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Academic year: 2021



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This is to certify that BENEDICT ISAAC of Class XII-A with Reg no: ………. has successfully completed the Chemistry project titled “STUDY OF CONSTITUENTS OF ALLOYS” in partial fulfilment of curriculum of ALL INDIA SENIOR SECONDARY EXAM (CBSE). This project was carried out in the school laboratory of K.V. Pangode during the academic year 2014-15.

Internal Examiner External Examiner



I take this opportunity to express my gratitude in few words and respect to all those who helped me in the completion of this project. The successful completion of any task would be incomplete without mentioning the names of those persons who helped to make it possible.

It is my humble pleasure to acknowledge my deep senses of gratitude and heartfelt indebtedness to my teacher Smt. Meena for her valuable support, constant help and guidance at each and every stage, without which this project would not have come forth.

I also register my sense of gratitude to our Principal, my teacher Shri K. B. K Unnithan, for his immense encouragement that has made this project successful.

I would also like to thank my friends and family for their endless support without which I could not have completed this work in time.



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Experiment 1–Brass



Experiment 2-Bronze










An alloy is a mixture or metallic solid solution composed of two or more elements. Complete solid solution alloys give single solid phase microstructure, while partial solutions give two or more phases that may or may not be homogeneous in distribution, depending on thermal (heat treatment) history. Alloys usually have different properties from those of the component elements.

The term alloy is used to describe a mixture of atoms in which the primary constituent is a metal. The primary metal is called the


, the


, or the


. The secondary constituents are often called


. If there is a mixture of only two types of atoms, not counting impurities, such as a copper-nickel alloy, then it is called a

binary alloy.

If there are three types of atoms forming the mixture, such as iron, nickel and chromium, then it is called a

ternary alloy.

An alloy with four constituents is a

quaternary alloy,

while a five-part alloy is termed a




Because the percentage of each constituent can be varied, with any mixture the entire range of possible variations is called a


. In this respect, all of the various forms of an alloy containing only two constituents, like iron and carbon, is called a

binary system,

while all of the alloy combinations possible with a ternary alloy, such as alloys of iron, carbon and chromium, is called a

ternary system


The complete analysis of an alloy involves two steps, qualitative and quantitative analysis. In qualitative analysis, the components of the alloy are found out and in quantitative analysis their percentage composition is determined.

The purpose of this project is to determine qualitatively, the contents of samples of Brass and Bronze.


Uses of Alloys

i) To modify chemical reactivity:-

a. When sodium is used as reducing agent it is too reactive to be used but its alloy with mercury, called sodium amalgam can be safely used as reducing agent. ii) To increase hardness:-

b. Hardness of gold is increased by adding copper to it. Also zinc is added to copper to make copper hard in form of brass.

iii) To increase tensile strength:-

c. Nickeloy, an alloy of Nickel (1%), Copper (4%) and aluminium (95%) has high tensile strength.


d. Solder metal which is an alloy of Sn(30%) and

Pb(70%) has very less melting point as compared to melting points of Sn and Pb.

v) To modify the colour:-

e. Aluminium bronze an alloy of Cu and Al has a beautiful golden colour.

vi) To resist corrosion:-

f. Iron gets rusted and corroded. Its corrosion takes place with time but for stainless steel, an alloy of iron (98%) and carbon (2%) does not get rusted.


Experiment 1


To analyze a sample of brass qualitatively.


China dish, test-tube funnel, filter paper and common laboratory reagents.


Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc with the following Composition:

Cu = 60-90% and Zn. = 10-40%.

Thus Cu and Zn. form the main constituents of brass. Both these metals dissolved in 50% of nitric acid due to formation of nitrates which are soluble.


4Zn + 10HNO3  4Zn (NO3)2 + N2O + 5H2O

The solution is boiled to expel the oxides of nitrogen and the resulting solution is tested for Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions.


1. Place a small piece of brass in a china dish and heat this with minimum quantity of 50% HNO3 so as to dissolve the piece


2. Continue heating the solution till a dry solid residue is obtained. 3. Dissolve the solid residue in dil. HCl and filter. Add distilled water to the filtrate.

4. Pass H2S gas through the filtrate. A black precipitate of copper

sulphide is obtained. Separate the black ppt. and keep the filtrate for the test of Zn2+ ions Dissolve black ppt. by heating them with


Appearance of deep blue colouration in the solution shows the presence of copper ions in the solution.

5. To test Zn2+ ions, boil the filtrate to remove H2S gas, then add

solid NH4Cl to this and heat to dissolve NH4Cl. Add excess of

NH4OH so that a solution is ammoniacal. Now pass H2S gas

through this ammoniacal solution. Dirty white or grey precipitation indicate zinc.

6. Separate the precipitates and dissolve it in minimum amount of dil. HCl. Boil to expel H2S gas and add potassium Ferro cyanide

solution, white or bluish white ppt. confirm Zn2+ ions in the



The given sample of brass contains copper and zinc metals as the main constituents.


Experiment 2


To analyze a sample of bronze qualitatively.


China dish, test-tube funnel, filter paper and common laboratory reagents.


Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin with the following. Composition:

Cu = 88-96% and Sn. = 4-12%.

Thus copper and zinc form the main constituents of bronze. Both these metals dissolved in nitric acid.


Sn + HNO3 H2SnO3 + NO2 + H2O

(Conc. acid) (Metastannic Acid)

Excess of nitric acid is removed by heating the solution. The resulting solution now would contain Cu2+ ions and metastannic

acid. This solution is acidified with dil. HCl and H2S gas is passed

when the sulphides of copper and tin are formed. Cu2+ + S2  CuS (Black ppt.)

H2SnO3 + 2H2S SnS2 (Black ppt.) + 3H2O

The sulphides are separated by boiling the ppt. with yellow ammonium sulphide when SnS2 goes into solution as thiostannate where as CuS is not affected.

SnS2 + (NH4)2S (NH4)2 SnS2 (Soluble)

Ammonium thiostannate.

CuS + (NH4)2S CuS (Unaffected)


The soluble black ppt. is tested for Cu2+ ions and the solution is

tested for Sn2+ ions as in elementary qualitative analysis.


1. Take about 1g. of small pieces of bronze in a china dish and add to it 5-10 ml. of dil. HNO3.

2. Heat the contents slowly to dissolve copper and tin completely and then boil the contents to a paste to remove excess of HNO3.

All this is carried out in cup board.

3. Dissolve this dry mass in distilled water containing HCl (1:1) to get a clear solution.

4. Transfer the solution in a test tube and pass H2S in excess i.e.

till the precipitation is complete. Filter and reject the filtrate.

5. Take the black ppt. in a test tube and add to it 2-3 ml. of yellow ammonium sulphide and heat. Filter the contents. Black residue is tested for Cu2+ ions and filtrate is tested for Sn2+ ions.


Transfer a little of the black ppt. into a test tube. Add to it 2-3 ml. of 50%. HNO3 and boil the contents of the tube. A light blue or

green sol. indicates the presence of Cu2+. Divide this sol. into two


(a) To one part add excess of NH4OH a deep blue colouration

confirms the presence of Cu2+ ions.

(b) Acidify the second part with acetic acid and add K4 [Fe (CN)6]

i.e. potassium ferrocyanide solution. A reddish brown ppt. confirms the presence of Cu2+ ions.

7. Analysis of filtrate:

Boil the filtrate with 1 ml. of dil. HCl. A yellow ppt. is obtained. Dissolve in 1 ml. conc. HCl. To this solution add 0.5 g. of zinc dust and boil it for 2-3 minutes. Filter and to filtrate add 1-2 ml. of mercuric chloride solution. A white ppt. turning grey on standing confirms the presence of Sn4+ ions.



The given sample of bronze contains - Copper and Tin as the main constituents.



In this project, a qualitative analysis of two samples of alloys namely, Brass and Bronze, was carried out to determine their constituents. The given sample of bronze contains - Copper and Tin as the main constituents and the given sample of bronze contains - Copper and Tin as the main constituents.



1. Comprehensive Practical Chemistry by Lakshmi Publications 2. NCERT Class 12 Chemistry



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