The Effectiveness of Using Classical Music on Students’ Motivation in Reading Comprehension at MA Madani Alauddin

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A Thesis

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of SarjanaPendidikan in English Education Department of

Tarbiyah and Teaching Science Faculty of UIN Alauddin Makassar

By WAHDANIA Reg. No. 20400113023

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT TARBIYAH AND TEACHING SCIENCE FACULTY

UIN ALAUDDIN MAKASSAR 2017

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who has blessed her guidance, inspiration and good health all the time to conduct the writing of this thesis. Also Shalawat and Salam are delivered to our great prophet Muhammad saw., who has brought us from the darkness to the lightness.

In accomplishing this thesis, she would like to acknowledge her deepest thanks and appreciation to the following persons who have involved in completing this thesis, The researcher beloved father H. Hasbullah Mappalopo. Her lovely mother Hj. St. Nursiah, S. The researcher beloved husband Suwandi Suaib and Her lovely baby Wildan Farras A. Suaib. For the valuable contribution suggestion, advice, support, guidance, sacrifice, and praying for her to finish her thesis. The researcher also say thanks to:

1. Prof. Dr. Musafir Pababbari, M.Si as the Rector of Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar.

2. Dr. H. Muhammad Amri, Lc.,M.Ag as the Dean and all of the staffs of Tarbiyah and Teaching Science Faculty of Makassar.

3. Dr. Kamsinah, M.Pd.I. and Sitti Nurpahmi, S.Pd., M.Pd. as the Head and the Secretary of English Education Department, Tarbiyah and Teaching Science Faculty of Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar and all of the staffs.

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PERSETUJUAN PEMBIMBING ...iii

PENGESAHAN SKRIPSI...iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...v

LIST OF CONTENS...vii

LIST OF FIGURES ...ix

LIST OF TABLES ...x

LIST OF APPENDIXES ...xi

ABSTRACT...xii CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION...1 A.Background...1 B. Research Problems...4 C. Research Objective ...4 D. Research Significances...4 E. Research Scope ...5

F. Operational Definition of Terms...6

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ...7

A. Previous of Related Research Findings ...7

1. Previous Related Research Findings ...7

2. Some Pertinents Ideas ...8

a. Motivation ...8

b. Motivation in reading ...9

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h. Music in classroom...20

A. Theoritical Framework ...21

B. Hypotehsis ...22

CHAPTER III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ...23

A. Research Design ...23

B. Research Variabe...24

C. Research Time and Setting...24

D. Population and sample...24

E. Research Instruments ...25

F. Data Collection Procedure...26

G. Data Analysis Technique...28

CHAPTER IV. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ...32

A. Findings ...32

B. Discussion...38

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ...41

A. Conclusion ...41

B. Suggestion...42

BIBLIOGRAPHY ...43

APPENDICES ...46

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Table 4.3 ...34

Table 4.4 ...35

Table 4.5 ...36

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Appendix II Result of student post-test in experimental and control class ...47

Appendix III List students’ name...48

Appendix IV The standard deviation and T-test of experimental and control class . ...49

Appendix V Instrument of research pre-test … ...53

Appendix VI Instrument of research post-test ……...59

Appendix VII Instrument of questionnaire ...62

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Motivation in Reading Comprehension at MA Madani Alauddin

Year : 2017

Researcher : Wahdania

Consultant I : Dr. Kamsinah, M.Pd.I. Consultant II : Nur Aliyah Nur, S.Pd., M.Pd.

This research aimed to determine The Effectiveness of Using Classical Music on Students’ Motivation in Reading Comprehensions. Therefore, the main problem to solve was to what extent is using classical music effective on students’ motivation in reading comprehension at Madani Alauddin? The research used quasi Experimental Design, exactly “Non-equivalent Control Group Design. The research involved 60 students of the second year students of MA Madani Alauddin. 30 students of experimental class and 30 students of control class.

The data was analysed using descriptive statistic (frequency, mean score, and standard deviation) and inferential statistic (independent sample t-test). The researcher found that the motivation of the second year students in reading comprehension improve by using classical music technique by the increase of mean score of experimental class that is 44.83 in the pre-test and 71.13 in the posttest. The significant difference between the experimental class and control class are shown through the collected data from the post test. The post-test outcome was very satisfied in the experimental class.

The result of the research was effective because the t-test also shown that Classical Music method effective to improve students’ reading comprehension especially in reading narrative text, because the t-test 3.15 is higher than t-table, 2.00 (3.15>2.00). Therefore, using classical music has a good effect on the students’ motivation in reading comprehension, so it is recommended to the teachers to use classical music to improve their students’ motivation.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background

English is an international language used in countries throughout the world, including Indonesia. In Indonesia, it is not only considered as the first foreign language but it is taught as a compulsory subject from the Junior High School to Senior High School. Although English has been taught for a long time, the result of teaching English is still considered unsatisfactory (Ramelan 1992:3).

Teaching English is considered still unsatisfactory because of some factors, they are internal and external factors. The first factor comes from the learner themselves such as motivation, interest, attitude and intelegence considered as internal factor complexity. The second factors come from outside of the learners, such as the situation, condition of environment, learning materials, and the teachers ability in handling the English teaching considered as external factor complexity.

Learning English involves the mastery of four language skills. They are writing, speaking, reading and listening. Those four basic skills are taught in an integrated ways. Thus speaking and writing are productive skills or ability to product, while listening and reading are receptive skills or ability to comprehend. We cannot teach those skills separately, for instance just teaching speaking or listening since one English skill influences other skills. They are correlated one to another in the English learning process. The students are expected to master all those skills in balance. In this paper, the researcher will perform reading by

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looking at the consideration that success in reading will be very important to students both for academic and vocational advancement. Success in reading is very important for the students both for academic vocational and advancement and for the student physiological well-being. Reading comprehension weakness can be caused by internal factors, such as motivation, interest, intelligence, aptitude, and attitude. Many psychologists state “students possess favorable internal factors will be more successful in reading comprehension than the less ones” (Gage, 1984).Reading is also the ability to draw meaning from the printed page and interpret this information appropriately (Grabe and Stoller, 2002).

The physical condition has a great effect on learning and can alter student’s motivation either positively or negatively. Classroom is a place where children live with other children and with grown-up; they are grouped into the same class based on the same needs. A pleasant place can make learning enjoyable. These conditions have a great effect on learning and can alter student’s motivation. Music brings positive situation and make convenient for many classes. Music has function as the background in some classroom to mute industries on traffic sounds. And music also can be used with success to make motivation, let loose stress before exams and to strengthen the main material (Meritt 2003). The scientist also found that music make higher creativity, to improve the student’s confidence, to develop social skill and to increase motorist perception and phsychomotor skill development.

Music has power. It can change attitudes, relax or energize the body, animate the spirit, influence cognitive development, enhance the body’s

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self-healingmechanisms, amuse, entertain, and foster a general response which can be astate of comfort, or in some instances even discomfort (Daniel J. Schneck and Dorita S. Berger 2006).We listen to music everywhere, in the restaurant, in the shop, in the art gallery, and may be in the bus. We listen to music much but we are unconscious of their presence. On the other hand, music can help the situation becomes more relaxed and convenient. This situation makes the study more optimal and stress can be decreased and when the students receive new materials they will be more interested

Music can be used by both teacher and students. As a teacher, we can use music to make our students feel comfortable, change the way of the students’ thinking and support learning environment. Music can help students learn and memorize better. We can use rhythm as a means to improve memory and intelligence because music especially classical music can stimulate our right brain learning. Using classical music as a background can influence the work of our brain and change our ways of thinking to do activity. Classical music that has tone, rhythm chant soft and touching that affect the state of physical, mental, emotional from someone who heard. Therefore, classical music is an appropriate means for students to relieve boredom when the lesson. So that students’ can learn comfort optimally.

Considering the importance of using classical music in learning, the researcher is interested in concluding whether using classical music is effective on students’ motivation in reading comprehension by using this research tittle:

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“The Effectiveness of Using Classical Music on Students’ Motivation in Reading Comprehension at MA Madani Alauddin”

B. Problem Statements

Based on the previous statements, the researcher formulates problem statement as follow:

To what extent is using classical music effective on students’ motivation in reading comprehension?

C. Research Objectives

Based on the problem above, the aim of this study are as follow:

To find out the extent to which using classical is effective on students’ motivation in reading comprehension.

D. Research Significances

1. Theoretical significance

This research gave useful explanation about how to use classical music to motivate the students’ in reading comprehension by using classical music. This research is expected to use as reference for other researcher to conduct a research in English teaching-learning process. Hopefully, the result of this study will be useful for students as their reference to know how effective using classical music on their motivation in reading comprehension is.

2. Practical Significance a. Students

The researcher expects the students it was interested in learning English by classical music.

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b. Teachers

By using classical music English teachers can apply the result of the study as feedbacks on their teaching activities so that the students it was motivated in learning English.

c. The Researcher

The researcher gets knowledge and experience about learning English by using classical music and can use the result of this research as addition reference for his/her research.

d. The next researcher

The result of this research can be used to improve English teaching.

E. Research Scope

To make the research more clear, the researcher scope the variables in this research. What the research attempt to find in this research is whether using the classical music method effective on students motivation or not. In reading the researcher mean is to use soft music or classical music as the background during teaching learning process for reading comprehension material reading comprehension the researcher used narrative text. For the place, the research was conducted for the second years students in MA Madani Alauddin.

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F. Operational Definition of Term 1. Classical Music

Classical music is a wonderfull music for a series of the tones that are played regularly and in rhythm, so as to produce a series of sounds beautiful and pleasant.

2. Motivation

Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychology concepts are.

3. Reading Comprehension

Reading comprehension is defined as the level of understanding of a text/message. This understanding comes from the interaction between the words that are written and how they trigger knowledge outside the text/message.

4. Effectiveness

Effectiveness is the extent to which an activity fulfils its intended purpose or function. The effectiveness also is the degree to which objectives are achieved and the extend to which targeted problems are solved.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Previous of Related Research Finding

1. Previous Related Research Findings

Rashidi, conducted a research on The Effect of Classical Music on The Reading Comprehension of Iranian Students (2011). “as the result of the study showed, English teachers can make use of music as an effective tool to facilitate students’ language learning. Practically, applying music to all the teaching section of language class session may not be possible, but applying it to the reading comprehension section would be beneficial (as the results of the present study showed), and can bring variety to the language class as well.

Subhan, conducted a research on Outdoor Classical Music as an Alternative Media for Teaching Students in Writing Descriptive Text (A Case of The Second Year Students of SMA Semesta Semarang in Academic Year 2006). “the result of the study shows that after the treatment, there is a difference in the students’ achievement in writing descriptive text between students taught using outdoor classical music and those without using outdoor classical music”.

Anderson, conducted a research on The Effect of Music on the Reading Comprehension of Junior High School Students. “the result strongly suggest that a sizable group of students (specifically, those who prefer to study while listening to music) are unware of the extent they are distracted by music and may need to develop a repertoire of cognitive skills and strategies to reduce distractibility and improve concertration and attention”.

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Three researcher above discussed about classical music, according to the result of their researches that it was useful thing for teacher and students. They use classical music as an effective tool to facilitate students in language learning.

In this research, the researcher used classical music on students motivation in reading comprehension there is the similarity, and the similarity of the research is using classical musicand there are the differences between the previous research and this research, they are: in the first research use classical music is an effective tool to facilitate students’ in reading comprehension, in the second research use classical music as an alternative media for teaching students in writing, and the third research use classical music to improve students’ concertration and attention in learning, and this research use classical music on students’ motivation in reading comprehension.

2. Some Pertinent Ideas a. Motivation

Motivation is one of the affective factors in language learning. Its role in learning has been the source of speculation for many years; however, many experiments and research that have been done suggest that scores on self rating motivation are closely related to school attainment. Harmer stated “motivation is a kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do or think in order to achieve something.”

In learning, motivation is too important. He said that “students’ motivation makes learning teaching process will be easier and more pleasant immeasurably.” Interest will be increase if there is motivation, both from internal and external

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factor. Someone who has motivation he will try something hardly, won’t surrender, read book to increase his achievement. Instead, they who have low motivation will be easy to feel hopeless, will not concentrate to their lesson, like to disturb another people. It is assumed that the students with hight motivation in learning English will be more successful that the students with low motivation or not motivation at all.

Naturally the humans are innately active learners with an inborn curiosity and an urge to explore the world. They are important to make motivation in learning process. Meanwhile the natural curiosity may be weak and die. She assumes that motivation is seen as the engine to fire the action and give the way in which to act. There are two types of motivation, they are extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is caused by any number of outside factors, for example the need to pass an exam, the hope of financial reward, or the possibility of future travel. Intrinsic motivation by contrast comes from within the individual. For instance the satisfaction of understanding something new or satisfying one’s curiosity and exploring the world.

Most researchers and methodologists have come to the view that intrinsic motivation is especially important for encouraging success (Harmer 2001:51).

b. Motivation in Reading

Student interest in the reading is vital to the motivation any reading assignment. Students with high intrinsic motivation, a task orientation, and high self-efficacy are relatively active readers and high achievers (Guthrie et. Al.

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2000). If a student is intrinsically motivated, the student wants to read the material because he or she is interested in it.

Another strategy that is used to promote intrinsic motivation is to find topics that students are interested in learning more about and have the students research it (Guhrie, Solomon, 1997). The students want to read the material because they are so determined to learn more about the subject; they will also want to work hard at it because they picked it out (Hunt, Lyman, 1997). Having students pick out or compose their own reading materials goes far beyond the research strategy stated above.

c. Reading Comprehension

Reading comprehension is understanding a text is read, or the process of “constructing meaning” from a text. Comprehension is a “construction process” because it involves all of the elements of the reading process working together as a text is read to create a representation of the text in the reader’s mind.

Based on McNeil (1992:16) comprehension is making sense out of the text. From an interaction perspective, reading comprehension is acquiring information from context and combining disparate elements into a new whole. According to Cahyono (2011:55) reading is means of transferring information between the writer and the reader. Therefore reading comprehension understands a written text means extracting the required information from it as efficiently as possible. Reading with comprehension means understanding what has been read. It is an active, thinking process that depends not only on comprehension skills but also on the student’s experiences and prior knowledge. Comprehension involves

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understanding the vocabulary seeing the relationship among word and concepts, organizing ideas, recognizing the author’s purpose, making judgments, and evaluating.

Smith and Robinson (1980) stated that reading comprehension means the understanding, evaluating and utilize of information and ideas gained through an interaction between the reader and the author. Reading comprehension is such a kind of dialogue between an author and a reader in which the written language becomes the medium that cause the dialogue happen when the two persons communicate through the medium of print. Reading comprehension depends on many factors; a. the reader’s ability to attend the printed idea; b. the reader’s background knowledge to which new information must be added; c. the quality of writing itself; d. the reader’s purpose or goal in reading material. In this research the reading comprehension understands of the text idea where in reading there are some interaction between teacher and students in classroom activity.

Clearly we need to find some accommodation between our desire to have students develop particular reading skills, Mikulecky Jeffries (1996) states some important comprehension skills, they are:

1. Previewing for better comprehension

The aim of previewing is to find out what the readers are going to be reading before they actual read. For example when they receive a letter, they usually look first at the return address or the stamp to find out where it come fromand who sent it. Then they make some guesses about what will be about.

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2. Scanning

The readers do not read every word, only key words that will answer their question. Skip over unimportant words so that they can read faster.

3. Skimming

It means running the readers eyes over a text to get a quick idea of the abstract of a text. They skim to get a general sense of what it is all about.

4. Using vocabulary knowledge for effective reading

Guessing is the best strategy, in order to try and understand what is being written or talked about. Their reading more enjoy because they don’t have to stopoften.

5. Making inferences

Good readers constantly make inferences as they read. That means. Sometimes they look forward, trying to predict what is coming. Then they use theclues to guess about the text and about the writer’s ideas.

6. Finding topics

In order to understand what the readers are reading, they need connect it to something they already know. To make this connection they need to be sure that they know what it is that they are reading about.

7. Discovering topics of paragraph

It is difficult to understand what the readers are reading if they don’t know what it is about! Even when there are no difficult words or grammar they cannot make sense of the sentences if they don’t know the topic.

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8. Understanding main idea

The main idea of a paragraph is a statement of the author’s idea about the topic. A main idea statement is always a complete sentence that includes both the topic and the ideas that the author wishes to express about the topic.

9. Summarizing

Summarizing is the process of retelling the important parts of a passage in much shorter form. It is an important reading skill when they are able to summarize a passage, they can be confident that they have understood it. From the explanation above, the writer suggest that if you want to read well in English, you must think in English as you read. If you think in another language and translate into English, you will always have difficulty with comprehension. Understanding the words and the grammar is not enough. You need to be able to make logical connection between the ideas and information in your reading. This means using the information you already know to reach a conclusion. In other words, you need to think logically.

d. The Importance of Reading in Language Learning

Reading in language learning plays an important role. Based on the Curriculum of 2004, the scope of teaching English at Senior High School includes four language skills : reading, listening, speaking, and, writing. Those four skills are taught in an integrated manner (Depdiknas 2003). We can not teach those skills separately, for instance just teaching speaking or listening since one English skill influences other skills. They are correlated one to another in the English learning process. The students are expected to master all those skill in balance. In

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this paper, the writer will perform reading by looking at the consideration that success in reading will be very important to students both for academic and vocational advancement.

For other reasons, reading is important for students as stated by the Digital Education Network Ltd, cited webmaster @ go-ed.com, 2000:

Getting students to read in English is vitally important for a number of reasons: firstly, reading is a necessary skill for many if not all, foreign language learners. Whether they are faced with tourist brochures, instruction manuals, medical textbooks or even fiction, many students will have to be able to read effectively. But reading in the foreign language is also important because it shows the written language in action. And on top of that, frequent reading exposes students to the language in a way that, if successful, helps them to acquire language itself, either conciously or subconciously.

Students sometimes have low expectation of reading. They can feel that they are not going to understand the passage in the book because it is bound to be difficult, and they predict that the whole experience will be frustating and de-motivating. Students must have a purpose and a motivation to learn. They do reading activity if they know the purpose and have motivation to read.

According to Grabe and Stoller (2002:13) the purposes of reading: 1. Reading to search for simple information.

2. Reading to skim quickly. 3. Reading to learn from texts.

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4. Reading to integrate information.

1. Reading to write (or search for information needed for writing). 6. Reading to critique texts.

7. Reading for general comprehension. e. Definition of Music

According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Music means : the arrangement of sounds in a pleasing sequence or combination to be sung or played on instruments. Music is an expression of feeling or thought which is expressed systematically in sound form. Music is an old art. The word “music” was derived from Greck word “mousike” taken from the name of God which led the world of art and science (Wiwiek 1997:413).

Music is a natural and very personal language. Music is accessible to the slow learners, the gifted child, the handi capped, the young and the old so that music is truly universal which can be listened everywhere. Music is a way of expressing personal ideas or integrated ideas of others through performance of rhythm, melody and harmony. But not all kinds of music use to stimulate the intelligence. After doing experiment with some kinds of the different music, Dr. Lozanov chose classical music to raise studies and memorize. According to Green in his paper, the term classical music originates from the latin term classic us,

meaning tex payer of the highest class. (http:

//classicalmusic.about.com/od/classical mmusic 101/a/intro 072104.htm). Today many people take “classical music” to mean anything that is not rock, jazz,folk, or popular music (Kamien 1976:190).

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Learning through music is extremely effective because music drives deep into the brain, including some of our most primitive areas, connects widely among our various learning centers, and is easily stored and is easily recalled. Because of this, huge amounts of information, both intellectual and emotional, can be processed, stored and recalled by the brain when acquired through music. f. Classical Music

Donald Jay Grout, 1973 stated that Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of western music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. The word "Classical", when used to describe a musical style, is used by popular culture to distinguish this kind of music from jazz, rock, or other contemporary styles. The word "classical", however, actually is a period of time in Western Art Music that describes the music of Haydn, Mozart and early Beethoven, as well as other composers who lived at that time.

The general time designations are Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern. However, the term "Classical Music" has come to be known as a term for a genre of music that spans the course of hundreds of years, including all the music from Palestrina to Stravinsky, to the current day. Many people are unaware that Classical music is still being composed today, although it is far different than what was created several hundred years ago.

g. Periods of Classical Music

Most of people do not know which music is from which period. If they know about the characteristic of classical music for every periods, so that knowledge will help them to find the require music. According to Merritt in her

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book Simfoni Otak, she mentioned the appropriate classical music for learning are music from baroque, classical, romantic, and impressionist periods.

Classical music of baroque period happens in 1600-1750. Baroque works convey a sense of continuity and perpetual motion, so that after the first few bars one can predict pretty well the rhythmic character of an entire movement. Music from baroque period believed as soothing music, give calm and comfort effect. The great baroque composers are Bach, Handel, Vivaldi, and Corellin.

Classical period happens in 1750-1820, mood in classical music may change gradually or suddenly, expressing conflicting surges of elation and depression. But such conflict and contrast are under the firm control of the classical composer, because of that the classical period is very effective to open creativity and recall memory. The popular classical composers are Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Romantic period happens in 1820-1900, it has individualism and unique music. Classical music in this period is feeling of reflection from the composer, so it can help you to expressing your feeling. Some of popular composers in romantic period are Brahms, Mendelssohn, and Beethoven.

Impressionist period beyond 1900-20th century, the music has flow movement so that it can take you in dream. Music in this period is better to stimulate imagination since many of changing in rhythm and very soft feeling. The famous composers in impressionist period are Debussy, Respighi, and Ravel.

In this research, the writer took classical music of baroque periods with Water Music composition by Handel. This composition is better to listen while we

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are reading because it makes concentrate. 1. The Bounds of Classical Music

Classical music is a confusing term with more than one meaning. Unfortunately, most of people do not really know which music is classical music. According to Kamien (1976:190-193) there are eight bounds of classical music. They are:

2. Classical Contrast of Mood

Mood in classical music may change gradually or suddenly, expressing conflicting surges of elation and depression. But such conflict and contrast are under the firm control of the classical composer. Great masters like Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven were able to impart unity and logic to music of wide emotional range.

3. Classical Rhythm

The classical style includes unexpected pauses, syncopations, and frequent changes from long notes to shorter ones. And the change from one pattern of note-lengths to another may be either sudden or gradual.

4. Classical Texture

Classical music is basically homophonic. However, texture is treated as flexibly as rhythm. Pieces shift smoothly or suddenly from one texture to another. A work may begin homo phonically with a melody and simple accompaniment, but then tension and excitement are created by a change to a more complex polyphonic texture that features two simultaneous melodies or melodic fragments imitated among the various instrument.

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5. Classical Melody

Classical melodies are among the most tuneful and easy to remember. The themes of even highly sophisticated compositions may have a folk or popular flavor. Occasionally, composers simply borrowed popular tunes (Mozart did, in his variations on “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Stars” which he knew as the French song Ah, vousdirai-je, maman).

6. Classical Dynamics and the Piano

The classical desire for gradual dynamic change led to the replacement of the harpsichord by the piano. By varying the finger pressure on the keys, a pianist can play more loudly or softly.

7. The End of the Basso Continuo

The basso continuo obsolete because more and more music was written for amateurs, who could not master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass. Also, classical composers wanted more control, they preferred to specify an accompaniment rather than to trust the judgment of improvisers.

8. The Classical Orchestra

Each section of the classical orchestra had a special role. The strings were the most important section with the first violins taking the melody most of the time, and the lower strings of providing an accompaniment.

9. Classical Form

Instrument works of the classical period usually consist of several movements that contrast in tempo and character as follows: (1) fast movement, (2) slow movement, (3) dance-related movement, and (4) fast movement. Classical

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symphonies and string quartets usually fellow this four-movement pattern, while classical sonatas may consist of two, three, or four movements.

h. Music in Classroom

Teachers are in almost total control of the running of the classroom, including setting and enforcing rules. Although we may not be able to choose our actual classrooms, we can still do a lot about their physical appearance and the emotional atmosphere of our lessons. Both of these can have a powerful effect on the initaial and continuing motivation of students. We can decorate even the most unattractive classroom with all kinds of visual material to make them more agreeable as learning environments. Even this is not possible because the classroom is not ours, we can still change the atmosphere through such things as the use of music.

The suggestopaedia scientist Dr. Georgi Lozanov observe that suggestopaedia sees the physical surroundings and atmosphere of the classroom as of vital importance. By ensuring that the students are comfortable, confident and relaxed, the effective filter is lowered, thus enhancing learning (Harmer 2001:89). Music makes learning easier and is therefore a viable strategy for today’s classroom as stated by Neil Macqueen, cited sundaysoft@ee.net:

“It can create an exciting environment full of emotion and rich language. It allows the listener to acquire and transfer information kines thetically and concretely. It can impart valuable concepts to students which they can connect and apply to existing knowledge and can build self-esteem and create a sense of inclusion and collaboration.

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It also provides valuable opportunities to synthesize and combine learning in other subject areas and diciplines. The evidenceis clear that we can achieve more success in learning through the strategic use of music. Music forms a natural bridge to literacy. It is a medium which children are built to enjoy.”

If students feel comfort in the class, they must be interested in accepting the material. With clasical music, the researcher expect that the learning activity is more enjoyable and reduces the students’ stress.

B. Theoretical Framework

Figure 1. Theoretical Framework

The diagram above means that using classical music on students’ motivation in reading comprehension as an input.The research took two classes,

Using classical music on students’ motivation in reading comprehension

Experiment Class

Control Class

Teaching reading by using classical music

Teaching by using conventional teaching

media

Students’ motivation in reading comprehension

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they are experimental class and control class as samples. Teaching reading by using classical music as a process in experimental class and teaching by using conventional teaching media as a process in control class. The output is students’ motivation in reading comprehension.

C. Hypothesis

H1: Using Classical Music is effective on Students’ Motivation in Reading Comprehension.

H0: Using Classical Music is not effective on Students’ Motivation in Reading Comprehension.

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Research Design

The research was conducted by using Quasi Experimental Design, exactly Nonequivalent Control Group Design that the sample was chosen purposively. In this method, there will be two classes, which are experiment class and control class. In the experiment class, the motivation will be conducted as well as posttest and pretest and the control class will only get the post-test and pre-test. The method that used in this research is Quasi Experimental exactly Non-equivalentControl Group design:

Explanation:

E : Experimental class C : Control class

O1 : Pre-test in experimental class O2 : Pre-test in control class

X : Treatment for experimental class by using classical music O3 : post- test in experimental class

O4 : post -test in control class (Sugiyono, 2014)

E O1X O2

____________________ C O3 - O4

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This method is appropriate in the research because it can describe whether classical music can motivate or not. Besides that, the researcher can easily conduct this method because the researcher can use purposive sampling because only pre-experimental and quasi-experimental design can use it.

B. Research Variable

There are two variables in this research; they are independent variable and dependent variable. Independent variable is the variable that is changed or controlled in a scientific experiment to test the effects on dependent variable. In this research the independent variable is using classical music, while dependent variable is the variable being tested and measured in a scientific experiment. In this research, the dependent variable is students’ motivation in reading comprehension by effect of independent variable.

C. Place and Time of the Research

This research was held at MA Alauddin Pao-pao, which is located at Jl. Mustafa Dg. Bunga, Kel. Romang Polong, Kec. Somba Opu, Kab. Gowa. The research was conducted from October up to November 2016.

D. Population and Sample 1. Population

According to Arikunto (1995) population is the subject of the research overall. The population of this research is students at the Second Grade of MA MadaniAlauddinPao-pao. The total number of population is 60 students.

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2. Sample

The researcher applied Quasi Experimental Design, exactly Nonequivalent Control Group Design in which two class took as sample. In this case, the researcher chose class XI A as the experimental class and class XI B as the control class. Each class consists of 30 students, therefore the total number of students is 60.

E. Research Instruments

The researcher used two kinds of instrument:

1. Reading is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker’s knowledge, skill or classification in many other topic. In this research, the researcher used multiple-choice pairedquestions to obtain the scores of reading comprehension. There were 25 items of multiple choice about narrative text. The pre-test is intended to see the prior knowledge of the students in reading before giving treatment while the post-test is administered to know the students’ achievement after giving treatment.

2. Questioner is a set of questions for obtaining information after the treatment to measure the motivation in reading comprehension. In this research the researcher will use closed questionnaire. Closed questionnaire structure the answer by allowing only answers which fit into categories that have been decided in advanced by the researcher. The researcher will use a closed questioner after giving the treatment to measure the motivation in reading comprehension.

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F. Data Collection Procedure

Before implementing the research, the researcher first of all made research design cover as follows:

1. Pre-test

To collect the data, the researcher administered a pre-test to both classes. It was assessed by the researcher based on motivation.

2. Treatment

After giving the pre-test, the researcher did the treatment to the experiment class using classical music in teaching reading. The treatments was given for eight meeting at least.

a. Control Class

1)Pre-teaching activity

The researcher opened the class by saying greeting and asking students’ condition. The researcher also asked students about the previous lesson and told about the topic to learn.

2) While Teaching Activity

The researcher told to the students that in this learning the researcher would explain about narrative text and gave example story about snow white after that the researcher gave fifteen minutes for students’ read the text. The researcher write in the whiteboard kind of generic structure narrative text and asked some students’ to chose which one of orientation, complication, resolution from the text and then the researcher gave the task for the students’.

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3) Post teaching activity

This activity, the researcher asked the students difficulties of the material during the learning process. The researcher also gave feedback concerning with the student’s performance. The last, the researcher closed the class by saying greeting.

b. Experimental Class 1) Pre-teaching activity

The researcher opened the class by saying greeting and asking students’ condition. The researcher also asked students about the previous lesson and told about the topic to learn.

2) While Teaching Activity

The researcher told to the students that in this learning the researcher would explain about narrative text and gave example story about snow white after that the researcher gave fifteen minutes for students’ read the text, while the students’ read the text the researcher playing a classical music to make the students’ enjoy. After the students have done read the task, the researcher stop the music. The researcher write in the whiteboard kinds of generic structure narrative text and asked some students to chose which one of orientation, complication, resolution from the text and then the researcher gave the task for the students while the music was playing’.

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3) Post teaching activity

This activity, the researcher asked the students difficulties of the material during the learning process. The researcher also gave feedback concerning with the students’ performance. The last, the researcher closed the class by saying greeting.

3. Post-test

After giving the treatment, post-test was given to the students both control and experiment class. It aimed to know whether the implementation of using classical music effective or not.?

G. Data Analysis Technique

a. To give score of the students’ answer, the researcher used the following formula:

Score =

x 100

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b. Tabulating the score of the students’ formula into the following classification:

No. Rate of score Categories 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 96-100 86-95 76-85 66-75 56-65 36-55 0-35 Excelent Very good Good Fairly good Fair Poor Very poor (Arikunto,1993)

c. To calculate the mean score of the students’ answer of pre-test and post-test, the reseacrher used the formula as follows:

x = ∑ X 100 where :

x= mean score

∑ = sum of all scores

N = total number of the respondents (Sugiyono, 2010)

d. To illuminate the statistical data, the research analysis data quantity using the following formula:

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Where : P = persentage

F = number of corrrect frequency N = total number of sample

(Arikunto, 1993) e. The formula used in calculating the standard deviation is:

= −

− 1

, where SS = ∑X − (∑ )

Where:

SD = Standard Deviation SS = The sum of square

N = Total number of the subjects

∑ = The sum of all square; each score is squared and all thesquaresare added up

(∑ ) = The square of the sum; all the scores are added up and the sum issquare, total

(Sugiyono, 2010)

f. The formula used in finding out the difference between students’ score in pre-Test and in Post-Test is :

= x1 − x2

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Where:

t = Test of significance

x1 = Mean score of experimental group x2 = Mean score of controlled group SS1= Sum square of experimental group SS2= Sum square of controlled group

n1= Number of students of experimental group n2= Number of students of controlled group.

(Sugiyono, 2010)

g. The result of the t-tes was compared with t-table to see if there were a significant difference between the experimental class and control class on the other hand, the experiment was effective or not

T table > t test = Effective T table < t tes = Not effective

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CHAPTER IV

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter describes both the findings and the discussions of this research.

A. Findings

Findings of the study deal with the presentation rate of the students’ score obtained from the test to find the mean score, standard deviation, test of significance, and hypothes was testing. The findings are divided into two parts as follows:

1. The extent to which the effectiveness of using classical music on students’ motivation in reading comprehension

a. The Classification of Students’ Pre-test Scores in Experimental and Control Class.

The next page table shows that the distribution of frequency and percentage of final score of students’ reading comprehension at the second year of MA Madani Alauddin.

Table 4.1 The Distribution of Frequency and Percentage Score of Experimental Class in Pre-Test

No Rate of score Categories Frequency Percentage

1 96-100 Excelent -

-2 86-95 Very good -

-3 76-85 Good 1 3.3

4 66-75 Fairly good 2 6.6

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6 36-55 Poor 9 30

7 0-35 Very poor 18 60

Total 30 100%

Table above shows the rate percentage of score of experimental class in pre-test from 30 students, none of the student obtained very good and good score. There were 1 (3.3%) student obtained good score, 2(6.6%) students obtained fairly good score, 1 (3.3%) student obtained fair score, 9(30%) students obtained poor score, and 18 (60%) students obtained very poor score.

Table 4.2 The Distribution of Frequency and Percentage Score of Control Class in Pre-Test

No Rate of score Categories Frequency Percentage

1 96-100 Excelent - -2 86-95 Very good - -3 76-85 Good 1 3.3 4 66-75 Fairly good 3 10 5 56-65 Fair 13 43.3 6 36-55 Poor 6 20 7 0-35 Very poor 7 23.3 Total 30 100%

Table 2 shows the percentage of score of control class in pre-test from 30 students, none of the students obtained very good score. There were students 1 (3.3%) obtained good score, 3(10%) students obtained fairly good score, 13(43.3%) students obtained fair score, 6(20%) students obtained poor score, and 7(23.3%) students obtained very poor score.

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Based on the table 1 and 2, it can be concluded that, the rate percentage in pre-test for experimental class was lower than the rate percentage for control class.

b. The Classification of Students’ Post-test Scores in Experimental and Control Class.

Following the table shows that the distribution of frequency and percentage of final score of teaching reading comprehension at the second year of MA Madani Alauddin in post-test for experimental class and control class.

Table 4.3 The Distribution of Frequency and Percentage Score of Experiment Class Score in Post-Test

No Rate of score Categories Frequency Percentage

1 96-100 Excelent - -2 86-95 Very good 2 6.6 3 76-85 Good 12 40 4 66-75 Fairly good 5 16.6 5 56-65 Fair 7 23.3 6 36-55 Poor 3 10 7 0-35 Very poor 1 3.3 Total 30 100%

The rate percentage of score of experimental class in post-test from 30 students as table 3 above shows that, none of students obtained score excellent. There were 2 (6.6%) students obtained very good score, 12 (40%) students obtained good score, 5 (16.6%) students obtained fairly good score, 7(23.3%)

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students obtained fair score, 3 (10%) students obtained poor score, and 1 (3.3%) student obtained very poor score.

Table 4.4 The Distribution of Frequency and Percentage Score of Control Class Score in Post-Test No Rate of score Categories Frequency Percentage

1 96-100 Excelent - -2 86-95 Very good - -3 76-85 Good - -4 66-75 Fairly good 1 3.3 5 56-65 Fair 14 46.6 6 36-55 Poor 8 26.6 7 0-35 Very poor 6 20 Total 30 100%

The rate percentage of score of experimental class in post-test from 30 students as table 4 above shows that, none students obtained excellent, very good, and good score. there was 1 (3.3%) student obtained fairly good score, 14 (46.6%) students obtained fair score, 8(26.6%) students obtained poor score and 6 (20%) students obtained very poor score.

Based on result above, it can be concluded that, the rate percentage in post-test for experimental class was higher than rate percentage control class score. Although the value did not far different. It can be seen in the table 3 and 4. In Experimental class only 3 (10%) students obtained poor score and 1 (3.3%) student obtained very poor score. While in control class there were 8 (26.6%) students obtained poor score and 6 (20%) students obtained very poor.

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c. Mean Score and Standard Deviation of Experimental Class and Control Class

After calculating the result of the students score, the mean score and standard deviation of both classes can be presented in the following table.

Table 4.5 The Mean Score and Standard Deviation of Experimental and Control Class

Class Pre-test Post-test

Mean Score Standard Deviation

Mean Score Standard Deviation

Experimental 44.83 15.67 71.13 15.34

Control 52.33 16.06 61.3 9.51

The table above indicated that, the mean score of Experimental class in the pre-test was 44.83 and the standard deviation was 15.67 and the mean score of the Control class in the per-test was 52.33 and the standard deviation was 16.06. While the mean score of experimental class in post-test was 71.13 and the standar deviation was 15.35 and the mean score of control class in the post-test was 61.3 and its standard deviation was 9.51. It can be concluded from both of the classes ; the experimental class obtained the higher mean score in the post-test than the control class.

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d. Test of Significance Testing

The significant score between experimental and control class can be calculated by using t-test. The result of the t-test can be seen in table 6 as follows.

Table 4.6 The T-Test of Students’ Achievement

Variable t-test t-table

X1 –X2 3.15 2.00

Table 6 showed the result of test of significance testing. For the level of significance (p) 0, 05 and the degree of freedom (df) (N1 + N2)-2 = (30 + 30) – 2 = 58, showed that the value of the t-test was higher than t-table. The result of the test clearly showed that there was a significant difference between the students’ score in the experimental and control class after the treatment Classical Music strategy. It indicated that the Classical Music technique was effective in improving students’ motivation in Reading Comprehension. It meant H0 was rejected and H1 was accepted because the t-test was higher than t-table (3.15> 2.00). Therefore, the hypothesis of the research was accepted.

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B. Discussion

Classical Music was one of reading strategy that could guide students to read the text. They will be bored when they only read the text without music.

Analysis of the mean score gap in the post-test between the Experimental and control ensures if the tehnique used was effective. The mean score of the Experimental class was 71.13 and 61.3 for Control class. It meant, the gap of the students’ score of the Experimental and Control class was 9.83. The explanation of the gap between the two classes indicated that, the Experimental class showed higher increasing than the Control class while the Control class scores were decreased.

Student interest in the reading is vital to the motivation any reading assignment. Students with high intrinsic motivation, a task orientation, and high self-efficacy are relatively active readers and high achievers (Guthrie et. Al. 2000). If a student is intrinsically motivated, the student wants to read the material because he or she is interested in it.

Another strategy that is used to promote intrinsic motivation is to find topics that students are interested in learning more about and have the students research it (Guhrie, Solomon, 1997). The students want to read the material because they are so determined to learn more about the subject; they will also want to work hard at it because they picked it out (Hunt, Lyman, 1997). Having students pick out or compose their own reading materials goes far beyond the research strategy stated above. It means that to use of classical music can give enjoy to students to learn reading especially for narrative text. Which showed

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the students’ scores was higher after the treatment in Experimental class by using classical music to improve their motivation in reading comprehension. So, the using classical music was effective to improve students’ motivation in reading comprehension.

Harmer stated “motivation is a kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do or think in order to achieve something.” In learning, motivation is too important. He said that “students’ motivation makes learning teaching process will be easier and more pleasant immeasurably.” Interest will be increase if there is motivation, both from internal and external factor. Someone who has motivation he will try something hardly, won’t surrender, read book to increase his achievement. Instead, they who have low motivation will be easy to feel hopeless, will not concentrate to their lesson, like to disturb another people. It is assumed that the students with high motivation in learning English will be more successful that the students with low motivation or not motivation at all. The result of the study showed, English teachers can make use of music as an effective tool to facilitate students’ language learning. Practically, appliying music to all the teaching section of language class session may not be possible, but applying it to the reading comprehension section would be beneficial (as the result of the present study showed), and can bring variety to the language class as well.

Therefore, the use of Classical Music could help student to enjoy and convenient when they read the text. Besides, Classical Music also helped

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students to remember that information in the text by reading the text. Therefore, this technique could apply in teaching reading comprehension.

According to Darmansyah, 2010. “Music can change the minds of people who think learning is boring. By listening music, learning will be more fun and not longer boring. Music will also provide enjoy and relax to the listener. Moods have a meaningful effect on the achievement of the learning out comes of comfortable feelings and relax opens opportunities for the brain to work lightly. Thus, the in coming information gets more access and certainly makes it easier for ask to remember.”

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This chapter presents the conclusions as well as few suggestions of this study. Suggestions were taken based on findings and conclusions obtained in this research.

A. Conclusions

Based on the findings, it can be concluded:

The result of data analysis showed that, the total score of students in Experimental class in the post-test was 2134 and 1839 for Control class. In addition, the mean score in post-test for Experimental class was 71.13 and 61.3 for Control class. The data showed that students’ score in Experimental class was higher than in Control class. It meant that Classical Music technique more effective than conventional method in teaching reading comprehension at second year student of MA Madani Alauddin in the Academic year 2016/2017.

There was significant difference between students’ reading comprehension taught by using Classical Music technique and conventional method at the second grade student of MA Madani Alauddin in the Academic year 2016/2017. The data showed that students’ competence in Experimental class was higher than in Control class. The test for both classes in posttest was 3.15 compared to the t-table with 2.00,since the score of t-test was larger than the score of t-t-table, null hypothesis (H0) was rejected and alternative hypothesis (H1) was accepted. It meant that the Classical Music technique which was applied in the Experimental class was effective to improve students’ motivation in reading comprehension.

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B. Suggestions

In relation to the conclusion above, the researcher proposes the following offers:

1. The teacher should find out the effective technique in teaching Reading Comprehension because many of them think that reading is the tedious activity.

2. The teacher also must evoke the students motivation to learn English especially in reading.

3. The students should be good learners; they should involve themselves in the classroom and pay attention to their teacher.

4. The students should respect their teacher fully attention to the lesson for supporting the learning process running well.

5. The teacher should use many alternative techniques in teaching English especially in reading comprehension so that they can be an easy in understanding the material.

6. Classical Music can be suggested to use for teacher as an alternative technique in teaching reading comprehension.

7. The English teacher should be creative in developing teaching material and present the learning process enjoyable.

8. For the further researcher is suggested to find out much reference about Classical music technique.

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46 1 30 900 50 2500 2 45 2025 40 1600 3 50 2500 60 3600 4 40 1600 60 3600 5 30 900 50 2500 6 70 4900 50 2500 7 50 2500 60 3600 8 40 1600 60 3600 9 50 2500 70 1600 10 40 1600 60 3600 11 70 4900 34 1156 12 50 2500 60 3600 13 50 2500 60 3600 14 80 6400 80 1600 15 30 900 70 1600 16 40 1600 50 2500 17 50 2500 60 3600 18 40 1600 60 3600 19 40 1600 40 1600 20 30 900 60 3600 21 30 900 30 900 22 40 1600 45 2025 23 40 1600 70 1600 24 60 3600 50 2500 25 34 1156 60 3600 26 50 2500 40 1600 27 50 2500 60 3600 28 40 1600 60 3600 29 30 900 40 1600 30 50 2500 50 2500 1345 53181 1570 74681 average 44.83 52.33 Where:

Ʃ : Sum of each datum Average : Mean score

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47 1 80 6400 60 3600 2 80 6400 55 3025 3 70 4900 60 3600 4 50 2500 65 4225 5 90 8100 40 1600 6 60 3600 60 3600 7 80 6400 64 4096 8 60 3600 30 900 9 80 6400 60 3600 10 85 7225 60 3600 11 90 8100 60 3600 12 40 3600 65 4225 13 80 6400 55 3025 14 75 5625 50 2500 15 74 5476 60 3600 16 80 6400 50 2500 17 85 7225 40 1600 18 60 3600 65 4225 19 80 6400 60 3600 20 60 3600 40 1600 21 65 4225 60 3600 22 65 4225 60 3600 23 70 4900 50 2500 24 70 4900 45 2025 25 80 6400 40 1600 26 65 4225 70 4900 27 80 6400 55 3025 28 50 2500 50 2500 29 80 6400 50 2500 30 50 2500 60 3600 2134 158626 1839 92171 average 71.13 61.3 Where:

Ʃ : Sum of each datum Average : Mean score

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48 2 FAJRUL 2 SA’AD 3 ARYO 3 IKHSAN 4 FAHMI 4 ADE 5 HAYAT 5 IBRAHIM 6 ANANDI 6 ALFARISI 7 ANSHARI 7 FANNY 8 IKSAN 8 ANANDA 9 AGHA 9 FADLY 10 HILMI 10 FARID 11 IKRAM 11 REZKY 12 NAUFAL 12 ASH-HABUL 13 RAMADHAN 13 BAHRUL 14 ISMAIL 14 ADNAN

15 FAQIH 15 SYAHRUL MUNANDAR

16 MUSDALIFAH 16 ADE

17 SALSABILA 17 ANNISA PUTRI

18 DILAH 18 ANNISA 19 NABILA 19 FITRATUL 20 TARMIZI 20 IFA 21 RAHAYU 21 JUMRIANI 2 MIFTAHGUL 22 NISA 23 ANISHA 23 INNAH 24 INDAH 24 NELLY 25 NURHIDAYAH 25 NURMALA 26 TENRI 26 ADELIA 27 NABILA 27 AFIFAH 28 HASANAH 28 ANNISA 29 NURUL 29 WAHIDAH 30 WULANDARI 30 NURIAH

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APPENDIX IV:

The Standard Deviation and T-Test of Experimental and Control Class in pretest 1. Standard Deviation of Pretest in Experimental Class

SS = ∑X − (∑ ) 53181 − 53181 − 53181 − 60300.83 SS1 = -7119.83 = − − 1 = −7119.83− 30 − 1 = −7119.83− 29 = √245.81 = 15.67 = − − , where SS = ∑ −(∑ )

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1. Standard Deviation of Pretest in Control Class SS = ∑X − (∑ ) 74681 − ( ) 74681 − 74681 − 82163.33 SS2 = −7482.33 = − − 1 = −7482.33− 30 − 1 = −7482.33− 29 = √−258.01 = 16.06 = − − , where SS = ∑ −(∑ )

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1. T-test in the pretest = 44.83 − 52.33 ( . ) ( . ) + = −7.5 . = −7.5 (−251.76)(0.06) = −7.5 √−15.10 =−3.88−7.5 = 1.93 = x1 − x2 +

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The Standard Deviation and T-Test of Experimental and Control Class in Postest 1. Standard Deviation of Postest in Experimental Class

SS = ∑X −(∑ ) 158626 − 158626 − 158626 − 151798.53 SS1 = 6827.47 = − − 1 = 6827.47− 30 − 1 = 6827.47− 29 = √235.43 = 15.34

2. Standard Deviation of Postest in Control Class

= −

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SS = ∑X −(∑ ) 92171 −( ) 92171− 92171 −89544.03 SS2 = 2626.97 = − − 1 = 2626.97− 30 − 1 = 2626.97− 29 = √90.58 = 9.51

2. T-test in the pretest

= −

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= 71.13−61.3 ( . . ) + = 9.83 . = 9.83 (163)(0.06) = 9.83 √9.78 =9.833.12 = 3.15 = x1 − x2 +

Figure

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References

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Related subjects : Motivation and Effectiveness