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Supplemental material for

“Mountains of our Future Earth: Defining Priorities for Mountain Research—A Synthesis From the 2015 Perth III Conference”, by Erin

Gleeson, Susanne Wymann von Dach, Courtney G. Flint, Greg Greenwood, Martin F. Price, Jörg Balsiger, Anne Nolin, and Veerle Vanacker,

published in

Mountain Research and Development

36(4), 2016. (See http://www.bioone.org/toc/mred/36/4)

TABLE S1

Scores for all Future Earth priorities for all participants, as well as by biophysical science and social science/sustainable

development respondent groups

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In this table, mean values are based on a scale from 1 (“not a priority”) to 5 (“high priority”). Grey text indicates scores that are not

significantly different between the 2 groups of scientists (biophysical or social scientists / sustainable development scientists). Statistical

significance was assessed using ANOVA. NS refers to results that were not significant at the p < 0.05 level.

A Priorities: Dynamic Planet

A1: Observing & Attributing Change

Participants’ responses (mean)

Significant difference between biophysical and

social/sustainable development scientists Total number of responses All participants Biophysical scientists

Social/sustainable development

scientists A1.4 Trends of biodiversity, ecosystems and ecosystem

services 4.17 4.27 3.97 F = 6.796 p = 0.010 270

A1.1 Past changes and main patterns in regional and

global environmental and social systems 4.04 4.02 4.07 NS 271

A1.3 Models to link environmental and socio-economic data to support progress toward sustainable

development 3.98 3.87 4.17

F = 4.857

p = 0.028 270 A1.6 Developing a suite of early indicators of global

change 3.76 3.80 3.68 NS 269

A1.5 Trends in LUC, landscape urbanization or urban

sustainability; monitoring for decision making 3.70 3.65 3.81 NS 270

A1.2 Changes, trends, contributions and drivers of

pollutants and GHGs 3.40 3.43 3.36 NS 266

A1.7 Methods and technologies for dealing with large

datasets 3.32 3.33 3.30 NS 270

Average A1 Score 3.77 3.77 3.78 NS 274

1Future Earth 2014a.

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A2: Understanding Processes, Interactions, Risks & Thresholds A2.1 Spatial and temporal interactions and cascading

effects 4.04 4.07 3.98 NS 267

A2.6 Creating and maintaining ecosystem services 3.95 4.01 3.82 NS 264

A2.5 Critical levels of biodiversity change that impact ecosystem goods and services; their drivers and

thresholds 3.91 3.94 3.85 NS 264

A2.10 Detecting and quantifying critical thresholds in

social, ecological and climate systems 3.90 3.89 3.91 NS 260

A2.3 Role of biodiversity in affecting/regulating global

changes in SES 3.89 3.87 3.91 NS 264

A2.2 Changes in atmospheric composition and their effect

on ecosystems, climate, nutrient flows, etc 3.69 3.76 3.56 NS 262

A1.7 Methods and technologies for dealing with large

datasets 3.56 3.45 3.77 F = 4.478 p = 0.035 264

A2.4 Effect of global environmental change on

evolutionary processes; feedbacks on human

well-being 3.15 3.08 3.28 NS 259

A2.9 Influence of environmental changes on health

3.11 2.99 3.34 F = 5.132 P = 0.024 258

A2.8 Patterns and drivers of urbanization; sustainability

of urban systems 2.92 2.84 3.09 NS 260

A2.7 Main drivers of human vulnerability in wetland and

coastal areas; factors for improving resilience 3.62 3.60 3.67 NS 271

Average A2 Score 4.04 4.07 3.98 NS 267

A3: Exploring & Predicting Futures

A3.3 Future scenarios of changes in biodiversity and

ecosystems and their potential social implications 4.11 4.19 3.98 NS 262 A3.2 Future changes in climate variability and their

impacts on vulnerability 4.11 4.19 3.93 F = 4.454 p = 0.036 265

A3.1 Improving Earth system models to capture

human-environment interactions 3.77 3.75 3.82 NS 262

A3.5 Socio-economic models for projecting scenarios of

sustainable production and consumption 3.66 3.44 4.07 F = 18.930 p = 0.000 261 A3.6 Integrating human behavior models into Earth

system models 3.61 3.45 3.92 F = 13.276 p = 0.002 262

A3.4 Predictive models of human threats and diseases

related to environmental change 3.23 3.25 3.18 NS 262

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B Priorities: Global Sustainable Development

B1: Meeting Basic Needs and Overcoming Inequalities

Participants’ responses (mean)

Significant difference between biophysical and

social/sustainable development scientists

Total number of

responses All participants Biophysical scientists

Social/sustainable development

scientists B1.1 Water access and security; livelihood

implications 4.21 4.11 4.39 p = 0.044 F = 4.114 258

B1.5 Inequality, vulnerability and their implications

for sustainable development 3.79 3.56 4.21 F = 21.745 p = 0.000 257 B1.6 Economic growth strategies; influences on

society, economy and environment 3.60 3.36 4.03 F = 23.609 p = 0.000 254 B1.4 Meeting food security needs; implications and

trade-offs 3.56 3.42 3.81 p = 0.012 F = 6.456 254

B1.8 Global extractive industries, improving sustainability of non-renewable resources,

renewable vs non-renewable 3.43 3.33 3.63 NS 253

B1.2 Lifecycle implications of different energy

sources 3.43 3.38 3.53 NS 252

B1.7 Measures and metrics for human well being

and progress per the UN post-2015 agenda 3.18 2.96 3.60 F = 20.571 p = 0.000 250 B1.3 Development pathways of cities

3.00 2.84 3.30 F = 10.270 p = 0.002 254

Average B1 Score

3.53 3.39 3.80 F = 14.444 p = 0.000 260

B2: Governing Sustainable Development B2.6 Community involvement in environmental

change activities 4.12 3.96 4.39 F=8.890 p=0.003 252

B2.1 Major environmental threats to global and

regional commons 3.98 3.93 4.06 NS 253

B2.3 Decision-making approaches for balancing

socio-environmental trade-offs 3.83 3.61 4.23 F=20.931 p=0.000 252 B2.2 Sustainable global and intergovernmental

governance mechanisms 3.70 3.40 4.09 F=20.953 p=0.000 253

B2.7 Sustainable development strategies in public

versus private contexts 3.52 3.26 3.98 F=27.219 p=0.000 250

B2.4 Mechanisms for improving transparency and accountability of governments, companies,

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B2.5 Mechanisms for addressing market and policy

failures 3.18 3.26 3.98 F=19.926 p=.000 250

Average B2 Score

3.69 3.50 3.04 F=24.932 p=0.000 256

B3: Managing Growth, Synergies and Trade-Offs B3.6 Implications of different land-use changes on

biodiversity, ecosystems and their services 4.16 4.21 4.07 NS 251

B3.2 Identifying, mapping, predicting, managing

resource use conflicts 4.03 3.95 4.18 NS 251

B3.1 Meeting the growing demand for food, water,

energy 3.96 3.91 4.04 NS 253

B3.4 Long-term social and economic costs of

different adaptation/mitigation strategies 3.78 3.67 3.97 p = 0.037 F = 4.419 252 B3.8 Implications of demographic change for

sustainable development and human

well-being 3.73 3.53 4.10 F = 16.021 p = 0.000 252

B3.7 Impacts of urbanization on rural communities and ecosystems; effective and equitable

management strategies 3.67 3.52 3.96 p = 0.003 F = 9.004 252

B3.5 Mechanisms for addressing market and policy synergies and trade-offs among different

ecosystem services 3.42 3.33 3.59 NS 248

B3.3 Different pathways to decarbonization for

different contexts 3.17 3.16 3.20 NS 246

Average B3 Score 3.74 3.67 3.87 NS 256

C Priorities: Transformations Towards Sustainability

C1: Understanding and Evaluating Transformations

Participants’ responses (mean)

Significant difference between biophysical and

social/sustainable development scientists

Total number of

responses All participants Biophysical scientists

Social/sustainable development

scientists C1.5 Prioritizing the management of natural

resources 4.03 4.01 4.08 NS 240

C1.6 Influence of political economies on

transformations to sustainability 3.57 3.35 3.98 F = 18.187 p = 0.000 241 C1.3 How are transformations initiated in social

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C1.1 Underlying assumptions of existing models and scenarios of energy and food

production/consumption 3.19 3.06 3.41 p = 0.021 F = 5.389 237

C1.4 Possible “withdrawal” strategies when limits of

adaptation are reached (and their implications) 3.13 3.00 3.39 p = 0.012 F = 6.370 238

C1.2 Opportunities and risks of new technology 3.12 3.12 3.12 NS 240

Average C1 Score

3.40 3.27 3.63 F = 9.454 p = 0.002 244

C2: Identifying and Promoting Sustainable Behaviors C2.3 Transferability of innovative and sustainable

practices in different socio-economic and

cultural contexts 3.64 3.44 4.02 F = 15.219 p = 0.000 242

C2.5 Facilitation of information exchange and collective action by communication and

networking technologies 3.59 3.50 3.76 NS 243

C2.2 Evolution and influence of cultural values, beliefs and world views and ethics in context of

global environmental change 3.58 3.36 3.99 F = 18.361 p = 0.000 243 C2.4 Perception of gradual and sudden

environmental changes and events in different

socio-economic and cultural contexts 3.57 3.42 3.85 p = 0.006 F = 7.840 242 C2.1 Defining and measuring sustainable

consumption in different contexts 3.25 3.15 3.44 NS 242

Average C2 Score

3.52 3.37 3.80 F = 12.943 p = 0.000 245

C3: Transforming Development Pathways C3.3 Influence of socio-economic conditions on

attitudes and actions toward the environment 3.74 3.59 4.00 p = 0.000 F = 9.169 240 C3.1 Valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem

services in macro-economic policies 3.66 3.62 3.73 NS 246

C3.5 New institutions and approaches to governance

for sustainable transformation 3.64 3.43 4.01 F = 14.686 p = 0.000 244 C3.4 Nature and role of narratives in driving human

behavior and social change 3.53 3.31 3.93 F = 19.487 p = 0.000 242 C3.2 Adapting and transforming infrastructure and

services 3.51 3.39 3.72 p = 0.017 F = 5.750 244

Average C3 Score

3.62 3.49 3.85 F = 11.842 p = 0.001 248

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