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MALAYSIA NATIONAL ANNEX TO

EUROCODE 3: DESIGN OF STEEL

STRUCTURES - PART 1-1: GENERAL RULES

AND RULES FOR BUILDINGS

ICS: 91.010.30, 91.080.10

Descriptors: eurocode, design, steel structures, rules, building

© Copyright 2010

STANDARD

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The Department of Standards Malaysia (STANDARDS MALAYSIA) is the national standards and accreditation body of Malaysia.

The main function of the Department is to foster and promote standards, standardisation and accreditation as a means of advancing the national economy, promoting industrial efficiency and development, benefiting the health and safety of the public, protecting the consumers, facilitating domestic and international trade and furthering international cooperation in relation to standards and standardisation. Malaysian Standards (MS) are developed through consensus by committees which comprise balanced representation of producers, users, consumers and others with relevant interests, as may be appropriate to the subject at hand. To the greatest extent possible, Malaysian Standards are aligned to or are adoption of international standards. Approval of a standard as a Malaysian Standard is governed by the Standards of Malaysia Act 1996 [Act 549]. Malaysian Standards are reviewed periodically. The use of Malaysian Standards is voluntary except in so far as they are made mandatory by regulatory authorities by means of regulations, local by-laws or any other similar ways.

STANDARDS MALAYSIA has appointed SIRIM Berhad as the agent to develop, distribute and sell the Malaysian Standards.

For further information on Malaysian Standards, please contact:

Department of Standards Malaysia OR SIRIM Berhad

Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (Company No. 367474 - V)

Level 1 & 2, Block 2300, Century Square 1, Persiaran Dato’ Menteri

Jalan Usahawan Section 2

63000 Cyberjaya 40000 Shah Alam

Selangor Darul Ehsan Selangor Darul Ehsan

MALAYSIA MALAYSIA

Tel: 60 3 8318 0002 Tel: 60 3 5544 6000

Fax: 60 3 8319 3131 Fax: 60 3 5510 8095

http://www.standardsmalaysia.gov.my http://www.sirim.my

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CONTENTS

Page

Committee representation ...ii

Foreword... iii

NA0 Introduction... 1

NA1 Scope... 1

NA2 Nationally Determined Parameters ... 1

NA3 Decisions on the status of informative annexes ... 7

NA4 References to non-contradictory complementary information (NCCI) ... 8

Table NA1 Recommendation for the selection of lateral torsional buckling curve for cross sections using equation (6.57) ... 5

Table NA2 Vertical deflection limits ... 6

Table NA3 Horizontal deflection limits ... 7

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ii © STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 - All rights reserved

Committee representation

The Industry Standards Committee on Building, Construction and Civil Engineering (ISC D) under whose authority this Malaysia National Annex was developed, comprises representatives from the following organisations:

Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia Department of Irrigation and Drainage

Department of Standards Malaysia Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers Jabatan Bomba dan Penyelamat Malaysia Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia

Malaysian Timber Industry Board Master Builders Association Malaysia

Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water Ministry of International Trade and Industry National Housing Department

Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia SIRIM Berhad (Secretariat)

The Chartered Institute of Building Malaysia The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia Universiti Sains Malaysia

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

The Technical Committee on Code of Practice for Design of Steel Structures which developed this Malaysia National Annex was managed by The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (IEM) in its capacity as an authorised Standards-Writing Organisation and consists of representatives from the following organisations:

Alpine Pipe Manufacturing Sdn Bhd

Association of Consulting Engineers, Malaysia BlueScope Lysaght (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd

Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia

Malaysian Iron and Steel Industry Federation Malaysian Structural Steel Association Master Builders Association Malaysia M. C. Hee & Associates

Megasteel Sdn Bhd

Melewar Industrial Group Berhad Shin Eversendai Engineering (M) Sdn Bhd SSM Associates Sdn Bhd

STAMsteel Sdn Bhd

The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (Secretariat) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Universiti Malaya

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia YL Design Consultancy Services

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FOREWORD

The Malaysia National Annex was developed by the Technical Committee on Code of Practice for Design of Steel Structures under the authority of the Industry Standards Committee on Building, Construction and Civil Engineering. Development of this national annex was carried out by The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia which is the Standards-Writing Organisation (SWO) appointed by SIRIM Berhad to develop standards for structure. This Malaysia National Annex shall be used together with MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Eurocode 3:

Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings.

Acknowledgement is given to BSI for the use of information from UK National Annex to

Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings.

Compliance with a Malaysian Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations.

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© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 - All rights reserved 1

MALAYSIA NATIONAL ANNEX TO MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, EUROCODE 3:

DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES - PART 1-1: GENERAL RULES AND

RULES FOR BUILDINGS

NA0 Introduction

This national annex has been prepared by the Technical Committee on Code of Practice for Design of Steel Structures. In Malaysia, it shall be used in conjunction with MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for

buildings.

NA1 Scope

This national annex gives:

a) the Malaysia decisions for the Nationally Determined Parameters described in the following subclauses of MS EN 1993-1-1:2010: - 2.3.1(1) - 5.3.2(3) - 6.3.2.4(2) B - 3.1(2) - 5.3.2(11) - 6.3.3(5) - 3.2.1(1) - 5.3.4(3) - 6.3.4(1) - 3.2.2(1) - 6.1(1) - 7.2.1(1) B - 3.2.3(1) - 6.1(1) B - 7.2.2(1) B - 3.2.3(3) B - 6.3.2.2(2) - 7.2.3(1) B - 3.2.4(1) B - 6.3.2.3(1) - BB.1.3 (3) B - 5.2.1(3) - 6.3.2.3(2) - 5.2.2(8) - 6.3.2.4(1) B

b) decisions on the status of MS EN 1993-1-1:2010 informative annexes; and c) references to non-contradictory complementary information (NCCI).

NA2 Nationally Determined Parameters

NA2.1 General

Decisions for the Nationally Determined Parameters decided in MS EN 1993-1-1:2010 are given in NA2.2 to NA2.26.

NA2.2 Actions and environmental influences [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 2.3.1(1)]

There are no additional regional, climatic or accidental situations to consider.

NA2.3 Other steel material and products [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 3.1(2)]

If other steels are used, due allowance should be made for variations in properties, including ductility and weldability. Further information on the ductility requirements for steel is given in MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 3.2.2(1).

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Steel castings and forgings may be used for components in bearings, junctions and other similar parts. Castings should conform to BS EN 10293 and forgings should conform to BS EN 10250-2. Further guidance on steel castings is given in reference [8].

For higher strength steels see BS EN 1993-1-12.

Further information on other steel material may be found in Clause NA4.

NA2.4 Material properties [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 3.2.1(1)]

The nominal values of the yield strength fy and the ultimate strength fu for structural steel

should be those obtained from the product standard. The ultimate strength fu should be taken

as the lowest value of the range given for Rm in the product standard. Further information on

the yield and ultimate strength for structural steel is also given in Clause NA4.

NA2.5 Ductility requirements [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 3.2.2(1)]

a) Elastic global analysis

The limiting values for the ratio fu/fy, the elongation at failure and the ultimate strain εu for

elastic global analysis are given below: fu/fy ≥ 1.10;

elongation at failure not less than 15 %; and εu ≥ 15εy.

b) Plastic global analysis

Plastic global analysis should not be used for bridges. For buildings the limiting values for the ratio fu/fy, the elongation at failure and the ultimate strain εu for plastic global analysis are

given below: fu/fy ≥ 1.15;

elongation at failure not less than 15 %; and εu ≥ 20εy.

NA2.6 Fracture toughness [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 3.2.3(1)]

For buildings and other quasi-statically loaded structures the lowest service temperature in the steel should be taken as the lowest air temperature which may be taken as 20 °C.

For bridges the lowest service temperature in the steel should be determined according to the NA to BS EN 1991-1-5 for the bridge location. For structures susceptible to fatigue it is recommended that the requirements for bridges should be applied.

In other cases (e.g. the internal steelwork in cold stores, highland areas) the lowest service temperature in the steel should be taken as the lowest air temperature expected to occur within the intended design life of the structure.

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© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 - All rights reserved 3

NA2.7 Toughness properties for members in compression [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 3.2.3(3)B]

The recommendations given in the NA to BS EN 1993-1-10 should be used.

NA2.8 Through-thickness properties [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 3.2.4(1)B]

The recommendations given in the NA to BS EN 1993-1-10 should be used.

NA2.9 Effects of deformed geometry of the structure [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 5.2.1(3)]

For plastic analysis of clad structures provided that the stiffening effects of masonry infill wall panels or diaphragms of profiled steel sheeting are not taken into account:

αcr ≥ 10

For plastic analysis of portal frames subject to gravity loads only with frame imperfections: αcr ≥ 5

provided the following conditions are satisfied:

a) the span, L, does not exceed 5 times the mean height of the columns; and b) hr satisfies the criterion:

(hr /sa)2 + (hr /sb)2 ≤ 0.5

in which sa and sb are the horizontal distances from the apex to the columns.

NOTE. For a symmetrical frame this expression simplifies to hr ≤ 0.25L.

NA2.10 Structural stability of frames [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 5.2.2(8)]

This method should only be used for frames that comply with 5.2.2(6). In such cases the sway moments in the beams and beam-to-column connections should be multiplied by kr, unless a

smaller value is shown to be adequate by analysis. kr may be evaluated using the following

expression provided that αcr ≥ 3.0:

kr =

αcr - 1 1 1

NA2.11 Design values of initial local bow imperfection [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 5.3.2(3)]

The values given in Table 5.1 shall be applied.

NOTE. It is allowed to use different values from the values of Table 5.1 if it is proved by documented analysis that the required safety level of the Eurocode can be reached even with the use of the more accurate values.

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NA2.12 Amplitude of imperfections [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 5.3.2(11)]

The method given in MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 5.3.2(11) should not be used for buildings.

NA2.13 Imperfections for lateral-torsional buckling in bending [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 5.3.4(3)]

The value of k should be taken as 1.0.

NA2.14 Partial factors for structures not covered by BS EN 1993 Part 2 to Part 6 [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.1(1)]

For structures not covered by BS EN 1993 Part 2 to Part 6, the partial factors should be appropriate for the structure and agreed with the client.

NA2.15 Partial safety factors for buildings [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.1(1)]

For buildings the following partial factors should be used: γM0 = 1.00

γM1 = 1.00

γM2 = 1.20

NA2.16 Imperfection factors for lateral torsional buckling [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.3.2.2(2)]

The recommended values given in MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Table 6.3 and Table 6.4 should be used.

NA2.17 Lateral torsional buckling for rolled sections or equivalent welded sections [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.3.2.3(1)]

For buildings and bridges the following values of ⎯λLT,0 and β should be used:

a) For rolled sections and hot-finished and cold-formed hollow sections: ⎯λLT,0 = 0.4

β = 0.75

b) For welded sections: ⎯λLT,0 = 0.2

β = 1.00

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© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 - All rights reserved 5

Table NA1. Recommendation for the selection of lateral torsional buckling curve for cross sections using equation (6.57)

Cross-section Limits Buckling

curve

Rolled doubly symmetric I and H sections and hot-finished hollow sections

Angles (for moments in the major principle plane) All other hot-rolled sections

Welded doubly symmetric sections and cold-formed hollow sections h/b ≤ 2 2.0 < h/b ≤ 3.1 h/b > 3.1 h/b ≤ 2 2.0 ≤ h/b < 3.1 b c d d d c d

NA2.18 Modification factor f [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.3.2.3(2)]

The recommended expression for f should be used in which kc is given in Table 6.6.

Alternatively, kc is given by:

kc = 1 1 C where, C1= diagram moment bending uniform a for diagram moment bending actual the for cr cr M M

values of C1 are given in the references listed in Clause NA4.

NA2.19 The slenderness limit λc0 [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.3.2.4(1)B]

For I, H, channel and box sections used in buildings the value of λc0 should be taken as 0.4.

NA2.20 Modification factor kfl [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.3.2.4(2)B]

The value of the modification factor kfl should be taken as:

kfl = 1.0 for hot rolled I-sections;

kfl = 1.0 for welded I-sections with h/b ≤ 2; and

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NA2.21 Interactions factors kyy, kyz, kzy and kzz [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.3.3(5)]

The interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy and kzz for doubly symmetric sections may be determined

using either alternative Method 1 (given in MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Annex A) or alternative Method 2 (given in MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Annex B). Alternative Method 2 (given in MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Annex B) may also be used for sections that are not doubly symmetric when modified in accordance with NA3.2.

NA2.22 General method for lateral and lateral torsional buckling of structural components [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.3.4(1)]

This method is only valid for nominally straight components subject to in-plane monoaxial bending and/or compression.

In this method χop should be taken as the minimum value of χ and χLT. Where χ is determined

in accordance with MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.3.1 for lateral buckling and χLT is determined in

accordance with MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.3.2 for lateral torsional buckling.

NA2.23 Vertical deflections [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 7.2.1(1)B]

Table NA2 gives suggested limits for calculated vertical deflections of certain members under the characteristic load combination due to variable loads and should not include permanent loads. Circumstances may arise where greater or lesser values would be more appropriate. Other members may also need deflection limits.

On low pitch and flat roofs the possibility of ponding should be investigated.

Table NA2. Vertical deflection limits

Descriptions Vertical deflection limits

Cantilevers

Beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish Other beams (except purlins and sheeting rails)

Purlins and sheeting rails

Length/180 Span/360 Span/200

To suit the characteristics of particular cladding

NA2.24 Horizontal deflections [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 7.2.2(1)B]

Table NA3 gives suggested limits for calculated horizontal deflections of certain members under the characteristic load combination due to variable load. Circumstances may arise where greater or lesser values would be more appropriate. Other members may also need deflection limits.

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© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 - All rights reserved 7

Table NA3. Horizontal deflection limits

Descriptions Horizontal deflection limits

Tops of columns in single-storey buildings except portal frames

Columns in portal frame buildings, not supporting crane runways

In each storey of a building with more than one storey

Height/300

To suit the characteristics of the particular cladding

Height of that storey/300

NA2.25 Dynamic effects [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 7.2.3(1)B]

Reference should be made to specialist literature as appropriate. For floor vibrations see Clause NA4.

NA2.26 Hollow section buckling lengths in lattice girders [MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, BB.1.3(3)B]

The recommended values may be used and further information is given in Clause NA4.

NA3 Decisions on the status of informative annexes

NA3.1 MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Annex A

MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Annex A may be used. The scope of Method 1 given in Annex A should be limited to doubly symmetric sections.

NA3.2 MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Annex B MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Annex B may be used.

Where applied to sections that are not doubly symmetric ⎯λz and χz should be taken as the

values of ⎯λand χ from the highest value of ⎯λTto MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.3.1.3 or ⎯λ to MS

EN 1993-1-1:2010, 6.3.1.4.

Where the sections are not I, H or hollow sections Class 1 and Class 2 sections should be designed as Class 3 sections.

NA3.3 MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Annex AB

MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Annex AB may be used.

NA3.4 MS EN 1993-1-1:2010, Annex BB

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NA4

References to non-contradictory complementary information

(NCCI)

References cited in this national annex to non-contradictory complementary information (NCCI) can be found at www.steel-ncci.co.uk, SIRIM Berhad and The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia.

Whilst this material is likely to be technically authoritative, not all of it has been reviewed by the UK national committee nor the Malaysian Technical Committee, and users should satisfy themselves of its fitness for their particular purpose. In particular, they should be aware that material indicated as not having been endorsed by the committee might contain elements that are in conflict with the Eurocode.

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© STANDARDS MALAYSIA 2010 - All rights reserved 9

Bibliography

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced documents (including any amendments) applies.

[1] NA to BS EN 1991-1-5, UK National Annex to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures -

Part 1-5: Plated structural elements

[2] BS EN 1993 (Parts 2 to 6), Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures

[3] NA to BS EN 1993-1-10, UK National Annex to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures -

Part 1-10: Material toughness and through-thickness properties

[4] BS EN 1993-1-12, Eurocode3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-12: Supplementary

rules for high strength steels

[5] BS EN 10025-2:2004, Hot rolled products of structural steels - Part 2: Technical delivery

conditions for non-alloy structural steels

[6] BS EN 10250-2, Open steel die forgings for general engineering purposes - Part 2:

Non-alloy quality and special steels

[7] BS EN 10293, Steel castings for general engineering uses

[8] Castings in steel construction, SCI publication P 172, The Steel Construction Institute, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7QN

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Acknowledgements

Members of Technical Committee on Code of Practice for Design of Steel Structures

Assoc Prof (UiTM) Ir. Dr Sooi Took Kwong

(Chairman) The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia/ Universiti Teknologi MARA Ir. Teoh Teik Seng (Secretary) The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia

Ir. Lee Kee Bau Alpine Pipe Manufacturing Sdn Bhd Ir. Azmi Kassim Association of Consulting Engineers,

Malaysia

Ir. Koh Wei Sang BlueScope Lysaght (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd Ir. M. Ramuseren Construction Industry Development Board

Malaysia

Ir. Gnana Sekaran Doraisamy Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia

Mr Kelvin Tee Wee Hock Malaysian Iron and Steel Industry Federation Ir. Mat Jusoh Mamat Malaysian Structural Steel Association Mr Albert Quah Master Builders Association Malaysia Ir. M C Hee M. C. Hee & Associates

Mr Sabrudin Suren/Ir. R. Shantini Megasteel Sdn Bhd

Ir. Chin Shyi Her Melewar Industrial Group Berhad

Mr Kandasamy Govindaraj @ K G Raj Shin Eversendai Engineering (M) Sdn Bhd Ir. Haji Shan Suleiman SSM Associates Sdn Bhd

Ir. Keh Chin Ann STAMsteel Sdn Bhd

Ir. Mun Kwai Peng The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia Assoc Prof Dr Khalim Rashid Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Dr Nor Hafizah Ramli @ Sulong Universiti Malaya

Prof Dr Shahrin Mohamad/

Assoc Prof Dr Ahmad Baharuddin Abd Rahman Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Ir. Tu Yong Eng YL Design Consultancy Services

External Technical Advisors

Dr Leroy Gardner Imperial College, London Prof Dr N. E. Shanmugam Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

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© Copyright 2010

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the Department of Standards Malaysia.

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