outside (or slightly within) the bounds of the Circle Line, the quasi-orbital Underground line that loosely defines the city’s center (see Figure 2-3). Much of the conges-tion on the Underground is due to passengers transferring between Na-tional Rail and the Tube during peak periods, and stations serving both Underground and National Rail lines exhibit some of the highest

passen-ger volumes in London.

1 Although the term Tube originally referred to the seven deep-bore rail lines drilled into the earth (thus exhibiting the cylindrical tunnels and passageways that inspired the nick-name), the term is now typically applied to both the deep-bore lines and the four “subsur-face” lines, which were excavated directly from the streets above using the “cut-and-cover” technique.

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2.1.4 London Rail

In addition to the Underground, TfL provides rail service on the London Overground, Docklands Light Railway (dLr), and Tramlink. All three systems are planned and managed by TfL’s London Rail group, which also liaises with Atoc to coordinate National Rail services within Greater London (Transport for London 2011).

The Overground system comprises a series of rail lines primarily in travel zones two through four, which are being developed into a subur-ban orbital network encircling most of the Underground system. Some tracks are shared with National Rail and freight services, and many sta-tions were acquired from National Rail.2

The Docklands Light Railway is a driverless system operating on ded-icated rights of way in the redeveloped Docklands area, one of Greater London’s three primary commercial cores. dLr services connect with Un-derground and Overground lines in East London, and one branch extends into another commercial core in the City of London.

The Tramlink system consists of three light rail lines serving Croydon, the southernmost borough in Greater London. Tramlink connects with Underground and National Rail services and, with the opening of the

extended East London Line, the Overground network. 2.2 dAtA sources

2.2.1 Oyster

The Oyster card is accepted on most TfL transport modes and typically registers 16 million transactions daily, or roughly 10 million passenger trips. Oyster use is incentivized by reduced fares, designed to increase passenger throughput by streamlining fare validation at station gates and bus fareboxes.

2 A notable exception is the East London Line, a former Underground service that was ex-tended along a combination of disused above-grade rail viaducts and newly acquired rights of way (Ng 2011, Muhs 2012).

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SPECIAL FARES APPLY

Oyster PAYG and Travelcards are not valid on Heathrow Connect

between Hayes & Harlington and Heathrow Airport or on Heathrow Express.

SPECIAL FARES APPLY

Oyster PAYG and Travelcards are not valid on Southeastern high speed. For details, visit southeasternrailway.co.uk Renamed Coulsdon Town on 12th April. 1 ZONE 1 ZONE 3 ZONE 3 ZONE 5 ZONE 2 ZONE 2 ZONE 4 ZONE 4 ZONE 6 ZONE 5 ZONE 6 ZONE ZONE 2 ZONE 2 ZONE 3 ZONE 3 ZONE 4 ZONE 4 ZONE 5 ZONE 5 ZONE 6 8 ZONE 8 ZONE 8 ZONE 7 ZONE 7 ZONE 9 ZONE ZONE 6 River Thames River Thames Chigwell Roding Valley Grange Hill Turkey Street Enfield Lock

Crews Hill Gordon Hill Enfield Chase Grange Park Winchmore Hill Palmers Green Bowes Park Southbury Brimsdown Ponders End Amersham Chalfont & Latimer Rayners Lane Greenford Piccadilly Circus Brixton Herne Hill Tottenham Court Road Bow Road Bow Church Wood Lane Harrow-on-the-Hill Ealing Broadway Northwick Park Northolt Park Wembley Stadium Brondesbury Park Edgware Road

Plaistow UptonPark East Ham

Emerson Park Preston

Road Wembley Park

Farringdon Baker Street Gospel Oak Notting Hill Gate High Street Kensington Goodge Street Chorleywood Rickmansworth South Harrow Hanger Lane West Ruislip Bushey

Harrow & Wealdstone

Wembley Central Watford Junction South Ruislip Heathrow Terminals 1, 2, 3 Sudbury Hill Ealing Common Balham Clapham High Street

Wimbledon Clapham North Hammersmith Watford Croxley Moor Park Ruislip Manor Eastcote Perivale Ruislip Northwood Northwood Hills Pinner North Harrow Kilburn Park Maida Vale Warwick Avenue Warren Street Hillingdon Uxbridge Ickenham Ruislip Gardens Northolt

Castle Bar Park South Greenford Drayton Green West Harrow Kensal Rise Upper Holloway Caledonian Road & Barnsbury South Tottenham Bethnal Green Shoreditch High Street Hoxton Rotherhithe Wapping Surrey Quays Haggerston Kilburn

High Road HampsteadSouth Brondesbury Sudbury &

Harrow Road

Kensal Green Finchley Road

Kentish Town West Hampstead Queen’s Park Euston Square Barbican Sudbury Town Alperton Park Royal North Ealing Goldhawk Road Watford High Street Carpenders Park Hatch End

Headstone Lane Stanmore Canons Park Queensbury Kingsbury

High Barnet Totteridge & Whetstone Woodside Park West Finchley Cockfosters Oakwood Southgate Arnos Grove Bounds Green Finchley Central East Finchley Highgate Archway Tufnell Park Camden Town Alexandra Palace Hornsey Bruce Grove White Hart Lane Silver Street Edmonton Green Bush Hill Park Enfield Town Harringay Hadley Wood New Barnet Oakleigh Park Hendon Kenton South Kenton North Wembley Stonebridge Park Harlesden Parsons Green Pimlico Putney Bridge Battersea Park East Putney Southfields Wimbledon Park Shepherd’s Bush Market Chiswick

Park TurnhamGreen StamfordBrook

Whitton Kingston Mortlake Haydons Road Putney Wandsworth Town Ravenscourt

Park KensingtonWest St. James’sPark

Southwark Canada Water

Bermondsey Maze Hill Charlton South Ealing Feltham North Sheen Barnes Chiswick Barnes Bridge Ewell West Wandsworth Common Wandsworth Road Selhurst Norbury Kew Bridge Fulwell Norbiton n o t p m a H Hampton Wick Teddington Carshalton Beeches Eltham New Eltham Sidcup Bexley Therapia Lane AmpereWay

West Norwood Centrale Church Street Sandilands Avenue Road Shortlands Bromley South Beckenham Road Wellesley Road Waddon Wallington Beddington

Lane WaddonMarsh Streatham

Hill Gipsy Hill West

Dulwich SydenhamHill

Reeves Corner Lebanon Road George Street d a e h n u N ll i H k r a m n e D Thames Ditton Hampton Court Sloane Square Boston Manor Osterley Northfields Hounslow East Hounslow Central Hounslow West Hatton Cross Isleworth Heathrow Terminal 4 Twickenham St. Margarets Syon Lane Brentford

Hyde Park Corner

Temple Oval Knightsbridge Heathrow Terminal 5 Southall Hayes & Harlington West

Drayton Hanwell EalingWest

Acton Main Line Acton Town Acton Central East

Acton Queensway MarbleArch Bond Street Aldgate East Green Park Blackfriars Oxford Circus Canary Wharf Holborn South Acton Clapham Common Kennington Borough

Clapham South East Dulwich North Dulwich Tooting Bec Tooting Broadway Colliers Wood West Acton North Acton Holland Park Lancaster Gate Barons

Court GloucesterRoad

Chancery Lane Mansion House Shepherd’s Bush Latimer Road Finchley Road & Frognal Essex Road Westbourne Park Ladbroke Grove Royal Oak South Kensington Richmond Earl’s Court Dollis Hill Willesden Green Kilburn Neasden Brent Cross Hendon Central Hampstead Hampstead Heath Kentish Town West Walthamstow Queen’s Road Leyton Midland Road Camden Road Golders Green

Elstree & Borehamwood

Mill Hill Broadway

Cricklewood

Swiss Cottage

Bayswater

Hounslow

Kew Gardens

Gunnersbury FulhamBroadway

Strawberry Hill Worcester Park South Wimbledon Dundonald Road Streatham Tulse Hill Caterham Upper Warlingham Whyteleafe South Whyteleafe Kenley Stoneleigh Belmont Banstead Carshalton Hackbridge Epsom Downs Tadworth Kingswood Tattenham Corner St. John’s Wood Mornington Crescent Covent Garden Russell Square London Fields Clapton Leytonstone St. James Street Cambridge Heath Bethnal Green Stepney Green Whitechapel North Greenwich for The O2 Pudding Mill Lane Leicester Square Bank St. Paul’s Angel Westferry Westcombe

Park WoolwichDockyard

Abbey Wood Plumstead Deptford Blackheath Kidbrooke Welling Falconwood Barnehurst Bexleyheath Mottingham Lee y a r C y r a M . t S y e l k c i B Albany d r o f y a r C k r a P Blackwall Shadwell Royal Victoria Custom Housefor ExCeL Arsenal Ilford Manor Park Seven Kings Goodmayes Chadwell Heath Ockendon Chafford Hundred Lakeside Gidea Park Harold Wood Upney Becontree Dagenham Heathway Dagenham East Elm Park Hornchurch Upminster Bridge Buckhurst Hill Leyton Loughton Debden Theydon Bois Epping Hackney Downs Holloway Road Caledonian Road Turnpike Lane Manor House Wood Green Chingford Highams Park Wood Street Angel Road Harringay Green Lanes

Crouch Hill WalthamstowCentral

Old Street Stratford Mile End Devons Road Deptford Bridge Elverson Road Langdon Park All Saints Bromley by-Bow Hackney Central Canonbury KingslandDalston

Dalston Junction Homerton Hackney Wick Tottenham Hale Seven Sisters Northumberland Park Redbridge Snaresbrook South Woodford Woodford Newbury Park Barkingside Fairlop Hainault Leytonstone High Road Wanstead Park Woodgrange Park Prince Regent Royal Albert Beckton Park Cyprus Gallions Reach Erith Slade Green Belvedere St. Johns New Cross Bellingham Beckenham Hill Hither Green Elmstead Woods Chislehurst Penge East Kent House Beckton Barking Maryland Forest Gate Dagenham

Dock Rainham Purfleet Grays

East India Upminster Romford Anerley Penge West Lower Sydenham Mitcham Eastfields Raynes Park New Malden Cheam Purley Oaks Berrylands Surbiton Earlsfield Queenstown Road (Battersea) Euston Moorgate St. Pancras Inter-national Fenchurch Street King’s Cross Liverpool Street Marylebone Victoria Waterloo and Waterloo East Ewell East Morden Brockley New Cross Gate South Bermondsey

Honor Oak Park Forest Hill Sydenham Elephant & Castle

Stockwell Vauxhall Mitcham Junction Morden Road Phipps Bridge Belgrave Walk Mitcham

Riddlesdown New Addington King Henry’s Drive Addington Village Coombe Lane Sanderstead Wandle Park Thornton Heath Streatham Common Great Portland Street White City Kensington (Olympia) West India Quay

London City Airport King George V South Quay Crossharbour Heron Quays Mudchute Island Gardens

Cutty Sark for Maritime Greenwich Ladywell Bromley North Sundridge Park Poplar West Silvertown Emirates Royal Docks Emirates Greenwich Peninsula Pontoon Dock Crofton Park Petts Wood Chelsfield Knockholt Ravensbourne Cannon Street Fieldway Gravel Hill Lloyd Park Addiscombe Blackhorse Lane Woodside Arena Harrington Road Clock House New Beckenham Eden Park West Wickham Hayes Elmers End Stamford Hill Rectory Road Stoke Newington Regent’s Park Drayton Park Lambeth North

Wanstead Gants Hill

City Thameslink Aldgate Edgware Road Monument Tower Gateway Westminster Embankment Finsbury Park Limehouse Blackhorse Road Canning Town Charing Cross London Bridge Peckham Rye West Ham Chesham Tooting Wimbledon Chase Paddington Greenwich West Brompton Imperial Wharf Clapham Junction Crystal Palace m a h n e k c e B k c e b k r i B Junction Woolwich Arsenal Lewisham

Catford Catford Bridge

Orpington Chessington South Chessington North Tolworth Malden Manor Motspur Park South Merton Morden South St. Helier Sutton Common West Sutton Grove Park Purley Edgware Burnt Oak Colindale Belsize Park

Mill Hill East

Chalk Farm New Southgate Sudbury Hill Harrow Willesden Junction Sutton Highbury & Islington Merton Park

Queen’s Road Peckham Loughborough Junction Tower Hill Stratford International Norwood Junction East Croydon South Croydon West Croydon m a h d e e R e n r e t s n a m d o o W Coulsdon Town Chipstead Coulsdon South Star Lane Abbey Road Stratford High Street Towards Ebbsfleet International Towards Shenfield and Southend Airport Towards Southend and Shoeburyness Towards

Hemel Hempstead TowardsLuton Airport Parkway Welwyn Garden CityTowards Towards Hertford North TowardsCheshunt TowardsCheshunt, Hertford East and Stansted Airport

Towards High Wycombe Towards Aylesbury Towards Dartford and Gravesend Towards Southend Towards Swanley and Sevenoaks Towards Sevenoaks Towards Guildford Towards Epsom and

Dorking Gatwick AirportTowards Towards East Grinsteadand Uckfield Towards Woking and Guildford Towards Slough Towards Staines Towards Shepperton Bakerloo Central Circle District Hammersmith & City Jubilee Metropolitan Northern Piccadilly Victoria Waterloo & City Docklands Light Railway London Overground London Tramlink Emirates Air Line Chiltern Railways c2c First Capital Connect First Great Western Greater Anglia Heathrow Connect Heathrow Express London Midland Southern Southeastern Southeastern high speed South West Trains Interchange stations Airport Riverboat services Emirates Air Line (opening summer 2012) Station in both fare zones Tramlink fare zone Emirates Air Line fare zone

Archway

limited service

limited service

limited service limited service

SPECIAL FARES APPLY

Oyster PAYG and Travelcards are not valid on Heathrow Connect

between Hayes & Harlington and Heathrow Airport or on Heathrow Express.

SPECIAL FARES APPLY

Oyster PAYG and Travelcards are not valid on Southeastern

high speed. For details, visit southeasternrailway.co.uk Renamed Coulsdon Town on 12th April.

1

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River Thames River Thames Chigwell Roding Valley Grange Hill

Turkey Street Enfield Lock

Crews Hill Gordon Hill Enfield Chase Grange Park Winchmore Hill Palmers Green Bowes Park Southbury Brimsdown Ponders End Amersham Chalfont & Latimer Rayners Lane Greenford Piccadilly Circus Brixton Herne Hill Tottenham Court Road Bow Road Bow Church Wood Lane Harrow-on-the-Hill Ealing Broadway Northwick Park Northolt Park Wembley Stadium Brondesbury Park Edgware Road

Plaistow UptonPark East Ham

Emerson Park Preston

Road Wembley Park

Farringdon Baker Street Gospel Oak Notting Hill Gate High Street Kensington Goodge Street Chorleywood Rickmansworth South Harrow Hanger Lane West Ruislip Bushey

Harrow & Wealdstone

Wembley Central Watford Junction South Ruislip Heathrow Terminals 1, 2, 3 Sudbury Hill Ealing Common Balham Clapham High Street

Wimbledon Clapham North Hammersmith Watford Croxley Moor Park Ruislip Manor Eastcote Perivale Ruislip Northwood Northwood Hills Pinner North Harrow Kilburn Park Maida Vale Warwick Avenue Warren Street Hillingdon Uxbridge Ickenham Ruislip Gardens Northolt

Castle Bar Park South Greenford Drayton Green West Harrow Kensal Rise Upper Holloway Caledonian Road & Barnsbury South Tottenham Bethnal Green Shoreditch High Street Hoxton Rotherhithe Wapping Surrey Quays Haggerston Kilburn

High Road HampsteadSouth Brondesbury Sudbury &

Harrow Road

Kensal Green Finchley Road

Kentish Town West Hampstead Queen’s Park Euston Square Barbican Sudbury Town Alperton Park Royal North Ealing Goldhawk Road Watford High Street

Carpenders Park Hatch End

Headstone Lane Stanmore

Canons Park Queensbury Kingsbury

High Barnet Totteridge & Whetstone

Woodside Park West Finchley Cockfosters Oakwood Southgate Arnos Grove Bounds Green Finchley Central East Finchley Highgate Archway Tufnell Park Camden Town Alexandra Palace Hornsey Bruce Grove White Hart Lane Silver Street Edmonton Green Bush Hill Park Enfield Town Harringay Hadley Wood New Barnet Oakleigh Park Hendon Kenton South Kenton North Wembley Stonebridge Park Harlesden Parsons Green Pimlico Putney Bridge Battersea Park East Putney Southfields Wimbledon Park Shepherd’s Bush Market Chiswick

Park TurnhamGreen StamfordBrook

Whitton Kingston Mortlake Haydons Road Putney Wandsworth Town Ravenscourt

Park KensingtonWest St. James’sPark

Southwark Canada Water

Bermondsey Maze Hill Charlton South Ealing Feltham North Sheen Barnes Chiswick Barnes Bridge Ewell West Wandsworth Common Wandsworth Road Selhurst Norbury Kew Bridge Fulwell Norbiton n o t p m a H Hampton Wick Teddington Carshalton Beeches Eltham New Eltham Sidcup Bexley Therapia Lane AmpereWay

West Norwood Centrale Church Street Sandilands Avenue Road Shortlands Bromley South Beckenham Road Wellesley Road Waddon Wallington Beddington

Lane WaddonMarsh

Streatham

Hill Gipsy Hill

West

Dulwich SydenhamHill

Reeves Corner Lebanon Road George Street d a e h n u N ll i H k r a m n e D Thames Ditton Hampton Court Sloane Square Boston Manor Osterley Northfields Hounslow East Hounslow Central Hounslow West Hatton Cross Isleworth Heathrow Terminal 4 Twickenham St. Margarets Syon Lane Brentford

Hyde Park Corner

Temple Oval Knightsbridge Heathrow Terminal 5 Southall Hayes & Harlington West

Drayton Hanwell EalingWest

Acton Main Line Acton Town Acton Central East

Acton Queensway MarbleArch

Bond Street Aldgate East Green Park Blackfriars Oxford Circus Canary Wharf Holborn South Acton Clapham Common Kennington Borough

Clapham South East Dulwich

North Dulwich Tooting Bec Tooting Broadway Colliers Wood West Acton North Acton Holland Park Lancaster Gate Barons

Court GloucesterRoad

Chancery Lane Mansion House Shepherd’s Bush Latimer Road Finchley Road & Frognal Essex Road Westbourne Park Ladbroke Grove Royal Oak South Kensington Richmond Earl’s Court Dollis Hill Willesden Green Kilburn Neasden Brent Cross Hendon Central Hampstead Hampstead Heath Kentish Town West Walthamstow Queen’s Road Leyton Midland Road Camden Road Golders Green

Elstree & Borehamwood

Mill Hill Broadway

Cricklewood

Swiss Cottage

Bayswater

Hounslow

Kew Gardens

Gunnersbury FulhamBroadway

Strawberry Hill Worcester Park South Wimbledon Dundonald Road Streatham Tulse Hill Upper Warlingham Whyteleafe Kenley Stoneleigh Belmont Banstead Carshalton Hackbridge Kingswood St. John’s Wood Mornington Crescent Covent Garden Russell Square London Fields Clapton Leytonstone St. James Street Cambridge Heath Bethnal Green Stepney Green Whitechapel North Greenwich for The O2 Pudding Mill Lane Leicester Square Bank St. Paul’s Angel Westferry Westcombe

Park WoolwichDockyard

Abbey Wood Plumstead Deptford Blackheath Kidbrooke Welling Falconwood Barnehurst Bexleyheath Mottingham Lee y a r C y r a M . t S y e l k c i B Albany d r o f y a r C k r a P Blackwall

Shadwell VictoriaRoyal Custom Housefor ExCeL

Arsenal Ilford Manor Park Seven Kings Goodmayes Chadwell Heath Ockendon Chafford Hundred Lakeside Gidea Park Harold Wood Upney Becontree Dagenham Heathway Dagenham East Elm Park Hornchurch Upminster Bridge Buckhurst Hill Leyton Loughton Debden Theydon Bois Epping Hackney Downs Holloway Road Caledonian Road Turnpike Lane Manor House Wood Green Chingford Highams Park Wood Street Angel Road Harringay Green Lanes

Crouch Hill WalthamstowCentral

Old Street Stratford Mile End Devons Road Deptford Bridge Elverson Road Langdon Park All Saints Bromley by-Bow Hackney Central Canonbury KingslandDalston

Dalston Junction Homerton Hackney Wick Tottenham Hale Seven Sisters Northumberland Park Redbridge Snaresbrook South Woodford Woodford Newbury Park Barkingside Fairlop Hainault Leytonstone High Road Wanstead Park Woodgrange Park Prince Regent Royal Albert Beckton Park Cyprus Gallions Reach Erith Slade Green Belvedere St. Johns New Cross Bellingham Beckenham Hill Hither Green Elmstead Woods Chislehurst Penge East Kent House Beckton Barking Maryland Forest Gate Dagenham

Dock Rainham Purfleet Grays

East India Upminster Romford Anerley Penge West Lower Sydenham Mitcham Eastfields Raynes Park New Malden Cheam Purley Oaks Berrylands Surbiton Earlsfield Queenstown Road (Battersea) Euston Moorgate St. Pancras Inter-national Fenchurch Street King’s Cross Liverpool Street Marylebone Victoria Waterloo and Waterloo East Ewell East Morden Brockley New Cross Gate South Bermondsey

Honor Oak Park Forest Hill Sydenham Elephant & Castle

Stockwell Vauxhall Mitcham Junction Morden Road Phipps Bridge Belgrave Walk Mitcham

Riddlesdown New Addington

King Henry’s Drive Addington Village Coombe Lane Sanderstead Wandle Park Thornton Heath Streatham Common Great Portland Street White City Kensington (Olympia) West India Quay

London City Airport

King George V South Quay Crossharbour Heron Quays Mudchute Island Gardens

Cutty Sark for Maritime Greenwich Ladywell Bromley North Sundridge Park Poplar West Silvertown Emirates Royal Docks Emirates Greenwich Peninsula Pontoon Dock Crofton Park Petts Wood Chelsfield Knockholt Ravensbourne Cannon Street Fieldway Gravel Hill Lloyd Park Addiscombe Blackhorse Lane Woodside Arena Harrington Road Clock House New Beckenham Eden Park West Wickham Hayes Elmers End Stamford Hill Rectory Road Stoke Newington Regent’s Park Drayton Park Lambeth North

Wanstead Gants Hill

City Thameslink Aldgate Edgware Road Monument Tower Gateway Westminster Embankment Finsbury Park Limehouse Blackhorse Road Canning Town Charing Cross London Bridge Peckham Rye West Ham Chesham Tooting Wimbledon Chase Paddington Greenwich West Brompton Imperial Wharf Clapham Junction Crystal Palace m a h n e k c e B k c e b k r i B Junction Woolwich Arsenal Lewisham

Catford Catford Bridge

Orpington Chessington South Chessington North Tolworth Malden Manor Motspur Park South Merton Morden South St. Helier Sutton Common West Sutton Grove Park Purley Edgware Burnt Oak Colindale Belsize Park

Mill Hill East

Chalk Farm New Southgate Sudbury Hill Harrow Willesden Junction Sutton Highbury & Islington Merton Park

Queen’s Road Peckham

Loughborough Junction Tower Hill Stratford International Norwood Junction East Croydon South Croydon West Croydon m a h d e e R e n r e t s n a m d o o W Coulsdon Town Chipstead Star Lane Abbey Road Stratford High Street Towards Ebbsfleet International Towards Shenfield and Southend Airport Towards Southend and Shoeburyness Towards

Hemel Hempstead TowardsLuton Airport Parkway Welwyn Garden CityTowards Towards Hertford North TowardsCheshunt TowardsCheshunt, Hertford East and Stansted Airport

Towards High Wycombe Towards Aylesbury Towards Dartford and Gravesend Towards Southend Towards Swanley and Sevenoaks Towards Sevenoaks Towards Guildford Towards Woking and Guildford Towards Slough Towards Staines Towards Shepperton Bakerloo Central Circle District Hammersmith & City Jubilee Metropolitan Northern Piccadilly Victoria Waterloo & City Docklands Light Railway London Overground London Tramlink Emirates Air Line Chiltern Railways c2c

First Capital Connect First Great Western Greater Anglia Heathrow Connect Heathrow Express London Midland Southern Southeastern Southeastern high speed South West Trains Interchange stations Airport Riverboat services Emirates Air Line

(opening summer 2012)

Station in both fare zones Tramlink fare zone Emirates Air Line fare zone

Archway

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limited service

limited service limited service

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HI LL I N GD O N H A R R O W E A L I N G B R E N T B A R N E T H A R I N G E Y E N F I E L D W A L T H A M F O R E S T R E D B R I D G E H A V E R I N G N E W H A M W E S T M I N S T E R HO U N S L O W S U T T O N M E R T O N C R O Y D O N L A M B E T H S O UT H WA RK T O W E R H A M L E T S H A C K N E Y I S L I N G T O N C A M D E N W A N D S W O R T H L E W I S H A M B R O M L E Y BE XL EY G R E E N W I C H K I N G S T O N U P O N T H A M E S R I C H M O N D U P O N T H A M E S B A R K I N G A N D D A G E N H A M BU CK IN GH AM SH I R E S L O U GH W I N D S O R H E R TF O R D S H I R E E S S E X KE NT S U R R E Y A ND M A ID E N H EA D E P S O M A N D E W E L L K E N S I N G T O N A N D C H E L S E A H A M M E SM I T H A N D F U LH A M Chiltern Railways Aylesbury Rive rTh ames RiverTha mes River Thames Riv er Tham es Trent Park Country Park Wrotham Park Aldenham Park Bentley Priory Open Space Elstree

Open Space Moat Mount

Open Space Cassiobury Park Grove Park Hyde Park Regent’s Park Battersea Park Wimbledon Common Richmond Park Royal Botanic Gardens Syon Park Bushy Park Hampton Court Mitcham Common Hampstead Heath Wormwood Scrubs Clapham Common Greenwich Park Victoria Park Hackney Marsh Wanstead Flats Wanstead Park Epping Forest Epping Forest Hainault Forest Country Park Eastbrookend Country Park Hornchurch Country Park Weald Country Park Lee Valley Country Park Kensington Gardens A413 A404 A404 M25 A411 A41 M1 A41 A5 A411 A411 A1 A411 A1081 A1000 A1(M) A111 M25 A1005 M25 A10 A1010 A1055 A121 A112 A121 A104 M25 A121 M11 A113 M25 A12 M25 A 128 A127 A127 A118 A12 A12 A118 A125 A12 A124 A124 A1083 A1112 A118 21 11 A A12 A1083 A118 A123 A124 A1400 A123 A406 A124 A123 A118 A12 A112 A11 A106 A1199 A406 A406 A1006 A503 A104 A107 01 A A503 A105 A103A1201 A103 A105 A1080 01A A406 A504 A1003 00 01 A A504 A1 A564 A504 M1 A41 A1 A5 A41 A4140 A410 A4140 A410 A409 A404 A404 A4125 A404 A4180 A404 A412 M25 A412 A40 M40 A40 A4020 A40 A312 A4090 A312 A404 A4005 A4127 A409 A404 A4006 A4140 A4006 A407 A406 A5 A407 A41 A41 A502 A598 A502 A1 01 A A1200 A106 A1205 A1208 A13 A100 A200 A1203 A1206 60 21 A A1020 A102 A13 A112 A124 A117 A406 A1020 A13 A1306 A125 A13 A1306 M25 A124 A13 52 M 60 2 A A220 A2016 A206 A2041 A209 A2016 A205 A207 A102 A207 A2 A206 A2 A2 A200 A202 A215 A3 32 A A3 A215 A205 A3220 A3220 A219 A306 A205 A316 A4 M4 A315 A4 A4127 50 03 A M4 A312 A4 A408 A3044 M4 A408 A4 A3044 A437 M25 M4 M4 A30 A308 A316 A312 A244 A315 A30 A313 A312 A307 A23 A214 A205 A205 A21 A20 A205 A20 A2 122 A A207 A2 M25 A2 A2 A225 M25 A20 A20 A222 A222 A21 A214 A215 A214 A23 A23 A214 A217 A24 A219 A298 A217 A24 A218 A3 A2043 A3 A238 A308 A240 A307 A308 A3050 A311 A308 A244 M3 M3 M25 A30 A30 M3 M25 A317 A244 A307 A243 A3 A240 A2043 A24 A2043 A232 A217 A217 A232 A232 A2022 A23 53 2 A A212 A232 A2022 A232 A2022 A232 A233 A21 A21 A232 A21 M25 M26 A233 A22 A23 A240 A24 M25 A245 A245 M25 A3 M25 M1 A5 M25 A110 A110 A111 A109 A5109 A111 A105 A105 A110 A10 A1010 A1055 A1037 A110 A112 A1009 A1009 A1010 A1069 A1112 M11 A1112 M11 A104 A406 A411 M1 A1 A312 A312 72 14 A A4020 A437 A4020 A408 M25 A412 A355 A4 A40 A4020 A40 A404 A406 A5 A4 A315 A3 A219 A2022 A240 A217 A2022 A237 A22 A2022 M20 A244 A243 A3 A307 A3 A245 M25 A319 M25 M20 Farringdon King’s Cross St. Pancras Barbican Moorgate Angel Liverpool Street Old Street Aldgate Euston Warren Street Mornington Crescent Goodge Street Russell Square Tottenham Court Road Leicester Square Holborn Charing Cross Piccadilly Circus Covent Garden Embankment Waterloo East Oxford Circus Baker Street Bond Street Marble Arch Lancaster Gate Great Portland Street Regent’s Park Paddington Edgware Road Edgware Road Marylebone Queensway Green Park Hyde Park Corner Knightsbridge Westminster St. James’s Park Victoria Monument Bank Chancery Lane St. Paul’s Temple Blackfriars Cannon Street Mansion House Southwark London Bridge Tower Hill Tower Gateway Aldgate East

Elephant & Castle Lambeth North Borough

Shadwell Heron Quays South Quay Crossharbour Mudchute Island Gardens Cutty Sark for Maritime Greenwich

Greenwich Deptford Bridge Elverson Road Limehouse Westferry Poplar West India QuayBlackwall

East India All Saints Devons Road Royal Victoria PrinceRegentRoyal

Albert BecktonPark Cyprus Gallions Reach Beckton St. John’s Wood Pudding Mill Lane Waterloo West Silvertown PontoonDock London City Airport King George V St. Pancras International Bayswater KilburnPark Royal Oak Warwick Avenue Maida Vale CamdenTown Bethnal Green Whitechapel North Greenwich Canary Wharf Bermondsey Wapping Rotherhithe Pimlico Kennington Earl’s Court Notting Hill Gate High Street Kensington Gloucester Road Sloane Square South Kensington Amersham Chesham Chalfont & Latimer Rickmansworth Croxley Chorleywood Watford Moor Park Totteridge & Whetstone High Barnet Oakwood Southgate Cockfosters Loughton Debden Buckhurst Hill Theydon Bois Epping Roding Valley Chigwell Grange Hill Hainault Fairlop Barkingside Snaresbrook South Woodford Woodford Walthamstow Central Blackhorse Road Tottenham Hale Seven Sisters Wood Green Turnpike Lane Highgate East Finchley Finchley Central Bounds Green Arnos Grove

Mill Hill East Woodside Park West Finchley Hendon Central Edgware Colindale Burnt Oak Brent Cross Kingsbury Canons Park Queensbury Stanmore Harrow & Wealdstone Kenton Northwick Park North Harrow Pinner Northwood Hills Northwood Ruislip Rayners Lane Ruislip Manor Eastcote West Ruislip Harrow-on-the-Hill West Harrow South Harrow Preston Road Sudbury Hill North Wembley South

Kenton Wembley Park

Willesden Green Dollis Hill Neasden Golders Green Hampstead Gospel Oak Archway Kilburn Finsbury Park Manor House Caledonian Road Holl oway Road Arsenal Tufnell Park Kentish Town Chalk Farm Belsize Park Finchley Road Swiss Cottage

Highbury & Islington

Leyton Leytonstone

Wanstead Redbridge GantsHill

Newbury Park Hornchurch Upminster Bridge Elm Park Upminster Upney Barking Dagenham Heathway Dagenham East Becontree Upton Park East Ham Plaistow West Ham Bromley-by-Bow Bow Road Mile End Stepney Green Stratford Kensal Green Willesden Junction Harlesden Queen’s Park North Acton Sudbury Town Wembley Central Stonebridge Park Alperton Greenford Perivale Hanger Lane Park Royal Ealing Broadway North Ealing West Acton Ealing Common South Ealing Northfields Boston Manor Turnham Green Gunnersbury Shepherd’sBush White City Ravenscourt Park Hammersmith Goldhawk Road Shepherd’s Bush Market Stamford Brook Chiswick Park East Acton Barons Court Holland Park Kensington (Olympia) West Kensington

Fulham Broa dway

Westbourne Park Ladbroke Grove Latimer Road Parsons Green West Brompton Putney Bridge Kew Gardens Richmond Osterley Hounslow East Hounslow Central Hounslow West Hatton Cross Heathrow Terminal 4 Heathrow Terminals 1, 2, 3 Heathrow Terminal 5 East Putney Wimbledon Park Southfields Balham Clapham South Tooting Bec Clapham North Clapham Common Stockwell Brixton Vauxhall Oval New Cross Gate Surrey Quays New Cross Woolwich Arsenal Tooting Broadway Colliers Wood Wimbledon Morden South Wimbledon South Ruislip Ruislip Gardens Ickenham Hillingdon Uxbridge Northolt Canada Water Bow Church West Hampstead Acton Town Euston Square Custom House for ExCeL Shoreditch High Street Hoxton Haggerston Dalston Junction Langdon Park Homerton Hackney Wick Hackney Central Dalston Kingsland Canonbury King’s Cross Star Lane Abbey Road Stratford High Street Wood Lane Imperial Wharf Cambridge Heath Bethnal Green Fenchurch St. City Thameslink Kilburn High Road Essex Road South Bermondsey Dundonald Road Morden Road Phipps Bridge Belgrave Walk Mitcham Beddington Lane

Therapia Lane Woodside

Arena Harrington Road Avenue Road Beckenham Road Addiscombe Blackhorse Lane Gravel Hill Coombe

Lane Addington Village

Fieldway New Addington King Henry’s Drive Waddon Marsh

Wandle ParkChurch Street Wellesley Road GeorgeStreet Reeves Corner Lebanon Road Sandilands Lloyd Park Chertsey Addlestone Weybridge Byfleet & New Haw West Byfleet Woking Walton-on-Thames Stone Crossing Greenhithe Swanscombe Northfleet Merton Park Watford Junction Watford High Street Carpenders Park Bushey Bricket Wood Garston Watford North Kings Langley How Wood Radlett

Elstree & Borehamwood

Hadley Wood Potters Bar Oakleigh Park New Barnet Crews Hill Gordon Hill Enfield Chase Grange Park Winchmore Hill Cuffley Edmonton Green Bush Hill Park Enfield Town Southbury Turkey Street Brimsdown Ponders End Enfield Lock Waltham Cross Theobalds Grove Cheshunt Chingford Brentwood Harold Wood Wood Street Highams Park St. James Street Leyton Midland Road Northumberland Park Angel Road Silver Street Bruce Grove White Hart Lane South Tottenham Alexandra Palace Harringay Green Lanes Hornsey Harringay Crouch

Hill StamfordHill

Bowes Park New Southgate Palmers Green Mill Hill Broadway Hendon Hatch End Headstone Lane Beaconsfield Seer Green Gerrards Cross Denham Sudbury Hill Harrow

Northolt Park Sudbury &

Harrow Road Wembley Stadium

Cricklewood Hampstead

Heath

Finchley Road& Frognal

Upper Holl oway Kentish Town West South Hampstead Camden Road Caledonian Road & Barnsbury Drayton Park London Fields Hackney Downs Clapton Rectory Road Stoke Newington Stratford International Maryland Forest Gate Wanstead Park Woodgrange Park Manor Park Leytonstone High Road Ilford Seven Kings Chadwell Heath Goodmayes Romford Gidea Park Emerson Park Rainham Ockendon Dagenham Dock Canning Town Kensal Rise Brondesbury Park Brondesbury South Greenford

Castle Bar Park Drayton

Green EalingWest Acton

Main Line South Acton Acton Central Hanwell Southall Hayes & Harlington West Drayton Iver Langley Slough Burnham Taplow Windsor & Eton Central Windsor & Eton Riverside Datchet Kew Bridge Brentford Chiswick Barnes Barnes Bridge Putney North Sheen Mortlake Syon Lane Isleworth Hounslow Sunnymeads Staines Ashford Feltham Whitton Fulwell Teddington Strawberry Hill Twickenham St. Margarets Wandsworth Town Earlsfield Clapham Junction Wandsworth Common Streatham Hill Wandsworth Road Clapham High Street Queenstown Road Battersea Park Loughborough Junction Denmark Hill Herne Hill North Dulwich East Dulwich Peckham Rye Nunhead Queens Road Peckham Deptford Brockley Blackheath Lewisham Westcombe Park Maze Hill Charlton Woolwich Dockyard Plumstead Abbey Wood Belvedere Erith Slade Green Crayford Dartford Barnehurst Bexleyheath Welling Falconwood Kidbrooke Eltham Hither Green Lee Ladywell Crofton Park Honor Oak Park

Catford CatfordBridge West Dulwich Tulse Hill West Norwood Gipsy Hill Crystal Palace Sydenham Hill Streatham Streatham Common Tooting Haydons Road Raynes Park Kingston Hampton Wick Norbiton Hampton Kempton Park Sunbury Upper Halliford Egham Virginia Waters Shepperton Hampton Court Thames Ditton Surbiton Berrylands New Malden Motspur Park Wimbledon Chase South Merton Morden South Mitcham Junction Carshalton Hackbridge West Sutton Sutton Common Wallington Carshalton Beeches Sutton Cheam Stoneleigh Ewell West Worcester Park Malden Manor Tolworth Chessington South Chessington North Epsom Ashtead Leatherhead Cobham & Stoke D’Abernon Oxshott Claygate Hinchley Wood Esher Hersham Belmont Banstead Ewell East Reedham Smitham (Coulsdon Town) Woodmansterne Coulsdon South Chipstead Kingswood Tadworth Tattenham Corner Epsom Downs Upper Warlingham Whyteleafe South Whyteleafe Riddlesdown Kenley Purley Woldingham Sanderstead Purley Oaks South Croydon Waddon West Croydon East Croydon Thornton Heath

Selhurst NorwoodJunction

Elmers End Birkbeck Anerley Penge West Sydenham Penge East Kent House Lower Sydenham New Beckenham Beckenham Junction Clock House Eden Park Beckenham Hill Shortlands Ravensbourne Bellingham Bromley North Sundridge Park Bromley South Elmstead Woods Chislehurst Bickley Grove Park Petts Wood Orpington Chelsfield Knockholt Bat & Ball Dunton Green Shoreham Otford Eynsford Swanley Farningham Road St. Mary Cray West Wickham Hayes St. Helier Norbury Forest Hill Mottingham New

Eltham Sidcup Albany

Park Bexley Grays Chafford Hundred Purfleet Shenfield West Horndon Denham Golf Club Wraysbury Ampere Way Centrale St. Johns Brixton Walthamstow Queens Road Mitcham Eastfields Woolwich Thames Flood Barrier London Midland Milton Keynes and Northampton Chiltern Railways High Wycombe, Aylesbury, Banbury and Birmingham

London Midland

St. Albans Abbey First Capital ConnectSt. Albans, Luton Airport, Luton and Bedford

First Capital Connect Welwyn Garden City, Stevenage, Letchworth, Cambridge, Kings Lynn, Huntingdon and Peterborough

First Capital Connect Hertford North and Stevenage

National Express East Anglia Broxbourne, Hertford East, Harlow, Bishops Stortford, Stansted Airport and Cambridge

National Express East Anglia Southend, Chelmsford, Colchester,

Ipswich and Norwich

c2c Basildon, Southend and Shoeburyness c2c Tilbury and Southend Southeastern Gravesend and Chatham Southeastern Chatham, Margate, Canterbury and Dover

South West Trains Guildford South West Trains Aldershot, Basingstoke, Salisbury, Exeter, Southampton, Bournemouth,Poole, Weymouth, Guildford, Havant, Portsmouth (for Isle of Wight), Chertsey and Staines South West Trains

Ascot, Bracknell, Reading and Weybridge Crossrail Maidenhead Southeastern Maidstone and Ashford International Southern Milton Keynes Southeastern Ashford International and Kent First Great Western

Reading, Oxford, Banbury, Worcester, and Bedwyn Bakerloo Central Circle District Hammersmith & City Jubilee Metropolitan Northern Piccadilly Victoria Waterloo & City Interchanges

Key to lines

London Underground lines

Chiltern Railways c2c First Capital Connect First Great Western Heathrow Connect Heathrow Express London Midland National Express East Anglia Southeastern Southern South West Trains Interchanges

National Rail lines

(cased in black. All routes are shown excluding limited services)

Docklands Light Railway Tramlink 0 0 2 3 4 Miles 6 Kilometres London Overground under construction Crossrail under construction Jn25 Jn26 Jn27 Jn28 Jn29 Jn30 Jn31 Jn1a Jn2 Jn3 Jn4 Jn5 Jn9 Jn9 Jn13 Jn14 Jn15 Jn16 Jn17 Jn18 Jn19 Jn20 Jn21 Jn21a Jn22

Jn23 Jn24 Figure 2-2. Geographic map of London rail services

(source TfL). HI LL I N GD O N HA R R O W E A L I N G B R E N T B A R N E T H A R I N G E Y E N F I E L D W A L T H A M F O R E S T R E D B R I D G E H A V E R I N G N E W H A M W E S T M I N S T E R HO U N S L OW S U T T O N M E R T O N C R O Y D O N L A M B E T H S OU T HW ARK T O W E R H A M L E T S H A C K N E Y I S L I N G T O N C A M D E N W A N D S W O R T H L E W IS H A M B R O M L E Y B E XL EY G R E E N W I C H K I N G S T O N U P O N T H A M E S R I C H M O N D U P O N T H A M E S B A R K I N G A N D D A G E N H A M BU CK IN GH AM SH I R E S L O U GH W I N D S O R H E R T F O R D S H I R E E S S E X KE NT S U R R EY A ND M A ID E N H EA D E P S O M A N D E W E L L K E N S I N G T O N A N D C H E L S E A H A M M E SM I T H A N D F U LH A M Chiltern Railways Aylesbury Rive rTh ames River Thames River Thames Riv er Tham es Trent Park Country Park Wrotham Park Aldenham Park Bentley Priory Open Space Elstree

Open Space Moat Mount

Open Space Cassiobury Park Grove Park Hyde Park Regent’s Park Battersea Park Wimbledon Common Richmond Park Royal Botanic Gardens Syon Park Bushy Park Hampton Court Mitcham Common Hampstead Heath Wormwood Scrubs Clapham Common Greenwich Park Victoria Park Hackney Marsh Wanstead Flats Wanstead Park Epping Forest Epping Forest Hainault Forest Country Park Eastbrookend Country Park Hornchurch Country Park Weald Country Park Lee Valley Country Park Kensin

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