Protective Factors in education
for Gender and sexual minority
(Butler, O’Donovan & Shaw, 2010)
Sexual and emotional attachment based on their
Attracted to the
Attracted to the
Negative factors that increase the likelihood
of negative life events.
These disproportionately affect
the GSM youth community
Victimization(Williams, Connolly, Pepler, & Craig, 2005)
Family Rejection(Diamond G.M, Diamond G.S, Levy, Closs, Ladipo, & Siqueland, 2013)
Suicide Ideation(Peter & Taylor, 2014)
Positive factors that lower the likelihood of negative life
events in the GSM youth community
Individual - Therapy practices
Supportive Safe and
and children to
(Austin & Craig, 2015)
(Craig, Austin & McInroy, 2014)
more safe for
(Espelage, Valido, Hatchel, Ingram, Huang, & Torgal, 2019)
(Goodenow, Szalacha, & Westheimer, 2006)
(Woodford & Kulick, 2015)
Impact of teacher training
in GSM topics
and well being
for GSM students
(Meadows, 2018) (Taylor, Meyer, Peter,
Ristock, Short, & Campbell, 2016)
Need more research on protective factors
Research on therapy practices targeting needs of group
More eﬀorts towards safety for GSM youth
More teacher training on LGBTQ issues
Enables more comfort for teaching inclusivity practices
More training for medical professionals (nurses)
Very few medical institutions oﬀer courses on GSM health
Building self esteem helps GSM youth engage in safer sexual
Gender Minority Youth. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work, 12(6), 567–578. Butler, C., O’Donovan, A., & Shaw, E. (2010). Sex, sexuality and therapeutic practice: A
manual for therapists and trainers. (C. Butler, A. O’Donovan, & E. Shaw, Eds.). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. Craig, S. L., Austin, A., & McInroy, L. B. (2014). School-based groups to support
multiethnic sexual minority youth resiliency: Preliminary effectiveness. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 31(1), 87–106. Cranston, K. (1991). HIV education for gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth: Personal risk, personal
power, and the community of conscience. Journal of Homosexuality, 22(3–4), 247–259. Diamond, G. M., Diamond, G. S., Levy, S., Closs, C., Ladipo, T., & Siqueland, L. (2013).
“Attachment-based family therapy for suicidal lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents: A treatment development study and open trial with preliminary findings”: Correction to Diamond et al (2011). Psychotherapy, 50(4), 596.
Espelage, D. L., Valido, A., Hatchel, T., Ingram, K. M., Huang, Y., & Torgal, C. (2019). A
literature review of protective factors associated with homophobic bullying and its consequences among children & adolescents.
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 45, 98–110.
Goodenow, C., Szalacha, L., & Westheimer, K. (2006). School support groups, other school
factors, and the safety of sexual minority adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 43(5), 573–589. Hall, W. J. (2018). Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors for Depression Among Lesbian,
Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Youth: A Systematic Review. Journal of Homosexuality, 65(3), 263–316. Meadows, E. (2018). Sexual Health Equity in Schools: Inclusive Sexuality and Relationship
Education for Gender and Sexual Minority Students. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 13(3), 297–309.
Peter, T., & Taylor, C. (2014). Buried above Ground: A University-Based Study of
Risk/Protective Factors for Suicidality among Sexual Minority Youth in Canada. Journal of LGBT Youth, 11(2), 125–149. Russell, S, T. & Fish, J. N. (2016). Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender
Taylor, C. G., Meyer, E. J., Peter, T., Ristock, J., Short, D., & Campbell, C. (2016). Gaps
between Beliefs, Perceptions, and Practices: The Every Teacher Project on LGBTQ-Inclusive Education in Canadian Schools. Journal of LGBT Youth, 13(1–2), 112–140.
Whitton, S. W., Dyar, C., Newcomb, M. E., & Mustanski, B. (2018). Romantic involvement: A
protective factor for psychological health in racially-diverse young sexual minorities. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 127(3), 265–275.
Williams, T., Connolly, J., Pepler, D., & Craig, W. (2005). Peer Victimization, Social Support,
and Psychosocial Adjustment of Sexual Minority Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(5), 471–482. Woodford, M. R., & Kulick, A. (2015). Academic and Social Integration on Campus Among
Sexual Minority Students: The Impacts of Psychological and Experiential Campus Climate. American Journal of Community Psychology, 55(1/2), 13–24.