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STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION

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People of the Philippines v. Hon. Jude P!l"! !nd Ro"ulo Inti! # $o%!d!

Case No. 219 Case No. 219

G.R. No. L-44113 (March 31, 1977) G.R. No. L-44113 (March 31, 1977) Chapter I, Page 2, Footote No.3 Chapter I, Page 2, Footote No.3

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P%iv!te Respondent Ro"ulo& 1' #e!%s of !e& (!s )h!%ed (ith v!%!n)#. Respondent Jude dis"issed the )!se on the %ound th!t he% )ou%t *h!s no +u%isdi)tion to t!,e fu%the% )oni-!n)e of this )!se (ithout p%e+udi)e to the %e/0lin the%eof in the Juvenile Cou%t& e)!use he elieved th!t +u%isdi)tion ove% 1 #e!%s olds up to unde% 21 (!s t%!nsfe%%ed to the Juvenile Cou%t # the issu!n)e of PD 34 o% the Child !nd Youth 5elf!%e Code& (hi)h de0nes #outhful o6ende%s !s those ove% 7 #e!%s of !e ut unde% 21 !t the ti"e of the )o""ission of the o6ense. I##%&$

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58N the issu!n)e of PD 34 t%!nsfe%%ed the )!se of the !))used f%o" the %eul!% )ou%ts to the Juvenile Cou%t. '&L$

'&L$ The Juvenile !nd Do"esti) Rel!tions Cou%t e9p%essl# )onfe%s upon it ! spe)i!l !nd li"ited +u%isdi)tion ove% *)%i"in!l )!ses (he%ein the !))used is unde% 1 #e!%s of !e !t the ti"e of the 0lin of the )!se. The suse:uent issu!n)e of PD 34 ,no(n !s the Child !nd Youth 5elf!%e Code !nd de0nes ! #outh o6ende% !s *one (ho is ove% 7 #e!%s of !e ut unde% 21 !t the ti"e of the )o""ission of the o6ense did not # su)h de0nition t%!nsfe% +u%isdi)tion ove% )%i"in!l )!ses involvin !))used (ho !%e 1 !nd

unde% 21 #e!%s of !e f%o" the %eul!% )ou%ts to the Juvenile Cou%t. L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 4;

STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

P%i"i)i!s v. $uni)ip!lit# of U%d!net!

Case No. 244 Case No. 244

G.R. No. L-2*7+2 (ctoer 1, 1979) G.R. No. L-2*7+2 (ctoer 1, 1979) Chapter I, Page 4, Footote No.14 Chapter I, Page 4, Footote No.14

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Petitione%& (hile d%ivin his )!% in the +u%isdi)tion of U%d!net!& (!s )h!%ed (ith viol!tion of O%din!n)e No. 4& Se%ies of 17<& *p!%ti)ul!%l#& fo% ove%t!,in ! t%u),. Petitione% initi!ted !n !)tion fo% !nnul"ent of s!id o%din!n)e !nd p%!#ed fo% the issu!n)e of p%eli"in!%# in+un)tion fo% %est%!inin Respondent f%o" enfo%)in the s!id o%din!n)e.

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58N O%din!n)e No. 4& Se%ies of 17<& # the $uni)ip!lit# of U%d!net!& P!n!sin!n is v!lid.

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No. O%din!n)e No. 4 is s!id to e p!tte%ned !fte% !nd !sed on Se)tion ;4 of A)t No. 4772. Ho(eve%& A)t No. 4772 h!s een e9pli)itl# %epe!led # RA No. <14 =The >!nd !nd T%!nspo%t!tion Code?. @# this e9p%ess %epe!l& the ene%!l %ule is th!t ! l!te% l!( p%ev!ils ove% !n e!%lie% l!(. Also& !n essenti!l %e:uisite fo% ! v!lid o%din!n)e is th!t it *"ust not )ont%!vene  the st!tute fo% it is fund!"ent!l p%in)iple th!t "uni)ip!l o%din!n)es !%e infe%io% in st!tus !nd suo%din!te to the l!(s of the st!te.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ <& )& <7

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4

C!s)o Philippine Che"i)!l Co. In).& v. Hon. Ped%o

Bi"ene-Case No. 4 Case No. 4

G.R. No. L-17931 (Fer/ar0 2, 19*3) G.R. No. L-17931 (Fer/ar0 2, 19*3) Chapter I, Page 9, Footote No.31 Chapter I, Page 9, Footote No.31

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Petitione% (!s en!ed in the "!nuf!)tu%e of s#ntheti) %esin lues. It souht the %efund of the "!%in fees %el#in on RA 237 =o%ein 9)h!ne $!%in ee >!(? st!tin th!t the Cent%!l @!n, of the Philippines 09ed ! unifo%" "!%in fee of 2;E on fo%ein e9)h!ne t%!ns!)tions. Ho(eve%& the Audito% of the @!n, %efused to p!ss in !udit !nd !pp%oved the s!id %efunds upon the %ound th!t Petitione%Fs sep!%!t e i"po%t!tions of u%e! !nd fo%"!ldeh#de is not in !))o%d (ith the p%ovisions of Se). 2& p!%. 1G of RA 237. The pe%tinent po%tion of this st!tute %e!ds *The "!%in est!lished # the $onet!%# @o!%d  sh!ll e i"posed upon the s!le of fo%ein e9)h !ne fo% the i"po%t!tion of the follo(in *III. U%e! fo%"!ldeh#de fo% the "!nuf!)tu%e of pl#(ood !nd h!%d(ood (hen i"po%ted # !nd fo% the e9)lusive use of end/use%s.

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58N *u%e! !nd *fo%"!ldeh#de !%e e9e"pt # l!( f%o" the p!#"ent of the "!%in fee.

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The te%" *u%e! fo%"!ldeh#de used in Se). 2 of RA 237 %efe%s to the 0nished p%odu )t !s e9p%essed # the N!tion!l Institute of S)ien)e !nd Te)hnolo#& !nd is distin)t !nd sep!%!te f%o" *u%e! !nd fo%"!ldeh#de (hi)h !%e sep!%!te )he"i)!ls used in the "!nuf!)tu%e of s#ntheti) %esin. The one "entioned in the l!( is ! 0nished p%odu)t& (hile the ones i"po%ted # the Petitione% !%e %!( "!te%i!ls. Hen)e& the i"po%t!tion of *u%e! !nd *fo%"!ldeh#de is not e9e"pt f%o" the i"position of the "!%in fee.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$

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STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

Asto%! v. ille!s Case No. 23 Case No. 23 G.R. No. L-2347 (!pr 3+, 1974) G.R. No. L-2347 (!pr 3+, 1974) Chapter I, Page 11, Footote No.37 Chapter I, Page 11, Footote No.37

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House @ill No. 72 (!s p!ssed f%o" the Hous e of Rep%esent!tives to the Sen!te. Sen!to% A%tu%o Tolentino "!de sust!nti!l !"end"ents (hi)h (e%e !pp%oved # the Sen!te. The House& (ithout noti)e of s!id !"end"ents& the%e!fte% sined its !pp%ov!l until !ll the p%esidin oK)e%s of oth houses )e%ti0ed !nd !ttested to the ill. The P%esident !lso sined it !nd the%eupon e)!"e RA <3;. Sen!to% Tolentino "!de ! p%ess st!te"ent th!t the en%olled )op# of House @ill No. 72 (!s ! (%on ve%sion of the ill e)!use it did not e"od# the !"end"ents int%odu)ed # hi" !nd !pp%oved # the Sen!te. @oth the Sen!te P%esident !nd the P%esident (ithd%e( thei% sin!tu%es !nd denoun)ed RA <3; !s inv!lid. Petitione% !%ued th!t the !uthenti)!tion of the p%esidin oK)e%s of the Con%ess is )on)lusive p%oof of ! illFs due en!)t"ent.

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58N House @ill No. 72 is )onside%ed en!)ted !nd v!lid. '&L$ '&L$

Sin)e oth the Sen!te P%esident !nd the Chief 9e)utive (ithd%e( thei% sin!tu%es the%ein& the )ou%t de)l!%ed th!t the ill (!s not dul# en!)ted !nd the%efo%e did not e)o"e ! l!(.

The Constitution %e:ui%es th!t e!)h House sh!ll ,eep ! +ou%n!l. An i"po%t!n)e of h!vin ! +ou%n!l is th!t in the !sen)e of !ttest!tion o% eviden)e of the illFs due en!)t"ent& the )ou%t "!# %eso%t to the +ou%n!ls of the Con%ess to ve%if# su)h. *5he%e the +ou%n!l dis)loses th!t sust!nti!l !"end"ent (e%e int%odu)ed !nd !pp%oved !nd (e%e not in)o%po%!ted in the p%inted te9t sent to the P%esident fo% sin!tu%e& the )ou%t )!n de)l!%e th!t the ill h!s not een dul# en!)ted !nd did not e)o"e ! l!(. L L ! ! " " II N N M M ! !   II M M $$  2 <

I)hon& et).& et !l. v. He%n!nde-& et).& !nd S!%"iento

Case No. 133 Case No. 133

G.R. No. L-799 (Ma0 31, 197) G.R. No. L-799 (Ma0 31, 197) Chapter I, Page 11, Footote No.42 Chapter I, Page 11, Footote No.42

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Petitione% is ! Chinese "e%)h!nt (ho :uestions the

)onstitution!lit# of RA 11G3 *An A)t to Reul!te the Ret!il @usiness on the follo(in %ounds !? It is ! viol!tion of the :u!l P%ote)tion of the >!( Cl!use& denies the" of thei% lie%t#& p%ope%t# !nd due p%o)ess of l!( 2? It is ! viol!tion of the )onstitution!l %e:ui%e"ent th!t ! illFs title "ust %eLe)t the su+e)t "!tte% of the s!"e e)!use *%eul!te does not %e!ll# "e!n *n!tion!li-e !nd *p%ohiit 4? the A)t viol!tes Inte%n!tion!l t%e!ties !nd >!(s I##%&$ I##%&$ 58N RA 11G3 is )onstitution!l. '&L$ '&L$

RA 11G3 is )onstitution!l. In the !ove"entioned )!se& (h!t h!s een pointed out is the )onstitution!l %e:ui%e"ent th!t

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*A ill sh!ll e"%!)e onl# one su+e)t !s e9p%essed in its title. This is to p%ohiit dupli)it# in leisl!tion e)!use the title "ust e !le to !pp%ise leisl!to%s !nd the puli) !out the n!tu%e& s)ope& !nd )onse:uen)es of th!t p!%ti)ul!% l!(. Constitution p%e)ludes the en)%o!)hin of one dep!%t"ent to the %esponsiilities of the othe% dep!%t"ents. The leisl!tu%e is p%i"!%il# the +ude of ne)essit#& !de:u!)#& (isdo"& %e!son!leness& !nd e9pedien)# of the l!(& !nd the )ou%ts h!ve no +u%isdi)tion to :uestion this. L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 7!& 2<!& d

STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

$uni)ip!lit# of Jose P!n!ni!n v. Shell Co. of the Philippines

Case No. 11 Case No. 11

G.R. No. L-271* (/0 2, 19**) G.R. No. L-271* (/0 2, 19**) Chapter I, Page 11, Footote No.42 Chapter I, Page 11, Footote No.42

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This is !n !ppe!l f%o" the de)ision of the Cou%t of i%st Inst!n)e of $!nil! dis"issin the Pl!inti6 Fs )o"pl!int fo% the )olle)tion of s!les t!9es f%o" Defend!nt on the %ound th!t the l!( (hi)h !utho%i-es )olle)tion of the s!"e is un)onstitution!l. Defend!nt Co"p!n# %efused to p!# t!9es !))%uin f%o" its s!les e)!use !))o%din to the" the t!9!le sites of the p%ope%t# souht to e t!9ed is not the s!id $uni)ip!lit#. A))o%din to the Defend!nt& RA 1<4; o% A)t to P%ovide $e!ns fo% In)%e!sin Hih(!# Spe)i!l und is un)onstitution!l e)!use it e"%!)es t(o su+e)ts (hi)h !%e 1?!"end"ent of the t!9 )ode& !nd 2? %!nt of t!9in po(e% to the lo)!l ove%n"ent& !nd "!,es %efe%en)e to Ro!d !nd @%ide und.

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58N RA 1<4; is )onstitution!l. '&L$

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RA 1<4; is )onstitution!l e)!use it e"%!)es onl# one su+e)t %eLe)ted # its title *Ro!d !nd @%ide und .5.5 St!tuto%# de0nition p%ev!ils ove% o%din!%# us!e of the te%". The )onstitution!l %e:ui%e"ent !s to the title of the ill "ust e lie%!ll# )onst%ued. It should not e te)hni)!ll# o% n!%%o(l# )onst%ued !s to i"pede the po(e% of leisl!tion. 5hen the%e is dout !s to its v!lidit#& it "ust e %esolved !!inst the dout !nd in f!vo% of its v!lidit#. In the !ove"entioned )!ses& (h!t is pointed out is the )onstitution!l %e:ui%e"ent th!t *A ill sh!ll e"%!)e onl# one su+e)t& e9p%essed in its title. This is to p%ohiit dupli)it# in leisl!tion e)!use the title "ust e !le to !pp%ise leisl!to%s !nd the puli) !out the n!tu%e& s)ope& !nd )onse:uen)es of th!t p!%ti)ul!% l!(.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$

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12!& 4'& d

; People of the Philippines v. @uenvi!+e

Case No. 2+3 Case No. 2+3

G.R. No. L-2294 (March 3, 192) G.R. No. L-2294 (March 3, 192) Chapter I, Page 12, Footote No.4* Chapter I, Page 12, Footote No.4*

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Defend!nt !ppe!ls the %ulin of the t%i!l )ou%t 0ndin he% uilt# fo% the viol!tion of *ille!l p%!)ti)e of "edi)ine !nd *ille!ll# !dve%tisin oneself !s ! do)to%. Defend!nt p%!)ti)es )hi%op%!)ti) !lthouh she h!s not se)u%ed ! )e%ti0)!te to p%!)ti)e "edi)ine. She Mt%e!ted !nd "!nipul!tedF the he!d !nd od# of Reino Nole. She !lso )ontends th!t p%!)ti)e of )hi%op%!)ti) h!s nothin to do (ith "edi)ine !nd th!t un!utho%i-ed use of title of *do)to% should e unde%stood to %efe% to *do)to% of "edi)ine !nd not to do)to%s of )hi%op%!)ti)& !nd l!stl#& th!t A)t 4111 is un)onstitution!l !s it does not e9p%ess its su+e)t. I##%&$

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58N *)hi%op%!)ti) is in)luded in the te%" *p%!)ti)e of "edi)ine unde% $edi)!l l!(s p%ovided in the Revised Ad"inist%!tive Code.

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'&L$A)t 4111 is )onstitution!l !s the title *An A)t to A"end =enu"e%!tion of se)tions to e !"ended? is suK)ient !nd it need not in)lude the su+e)t "!tte% of e!)h se)tion. MChi%op%!)ti)F is in)luded in the Mp%!)ti)e of "edi)ine.F St!tuto%# de0nition p%ev!ils ove% o%din!%# us!e of the te%". The )onstitution!l %e:ui%e"ent !s to the title of the ill "ust e lie%!ll# )onst%ued. It should not e te)hni)!ll# o% n!%%o(l# )onst%ued !s to i"pede the po(e% of leisl!tion. 5hen the%e is dout !s to its v!lidit#& it "ust e %esolved !!inst the dout !nd in f!vo% of its v!lidit#. *A ill sh!ll e"%!)e onl# one su+e)t& e9p%essed in its title& to p%ohiit dupli)it# in leisl!tion # !pp%isin leisl!to%s !nd the puli) !out the n!tu%e& s)ope& !nd )onse:uen)es of the l!(. L!"IN M!IM$

L!"IN M!IM$

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STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

Al!l!#!n v. N!tion!l Po(e% Co%po%!tion

Case No.  Case No. 

G.R. No. L-2439* (/0 29, 19*) G.R. No. L-2439* (/0 29, 19*) Chapter I, Page 12, Footote No.4* Chapter I, Page 12, Footote No.4*

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Repuli) A)t No. 43<4 is entitled *An A)t to u%the% A"end Co""on(e!lth A)t No. 121. In Se)tion 4 of the s!"e !)t& Respondent is e"po(e%ed& in !n# f%!n)hise )ont%!)t fo% the suppl# of ele)t%i) po(e% )onstitutin ;3E of the ele)t%i) po(e% !nd ene%# of th!t f%!n)hisee& to %e!li-e ! net p%o0t of not "o%e th!n 12E !nnu!ll# of its invest"ents plus 2/"onth ope%!tin e9penses !nd NPC is !llo(ed to %ene( !ll e9istin f%!n)hise

)ont%!)ts so th!t the p%ovisions of the !)t )ould e iven e6e)t. I##%&$

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58N Se)tion 4 is ! su+e)t (hi)h the ill title *An A)t to u%the% A"end Co""on(e!lth A)t No. 121 does not e"%!)e& thus "!,in it ! %ide% e)!use it is viol!tive of the )onstitution!l p%ovision %e:ui%in th!t *! ill& (hi)h "!# e en!)ted into l!(& )!nnot e"%!)e "o%e th!n one su+e)t& (hi)h sh!ll e e9p%essed in its title.

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Se)tion 4 is )onstitution!l.

Repuli) A)t 43<4 is !n !"end!to%# !)t. It is suK)ient th!t the title "!,es %efe%en)e to the leisl!tion to e !"ended =in this )!se Co""on(e!lth A)t 121?. Constitution!l p%ovision is s!tis0ed if title is )o"p%ehensive enouh to in)lude the ene%!l o+e)t (hi)h the st!tute see,s to e6e)t (ithout e9p%essin e!)h !nd eve%# ends !nd "e!ns ne)ess!%# fo% its !))o"plish"ent. Title doesnFt need to e ! )o"plete inde9 of the )ontents of the !)t. L!"IN M!IM$

L!"IN M!IM$ 2<!& 4'& d

 Co%de%o v. Hon. C!!tu!ndo

Case No. 1 Case No. 1

G.R. No. L-1442 (ctoer 31, 19*2) G.R. No. L-1442 (ctoer 31, 19*2) Chapter I, Page 12, Footote No.47 Chapter I, Page 12, Footote No.47

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Repuli) A)t No. 1177 is the A%i)ultu%!l Ten!n)# A)t of the Philippines. Se)tion ;< of this !)t e9p%essed th!t indient ten!nts should e %ep%esented # Puli) Defend!nt of Dep!%t"ent of >!o%. Con%ess then !"ended this in Repuli) A)t No. 224 *An A)t A"endin Ce%t!in Se)tions of Repuli) A)t No. 1177. Se)tion 17 of the !"end!to%# !)t s!#s th!t "edi!tion of ten!n)# disputes f!lls unde% !utho%it# of Se)%et!%# of Justi)e. Se)tion 23 !lso p%ovides th!t indient ten!nts sh!ll e %ep%esented # t%i!l !tto%ne# of the Ten!n)# $edi!tion Co""ission.

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58N Se)tions 17 !nd 23 of Rep. A)t No. 224 is un)onstitution!l e)!use of the )onstitution!l p%ovision th!t *No ill (hi)h "!# e en!)ted into l!( sh!ll e"%!)e "o%e th!n one su+e)t (hi)h sh!ll e e9p%essed in the title of the ill. '&L$

'&L$

Se)tions 17 !nd 23 !%e )onstitution!l.

The )onstitution!l %e:ui%e"ent is )o"plied (ith !s lon the l!( h!s ! sinle ene%!l su+e)t& (hi)h is the A%i)ultu%!l Ten!n)# A)t& !nd the !"end!to%# p%ovisions no "!tte% ho( dive%se the# "!# e& so lon !s the# !%e not in)onsistent (ith o% fo%ein to the ene%!l su+e)t& (ill e %e!%ded !s v!lid. Constitution!l p%ovisions %el!tin to su+e)t "!tte% !nd titles of st!tutes should not e so n!%%o(l# )onst%ued !s to )%ipple o% i"pede p%ope% leisl!tion.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 2<!& 4'& d

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STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

Toi!s v. A!los Case No. 291 Case No. 291 G.R. No. L-11473 (ece6er , 1994) G.R. No. L-11473 (ece6er , 1994) Chapter I, Page 12, Footote No.47 Chapter I, Page 12, Footote No.47

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

Petitione%s !ss!il the )onstitution!lit# of Repuli) A)t No. '';& othe%(ise ,no(n !s An A)t Conve%tin the $uni)ip!lit# of $!nd!lu#on into ! Hihl# U%!ni-ed Cit# to e ,no(n !s the Cit# of $!nd!lu#on e)!use A%ti)le III& Se)tion <7 of this !)t p%ovided th!t the )on%ession!l dist%i)t of S!n Ju!n8 $!nd!lu#on sh!ll e split into t(o sep!%!te dist%i)ts.

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58N the !fo%est!ted su+e)t is e%"!ne to the su+e)t "!tte% of R.A. No.

'';. '&L$ '&L$

RA ''; is )onstitution!l.

Cont%!%# to Petitione%s !sse%tion& the )%e!tion of ! sep!%!te )on%ession!l dist%i)t fo% $!nd!lu#on is not ! su+e)t sep!%!te !nd distin)t f%o" the su+e)t of its )onve%sion into ! hihl# u%!ni-ed )it# ut is ! n!tu%!l !nd loi)!l )onse:uen)e of its )onve%sion into ! hihl# u%!ni-ed )it#

$o%eove%& ! lie%!l )onst%u)tion of the one title/ one su+e)t %ule h!s een inv!%i!l# !dopted # this )ou%t so !s not to )%ipple o% i"pede leisl!tion. The Constitution does not %e:ui%e Con%ess to e"plo# in the title of !n en!)t"ent& l!nu!e of su)h p%e)ision !s to "i%%o%& full# inde9 o% )!t!loue !ll the )ontents !nd the "inute det!ils the%ein.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 23!& d

' A#son !nd In!)io v. P%ovin)i!l @o!%d of Ri-!l

Case No. 11 Case No. 11 G.R. No. 14+19 (/0 2*, 1919) G.R. No. 14+19 (/0 2*, 1919) F!C"# F!C"#

The "uni)ip!l )oun)il of N!vot!s& Ri-!l !dopted its O%din!n)e No. 14& se)tion 2 of (hi)h p%ovided th!t *!ll o(ne%s !nd p%op%ieto%s of the indust%# ,no(n !s 0shin& (ith nets deno"in!ted M)u!,itF !nd Mp!ntu,os&F efo%e en!in in 0shin in the !# of this +u%isdi)tion (ithin th%ee le!ues f%o" the sho%e/line of this "uni)ip!lit#& !%e olied to p%ovide the"selves (ith ! li)ense issued # this "uni)ip!l ove%n"ent& !fte% p!#"ent of ! fee of P;3 !nnu!ll#& p!#!le eve%# th%ee "onths. The !utho%it# fo% the en!)t"ent of the o%din!n)e (!s f%o" se)tion 22'3 of the Ad"inist%!tive Code.

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58N Se)tion 22'3 of the Ad"inist%!tive Code of 171& no( Se)tion 242< of the Ad"inist%!tive Code of 171'& is inv!lid. '&L

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Se)tion 22'3 of the Ad"inist%!tive Code of 171& no( se)tion 2424 of the Ad"inist%!tive Code of 171' is v!lid. It does not viol!te P!%!%!ph 1'& se)tion ; of the Philippine @ill (hi)h p%ovided *th!t no p%iv!te o% lo)!l ill (hi)h "!# e en!)ted into l!( sh!ll e"%!)e "o%e th!n one su+e)t& !nd th!t su+e)t sh!ll e e9p%essed in the title of the ill e)!use the Ad"inist%!tive Code is neithe% ! p%iv!te no% ! lo)!l ill.

The Ad"inist%!tive Code of 171' h!s fo% its title& *An A)t !"endin the Ad"inist%!tive Code. It does not viol!te P!%!%!ph 1'& se)tion 4 of the Jones >!(& (hi)h p%ovided *th!t no ill (hi)h "!# e en!)ted into l!( sh!ll e"%!)e "o%e th!n one su+e)t !nd th!t su+e)t sh!ll e e9p%es sed in the title of the ill& e)!use it (!s "e%e l# ! %evision of the p%ov isions of the Ad"inist%!tive Code en!)ted fo% the pu%pose of !d!ptin it to the Jones >!( !nd the Reo%!ni-!tion A)t.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 4'

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STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

>id!s!n v. Co""ission on le)tions

Case No. 14 Case No. 14

G.R. No. L-2+9 (ctoer 2, 19*7) G.R. No. L-2+9 (ctoer 2, 19*7) Chapter I, Page 13, Footote No.1 Chapter I, Page 13, Footote No.1

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Petitione% )h!llened Repuli) A)t <'73& (hi)h is entitled *An A)t C%e!tin the $uni)ip!lit# of Di!n!ton in the P%ovin)e of >!n!o del Su% !s un)onstitution!l on the %ound th!t it in)ludes !%%ios lo)!ted in !nothe% p%ovin)e& (hi)h is Cot!!to& viol!tin the )onstitution!l "!nd!te th!t *No ill (hi)h "!# e en!)ted into l!( sh!ll e"%!)e "o%e th!n one su+e)t (hi)h sh!ll e e9p%essed in the title of the ill. This :uestion (!s initi!ll# p%esented to the Respondents& (hi)h !dopted ! %esolution in f!vo% of RA <'73& p%o"pted # the up)o"in ele)tions. I##%&$

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58N Repuli) A)t <'73 is )onstitution!l. '&L$

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Repuli) A)t <'73 is null !nd void. The title *An A)t C%e!tin the $uni)ip!lit# of Di!n!ton& in the P%ovin)e of >!n!o del Su% p%o+e)ts the i"p%ession th!t solel# the p%ovin)e of >!n!o del

Su% is !6e)ted # the )%e!tion of Di!n!ton. Not the slihtest inti"!tion is the%e th!t )o""unities in the !d+!)ent p%ovin)e of Cot!!to !%e in)o%po%!ted in this ne( >!n!o del Su% to(n. The ph%!se *in the P%ov in)e of >!n!o del Su% "!,es the title "isle!din !nd de)eptive. The title did not info%" the "e"e%s of the Con%ess !s to the full i"p!)t of the l!( it did not !pp%ise the people in the to(ns of Cot!!to th!t (e%e !6e)ted # the l!(& !nd the p%ovin)e of Cot!!to itself th!t p!%t of thei% te%%ito%# is ein t!,en !(!# f%o" thei% to(ns !nd p%ovin)es !nd !dded to the !d+!)ent P%ovin)e of >!n!o del Su% it ,ept the puli) in the d!%, !s to (h!t to(ns !nd p%ovin)es (e%e !)tu!ll# !6e)ted # the ill. These !%e the p%essu%es (hi)h he!vil# (eih !!inst the )onstitution!lit# of Repuli) A)t <'73.

L L ! ! " " II N N M M ! !   II M M $$ d G $!nil! T%!din Q Suppl# Co. v. Re#es

Case No. 1*9 Case No. 1*9

G.R. No. 432*3 (ctoer 31, 193) G.R. No. 432*3 (ctoer 31, 193) Chapter I, Page 13, Footote No. 3 Chapter I, Page 13, Footote No. 3

F!C"# F!C"#

Respondent e9e)uted ! )h!ttel "o%t!e in f!vo% of

Petitione%. He f!iled to p!# so"e of the inst!ll"ents. Petitione% p%o)eeded to fo%e)lose its )h!ttel "o%t!e. The "o%t!ed p%ope%t# (!s sold !t ! puli) !u)tion # the she%i6 of the Cit# of $!nil!. Afte% !ppl#in this su"& (ith inte%est& )osts& !nd li:uid!ted d!"!es to RespondentFs indetedness& the l!tte% o(ed the )o"p!n# ! !l!n)e of P2';.<' (ith inte%est. The )o"p!n# instituted !n !)tion fo% %e)ove%# (hen he f!iled to p!# the de0)ien)# of the det. He ple!ded !s ! defense th!t the )o"p!n#& h!vin )hosen to fo%e)lose its )h!ttel "o%t!e& h!d no fu%the% !)tion !!inst hi" fo% the %e)ove%# of the unp!id !l!n)e o(ed # hi"& !s p%ovided # A)t No. <122.

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58N A)t No. <122& entitled *An A)t to !"end the Civil Code # inse%tin et(een Se)tions fou%teen hund%ed !nd 0ft#/fou% !nd

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fou%teen hund%ed !nd 0ft#/0ve the%eof ! ne( se)tion& to e ,no(n !s se)tion fou%teen hund%ed !nd 0ft#/fou%/A& is v!lid. '&L

'&L

A)t No. <122 is v!lid !nd enfo%)e!le. The )ont%ollin pu%pose of A)t No. <122 is %eve!led to e to )lose the doo% to !uses )o""itted in )onne)tion (ith the fo%e)losu%e of )h!ttel "o%t!es (hen s!les (e%e p!#!le in inst!ll"ents.

The ene%!l %ule is !dopted in this +u%isdi)tion to the e6e)t th!t ! title (hi)h de)l!%es ! st!tute to e !n !)t to !"end ! spe)i0ed )ode is suK)ient !nd the p%e)ise n!tu%e of the !"end!to%# !)t need not e fu%the% st!ted. The p%ope% !pp%o!)h in )!ses of this )h!%!)te% should e to %esolve !ll p%esu"ptions in f!vo% of the v!lidit# of !n !)t in the !sen)e of ! )le!% )onLi)t et(een it !nd the Constitution.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 7!& 4'

STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

People of the Philippines v. e%%e%

Case No. 2+ Case No. 2+

G.R. No. L-32*13-14 (ece6er 27, 1972) G.R. No. L-32*13-14 (ece6er 27, 1972) Chapter I, Page 13, Footote No.+ Chapter I, Page 13, Footote No.+

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

P%iv!te Respondents (e%e %espe)tivel# )h!%ed (ith ! viol!tion of Repuli) A)t No. 1'33& othe%(ise ,no(n !s the Anti/ Suve%sion A)t. RA 1'33 outl!(s the Co""unist P!%t# of the Philippines =CPP? !nd othe% *suve%sive !sso)i!tions !nd punishes !n# pe%son (ho *,no(inl#& (illfull# !nd # ove%t !)ts !Kli!tes hi"self (ith& e)o"es o% %e"!ins ! "e"e% of the CPP o% !n# othe% o%!ni-!tion *suve%sive in n!tu%e. T!#! 0led ! "otion )h!llenin the v!lidit# of the st!tute due to its )onstitution!l viol!tions. The lo(e% )ou%t de)l!%ed the st!tute void on the %ounds th!t it (!s ! ill of !tt!inde% !nd th!t it is v!ue !nd ove%%o!d. The )!ses (e%e dis"issed& to (hi)h the Bove%n"ent !ppe!led.

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58N the title of the !)t s!tis0es the )onstitution!l p%ovision on ill titles.

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Yes. The title of the ill need not e ! )!t!loue o% !n inde9 of its )ontents& !nd need not %e)ite the det!ils of the A)t. It is ! v!lid title if it indi)!tes in )le!% te%"s the n!tu%e& s)ope !nd )onse:uen)es of the p%oposed l!( !nd its ope%!tion. A n!%%o( !nd te)hni)!l )onst%u)tion is to e !voided& !nd the st!tute (ill e %e!d f!i%l# !nd %e!son!l# in o%de% not to th(!%t the leisl!tive intent. The Anti/Suve%sion !)t full# s!tis0es these %e:ui%e"ents. L!"IN M!IM$

L!"IN M!IM$ 7!& 7d& ;1d

7 Del Ros!%io v. C!%onell& et !l.

(11)

Case No. 33 Case No. 33 G.R. No. L-3247* (ctoer 2+, 197+) G.R. No. L-3247* (ctoer 2+, 197+) F!C"#$ F!C"#$

Petitione% :uestions the )onstitution!lit# of RA 142. The s!id A)t pu%po%tedl# en)o"p!sses "o%e th!n one su+e)t fo% the title of the A)t !lleedl# f!ils to in)lude the ph%!se *TO PROPOS A$ND$NTS TO TH CONSTITUTION O TH PHI>IPPINS. The st!tute pl!inl# %e!ds *An A)t I"ple"entin Resolution to @oth Houses Nu"e%ed T(o !s A"ended # Resolution of @oth Houses Nu"e%ed ou% of the Con%ess of the Philippines C!llin fo% ! Constitution!l Convention& P%ovidin fo% P%opo%tion!l Rep%esent!tion The%ein !nd Othe% Det!ils Rel!tin to the le)tion of Dele!tes to !nd the Holdin of the Constitution!l Convention& Repe!lin fo% the Pu%pose Repuli) A)t ou% Thous!nd Nine Hund%ed ou%teen& !nd fo% Othe% Pu%poses.

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58N RA 142 is un)onstitution!l fo% e"%!)in "o%e th!n one su+e)t.

'&L$ '&L$

No. The in)lusion of the title is supe%Luous !nd the%efo%e unne)ess!%# e)!use the title e9p%essl# indi)!tes th!t the !)t i"ple"ents Resolutions on oth Houses Nos. 2 !nd < %espe)tivel# of 17' !nd 177& !nd oth Resolutions No. 2 !nd < li,e(ise )!teo%i)!ll# st!te in thei% titles th!t the Constitution!l Convention )!lled fo% the%ein is *to p%opose !"end"ents to the Constitution of the Philippines& (hi)h ph%!se is %eite%!ted in Se). 1 of oth Resolutions.

The po(e% to p%opose !"end"ents to the Constitution is i"plied in the )!ll fo% the )onvention itself& (hose %!ison dFet%e is to %evise the p%esent Constitution. It is not %e:ui%ed th!t the title of the ill e !n inde9 to the od# of the !)t o% e )o"p%ehensive in "!tte%s of det!il. It is enouh th!t it f!i%l# indi)!tes the ene%!l su+e)t !nd %e!son!l# )ove%s !ll the p%ovisions of the !)t so !s not to "isle!d Con%ess o% the people. All the det!ils p%ovided fo% in RA 142 !%e e%"!ne to !nd !%e )o"p%ehended # its title. L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 7!& 7d& ;1d

STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

People of the Philippines v. !le%i!no !lenso# # $!s!

Case No. 23+ Case No. 23+

G.R. No. L-9*9 (Ma0 29, 197) G.R. No. L-9*9 (Ma0 29, 197) Chapter I, Page 14, Footote No.  Chapter I, Page 14, Footote No. 

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

Defend!nt (!s )h!%ed in the Cou%t of i%st Inst!n)e of $!nil! fo% viol!tion of Se)tion 2 of A)t No. 1'G3 # )on)e!l"ent of ! olo. The defend!nt "oved to :u!sh the info%"!tion on the %ound th!t the title of the !)t& (hi)h (!s *!n A)t to %eul!te the i"po%t!tion& !):uisition& possession& use& !nd t%!nsfe% of 0%e!%"s& !nd to p%ohiit the possession of s!"e e9)ept in )o"pli!n)e (ith the p%ovisions of this A)t& did not in)lude (e!pons othe% th!n 0%e!%"s& !nd th!t Se)tion 2 viol!ted the )onstitution!l p%ovision th!t *no ill (hi)h "!# e en!)ted into l!( sh!ll e"%!)e "o%e th!n one su+e)t (hi)h sh!ll e e9p%essed in the title of the ill. I##%&#$

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1. 58N A)t No. 1'G3 viol!ted the one su+e)t/one title %ule 2. 58N it (!s in)onsistent (ith the Constitution. '&L$

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No. At the ti"e of the en!)t"e nt of A)t No. 1'G3 on O)toe% 12& 173'& the one su+e)t/one title %ule %efe%%ed to p%iv!te !nd lo)!l ills onl#& !nd to ills to e en!)ted into ! l!( !nd not to l!( th!t (!s !l%e!d# in fo%)e !nd e9istin !t the ti"e the 174; Constitution too, e6e)t. The p%ovision of Se)tion 2 e%"!ne to the su+e)t e9p%essed in the title of the A)t %e"!ined ope%!tive e)!use it (!s not in)onsistent (ith the Constitution& pu%su!nt to Se)tion 2 of A%ti)le I of the 174; Constitution.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 43!& 4!& <!& ;3

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13 People of the Philippines v. Apolonio C!%los

Case No. 2+4 Case No. 2+4

G.R. No. L-239 (/e 3+, 1947) G.R. No. L-239 (/e 3+, 1947) Chapter I, Page 1*, Footote No.*3 Chapter I, Page 1*, Footote No.*3

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

The PeopleFs Cou%t found the Appell!nt& uilt# of t%e!son. Appell!nt !tt!),ed the )onstitution!lit# of the PeopleFs Cou%t A)t on the %ound th!t it )ont!ined p%ovisions (hi)h de!l on "!tte%s enti%el# fo%ein to the su+e)t "!tte% e9p%essed in its title& su)h !s =1? ! p%ovision (hi)h %et!ins the +u%isdi)tion of the Cou%t of i%st Inst!n)e

=2? ! p%ovision (hi)h !dds to the dis:u!li0)!tion of Justi)es of the Sup%e"e Cou%t !nd p%ovides ! p%o)edu%e fo% thei% sustitution =4? ! p%ovision (hi)h )h!ned the e9istin Rules of Cou%t on the su+e)t of !il& !nd =<? ! p%ovision (hi)h suspends A%ti)le 12; of the Revised Pen!l Code.

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58N the PeopleFs Cou%t A)t (!s un)onstitution!l. '&L$

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No. The People Fs Cou%t (!s intende d to e ! full !nd )o"plete s)he"e (ith its o(n "!)hine%# fo% the indi)t"ent& t%i!l !nd +ud"ent of t%e!son )!ses. The p%ovisions "entioned (e%e !llied !nd e%"!ne to the su+e)t "!tte% !nd pu%poses of the PeopleFs Cou%t A)t. The Con%ess is not e9pe)ted to "!,e the title of !n en!)t"ent ! )o"plete inde9 of its )ontents. The )onstitution!l %ule is s!tis0ed if !ll p!%ts of ! l!( %el!te to the su+e)t e9p%essed in its title.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 7!

STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

People of the Philippines v. >eon)io >i"

Case No. 21+ Case No. 21+

G.R. No. L-14432 (/0 2*, 19*+) G.R. No. L-14432 (/0 2*, 19*+) Chapter I, Page 19, Footote No.3 Chapter I, Page 19, Footote No.3

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

In $!%)h 17;<& the Se)%et!%# of A%i)ultu%e !nd N!tu%!l Resou%)es pu%su!nt to the !utho%it# %!nted hi" # Se)tions 4 !nd < of A)t No. <334 =ishe%ies A)t? issued ishe%ies Ad"inist%!tive O%de% No. 4'. Se)tion 2 of s!id o%de% p%ohi its t%!(l 0shin in )e%t!in !%e!s in S!"!%. AO No. 4' (!s suse:uentl# !"ended (ith AO No. 4'1. >eon)io >i"& the !))used in viol!tion of s!id o%de%& )h!llened its le!lit# on the %ound th!t AO No. 4'1 (!s )ont%!%# to A)t No. <334& the fo%"e% h!vin no 09ed pe%iod !nd thus est!lishin ! !n fo% !ll ti"e (hile the l!tte% st!tin th!t p%ohiition *(!s fo% !n# sinle pe%iod of ti"e not e9)eedin 0ve #e!%sF du%!tion. I##%&$

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58N Se)tion 2 of AO No. 4'1 (!s inv!lid. '&L$

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Se)tion 2 of AO No. 4'1 (!s v!lid. Althouh AO No. 4' 1 (!s defe)tive e)!use it f!iled to spe)if# ! pe%iod fo% the !n& it (!s %uled th!t in )!se of dis)%ep!n)# et(een ! !si) l!( !nd ! %ule issued to i"ple"ent it& the !si) l!( p%ev!ils e)!use the %ule )!nnot o e#ond the te%"s !nd p%ovisions of the l!(. AO No. 4'1 (ould e inope%!tive in so f!% !s it e9)eeded the pe%iod of 0ve #e!%s fo% !n# sinle pe% iod of ti"e& ut it (!s not ne)ess!%il# %ende%ed void # the o"ission.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 4'& 4G!

(13)

11 $U >!o% Cente% v. B!%)i! J%.

Case No. * Case No. * G.R. No. 1131 (ece6er 23, 1994) G.R. No. 1131 (ece6er 23, 1994) F!C"#$ F!C"#$

DOTC $e"o%!ndu" O%de% No. 73/47; (!s 0led !s,in the >TR@ to !llo( p%ovin)i!l us ope%!to%s to )h!%e p!ssene%s %!tes (ithin ! %!ne of 1;E !ove !nd elo( the >TR@ oK)i!l %!te fo% ! pe%iod of one #e!%. >TR@ issued $e"o%!ndu" Ci%)ul!% No.72/337 !llo(in fo% ! %!ne of plus 23E !nd "inus 2;E of the p%es)%ied f!%es. P@OAP& (ithout ! puli) he!%in !nd pe%"ission f%o" >TR@& !v!iled of the de%eul!to%# poli)# !nd !nnoun)ed 23E in)%e!se in e9istin f!%es. Petitione% 0led ! petition opposin the in)%e!se in f!%es. SC issued ! te"po%!%# %est%!inin o%de% to p%event P@OAP f%o" i"ple"entin f!%e in)%e!se.

I##%&#$ I##%&#$

1.58N !utho%it# iven # >TR@ to P@OAP to in)%e!se p%i)es !t 23E inste!d of 1;E is un)onstitution!l on the %ound th!t the%e (!s no 0lin fo% ! petition of pu%pose in the s!id in)%e!se. 2.58N P@OAP p%oved th!t the%e (!s ! puli) ne)essit# fo% the in)%e!se thus viol!tin the Puli) Se%vi)e A)t !nd Rules of the Cou%t.

'&L$ '&L$

1.>TR@ did not h!ve !utho%it# to dele!te its po(e%s to P@OAP. 2.P@OAP (!s not !le to p%ove !nd p%ovide su)h puli) ne)essit# !s %e!son fo% the f!%e in)%e!se.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ None

STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

Hi+o Pl!nt!tion& In). v. Cent%!l @!n,

Case No. 7 Case No. 7 G.R. No. L-342* (!/g/st 9, 19) G.R. No. L-342* (!/g/st 9, 19) F!C"#$ F!C"#$

Con%ess !pp%oved RA No. 12; entitled *An !)t i"posin STA@I>IATION TA ON CONSIBN$NTS A@ROAD TO ACC>RAT TH CONO$IC D>OP$NT O TH PHI>IPPINS OR OTHR

PURPOSS Petitione%s e9pe)ted to p!# <E of the !%e!te v!lue f%o" Jul# 1& 17'2/ June 43& 17'4& !s p%ovided in the A)t. The Cent%!l !n, %ele!sed $onet!%# Resolution No. 177; (hi)h st!tes th!t o% e9po%ts of !n!n!s shipped du%in the pe%iod f%o" J!nu!%# 1& 17'2/ June 43& 17'2 the st!ili-!tion t!9 sh!ll e !t the %!te of E. o% e9po%ts of !n!n!s shipped du%in the pe%iod f%o" Jul# 1& 17'2 to June 43& 17'4 the st!ili-!tion t!9 sh!ll e !t the %!te of <E. o% e9po%ts of !n!n!s shipped du%in the pe%iod f%o" Jul# 1& 17'4/ June 43& 17'< the st!ili-!tion t!9 sh!ll e !t the %!te of 2E.

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58N Cent%!l !n, !)ted (ith %!ve !use of dis)%etion !"ountin to l!), of +u%isdi)tion (hen it issued $onet!%# @o!%d Resolution No. 177;.

'&L$ '&L$

Cent%!l @!n, !)ted (ith %!ve !use of dis)%etion. In )!se of dis)%ep!n)# et(een the !si) l!( !nd the %ule o% %eul!tion issued to i"ple"ent the s!id l!(& the !si) l!( p%ev!ils. The %ule o% %eul!tion )!nnot o e#ond the te%"s of the !si) l!(. L!"IN M!IM$

L!"IN M!IM$ 7)

(14)

12 Chin! @!n,in Co%p. v. CA

Case No. 9 Case No. 9

G.R. No. 1211 (ece6er , 199*) G.R. No. 1211 (ece6er , 199*) Chapter I, Page 19, Footote No.4 Chapter I, Page 19, Footote No.4

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

Petitione% e9tended lo!ns to N!tive 5est Co%p. !nd its p%esident& So Chin& in %etu%n fo% p%o"isso%# notes to p!# the lo!ns. T(o e9t%! "o%t!es (e%e !ddition!ll# e9e)uted # So Chin !nd his (ife on Jul# !nd Auust 17G7. The lo!ns "!tu%ed ut So Chin (!s not !le to %ep!# the s!id lo!ns. This )!used Petitione% to 0le fo% e9t%! +udi)i!l fo%e)losu%es of the t(o "o%t!ed p%ope%ties. The p%ope%ties (e%e to e sold8!u)tioned on Ap%il 4& 1774. On Ap%il 2G& 17G7 the )ou%t %uled on the side of So Chin. The issu!n)e of the p%eli"in!%# in+un)tion (!s %!nted the%efo%e the s!le of the t(o "o%t!ed p%ope%ties (!s stopped. Petitione% souht fo% %e)onside%!tion !nd elev!ted the )!se to the Cou%t of Appe!ls. The# (e%e !ppe!lin th!t A)t No. 414; (!s the ove%nin %ule in thei% )!se& inste!d of Ad"inist%!tive O%de% No. 4 !s So Chin (!s )ontendin.

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1.58N Petitione% )!n e9t%!/+udi)i!ll# fo%e)lose the p%ope%ties. 2. +udi)i!l fo%e)losu%e.58N Ad"inist%!tive O%de% No. 4 should ove%n the e9t%! '&L$

'&L$

1.Petitione% )!n fo%e)lose the p%ope%ties.

2.A)t No. 414; is the ove%nin l!(. Ad"inist%!tive O%de% No. 4 )!nnot p%ev!il ove% A)t 414;. It is !n ele"ent!%# p%in)iple th!t ! st!tu%e is supe%io% to !n !d"inist%!tive di%e)tive. Thus& the st!tute )!nnot e %epe!led o% !"ended # the !d"inist%!tive di%e)tive. L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ None

STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

S!ntos v. Hono%!le sten-o

Case No. 14+ Case No. 14+ G.R. No. L-1474+ (#epte6er 2*, 19*+) G.R. No. L-1474+ (#epte6er 2*, 19*+) F!C"#$ F!C"#$

The de)edent is ! d%ive% fo% PeopleFs >!nd T%!nspo%t!tion Co"p!n#& of (hi)h Petitione%s !%e "!n!e% !nd p%op%ieto%. The 5o%,"enFs Co"pens!tion Co""ission !(!%ded the de)edentFs (ido( the !"ount of P4&<7<.<3& plus u%i!l e9penses not e9)eedin P233. Afte% ; #e!%s& Respondent& in ! )ivil )!se 0led # the "othe% of the de)edent& o%de%ed Petitione%s to p!# the !(!%d plus P;33 !s !tto%ne#Fs fees fo% f!ilu%e to )o"pl#. Petitione%s p%!# th!t the de)ision e !nnulled o% "odi0ed !sed on Se)tion 1 Rule 11 the Rules of the 5o%,"enFs Co"pens!tion Co""ission !nd p%!#s fu%the% th!t the P;33 in !tt#Fs fees e9)eeded the !llo(ed fees !))o%din to Se). Rule 2 of the s!id Rules. I##%&$

I##%&$

1.58N the Rules of the 5o%,"enFs Co"pens!tion Co""ission !"ended R.A. No.

772!nd !s ! %esult dep%ived the )ou%t of its +u%isdi)tion ove% the )!se.

2.58N the )ou%t )o""itted ! %!ve !use of dis)%etion in !(!%din the P;33 in !tto%ne#Fs fees.

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Petition (!s dis"issed.

1. The Co""ission& o% !n# of its %ules& )!nnot !"end !n !)t of Con%ess. u%the%"o%e& the Rule (!s p%o"ul!ted "o%e th!n 2 #e!%s !fte% the )ou%t h!d !):ui%ed +u%isdi)tion ove% the "!in )!se. 2. The )ou%t did not )o""it %!ve !use of dis)%etion in !(!%din the P;33 sin)e the s!id %ule onl# !pplies to the Co""ission !nd not the Cou%t.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 43& 4;& <!

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14 B%eo v. Co""ission on le)tions

Case No. 12+ Case No. 12+

G.R. No. 129 (/e 19, 1997) G.R. No. 129 (/e 19, 1997) Chapter I, Page 23, Footote No.9 Chapter I, Page 23, Footote No.9

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

One of the Respondents (!s ele)ted fo% his 4 %d !nd 0n!l te%" !s )oun)ilo% of the 2nd Dist%i)t of $!nil!. His :u!li0)!tions !%e ein :uestioned # he%ein Petitione%& (ho is !lso !s,in fo% the suspension of his p%o)l!"!tion. Petitione% %ins into )onside%!tion the f!)t th!t Respondent (!s %e"oved f%o" his position !s Deput# She%i6 upon 0ndin of se%ious "is)ondu)t in !n !d"inist%!tive )!se held on O)toe% 41& 17G1. Petitione% !%ues th!t Respondent should e dis:u!li0ed unde% Se)tion <3=? of the >o)!l Bove%n"ent Code. Petitione% fu%the% !%ues th!t the >o)!l Bove%n"ent Code should e !pplied %et%o!)tivel#.

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58N o% not the Se)tion <3 of the >o)!l Bove%n"ent Code should e !pplied %et%o!)tivel# due to its (o%din. '&L$

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Se)tion <3=? of the >o)!l Bove%n"ent Code should not e !pplied %et%o!)tivel#. It is unde%stood th!t st!tutes !%e not to e )onst%ued !s intended to h!ve ! %et%o!)tive e6e)t so !s to !6e)t pendin p%o)eedins& unless su)h intent is e9p%essl# de)l!%ed o% )le!%l# !nd ne)ess!%il# i"plied f%o" the l!nu!e of the en!)t"ent. The f!)t th!t the p%ovision of the Code in :uestion does not :u!lif# the d!te of ! )!ndid!teFs %e"ov!l !nd th!t it is )ou)hed in the p!st tense should not dete% the )ou%t f%o" !ppl#in the l!( p%ospe)tivel#.

The te%" to e loo,ed !t in the issue is RINSTAT$NT& (hi)h h!s ! te)hni)!l "e!nin& %efe%%in onl# to !n !ppointive position. Sin)e Respondent (!s %eele)ted& this does not f!ll unde% the s)ope of the te%". L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 2;!& <)

STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTIO

N

S!ntos v. $uni)ip!l of C!loo)!n

Case No. 141 Case No. 141 G.R. No. L-1+7 (!pr 22, 19*3) G.R. No. L-1+7 (!pr 22, 19*3) F!C"#$ F!C"#$

Respondent issued O%din!n)e No. 2< )h!%in sl!uhte%houses in the "uni)ip!lit# )e%t!in fees in)ludin *sl!uhte%house fees& *"e!t inspe)tion fees& *)o%%!l fees& *!nd inte%n!l o%!n fees& pu%su!nt to Co""on(e!lth A)t No. ;;. Petitione%s :uestioned the v!lidit# o% s!id O%din!n)e. I##%&$

I##%&$

58N Respondent& in the issu!n)e of O%din!n)e No. 2<& e9)eeded the li"its of its +u%isdi)tion p%ovided # Co""on(e!lth A)t ;;.

'&L$ '&L$

Respondent e9)eeded its +u%isdi)tion in the issu!n)e of the s!id o%din!n)e. The Co""on(e!lth A)t onl# !llo(ed Respondent to )h!%e sl!uhte%house fees. 5hen Respondent o%d!ined the p!#"ent of othe% s!id fees& it ove%stepped the li"its of its st!tuto%# %!nt. The onl# othe% fees th!t (ould e !))ept!le (e%e vete%in!%# o% s!nit!%# inspe)tion fees sin)e it (!s "entioned in the st!tute. In)ident!ll#& the )ou%t o%de%ed Respondent to %efund the fees (ith the e9)eption of *sl!uhte%house fees. One of the %ules of st!tuto%# )onst%u)tion is th!t *)e%t!in se)tions o% p!%ts of se)tions of !n o%din!n)e "!# e held inv!lid (ithout !6e)tin the v!lidit# of (h!t %e"!ins& if the p!%ts !%e not so inte%lended !nd dependent th!t the vi)e of one ne)ess!%il# viti!tes the othe%s. L!"IN M!IM$

L!"IN M!IM$ 1;!& 4'

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1< N!tion!l Housin Autho%it# v. Re#es

Case No.  Case No.  G.R. No. 49439 (/e 29, 193) G.R. No. 49439 (/e 29, 193) F!C"# F!C"#

P%iv!te Respondents o(ned ! p!%)el of l!nd of 2;&333 s:8%n& su+e)t of !n e9p%op%i!tion p%o)eedins %!nted # the )ou%t in f!vo% NHA. Respondents )l!i"ed the# should e p!id the !ssessed v!lue of P&33.33 pu%su!nt to PD <2. Petitione% opposed the p!#"ent )l!i"in th!t it (!s too e9)essive. He )ited PD << (hi)h p%ovid es +ust )o"pens!tion not to e9)eed the "!%,et v!lue de)l!%ed # the o(ne% in the !"ount of P1&<33.33. Respondent Jude %!nted the p!#"ent of P&33.33& ut Petitione% h!d opposed it pu%su!nt to PD 122< (hi)h st!tes th!t the ove%n"ent sh!ll )hoose et(een the v!lue of %e!l p%ope%t# !s de)l!%ed # the o(ne% 9 9 9 o% the "!%,et v!lue dete%"ined # the Cit# o% P%ovin)i!l Assesso%& (hi)heve% is lo(e%.

I##%& I##%&

58N PD << !s !"ended # PD 122< dete%"ines the v!lu!tion on +ust )o"pens!tion.

'&L

'&LCou%ts !))o%d the p%esu"ption of v!lidit# to e9e)utive !)ts !nd leisl!tive en!)t"ents& 9 9 9 e)!use the leisl!tu%e is p%esu"ed to !ide # the Constitution 9 9 9. The Respondent Jude should h!ve follo(ed +ust )o"pens!tion in e9p%op%i!tion

)!ses& th!t the lo(e% v!lue "!de # the l!ndo(ne% should e the !sis fo% 09in the p%i)e. The petition fo% Ce%tio%!%i is %!nted. L L ! ! " " II N N M M ! !   II M M  4 '

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STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

%!n)is)o >!o >i" v. CA !nd @enito ill!vi)en)io D#

Case No. 73 Case No. 73

G.R. No. 7+47

G.R. No. 7+47(ctoer 31, 199+)(ctoer 31, 199+)

F!C"# F!C"#

P%iv!te Respondent ente%ed into ! )ont%!)t of le!se (ith Petitione% fo% ! pe%iod of 4 #e!%s. Afte% it e9pi%ed& P%iv!te Respondent %efused to v!)!te the p%e"ises& !nd hen)e& the 0lin of !n e+e)t"ent suit !!inst the Respondent. The )!se (!s te%"in!ted # ! )o"p%o"ise !%ee"ent& !nd the le!se )ontinued f%o" 17'7 to 17G2& then f%o" 17G2 to 17G;. The Petitione% 0led !nothe% e+e)t"ent suit. The t%i!l )ou%t dis"issed the )o"pl!int on the %ounds th!t =1? the le!se )ont%!)t h!s not e9pi%ed !nd =2? the )o"p%o"ise !%ee"ent ente%ed into )onstitutes %es +udi)!t!. Petitione% !ppe!led to the RTC of $!nil! !nd then to the CA (hi)h !lso !K%"ed the de)ision of the t%i!l )ou%t.

I##%& I##%&

1.58N the )ontinu!n)e of le!se is "!de to depend upon the (ill of the lessee

2.58N the !)tion fo% e+e)t"ent is !%%ed # )o"p%o"ise !%ee"ent on %es +udi)!t!

'&L '&L

This is unten!le e)!use the )ontinu!n)e of le!se is not dependent upon the (ill of the lessee. On the )o"p%o"ise

!%ee"ent& the le!se is not fo% pe%petu!l %ene(!ls unless the l!nu!e e"plo#ed indi)!tes th!t it (!s the intention of the p!%ties.

On the se)ond issue& the )o"p%o"ise !%ee"ent does not !ppl# e)!use the p%esent )!se %e:ui%es ! di6e%ent set of eviden)e. The )o"p%o"ise !%ee"ent does not fo%e)lose !n# )!use of !)tion !%isin f%o" ! viol!tion of the te%"s the%eof& !nd hen)e& %es +udi)!t! does not !ppl#.

L L ! ! " " II N N M M ! !   II M M  1 & 1 1 ! & 2  & 1; Hon. Alf%edo S. >i" v. elipe B. P!):uin

Case No. 74 Case No. 74 G.R. No. 11+44 (a/ar0 27, 199) G.R. No. 11+44 (a/ar0 27, 199) F!C"# F!C"#

9e)utive O%de% No. 472 (!s issued t%!nsfe%%in the !utho%it# to %eul!te J!i/Al!i f%o" lo)!l ove%n"ents to the B!"es !nd A"use"ents @o!%d =BA@?. The Cit# of $!nil! p!ssed !n O%din!n)e No. '3; !utho%i-in the "!#o% to !llo( the Asso)i!ted Develop"ent Co%po%!tion =ADC? to ope%!te ! JAI/A>AI. Then

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P%esident $!%)os issued ! PD ''1 %evo,in !ll po(e%s !nd !utho%it# of lo)!l ove%n"ents to %!nt f%!n)hise& li)ense o% pe%"it& to J!i/Al!i !nd othe% fo%"s of !"lin. Then P%esident A:uino issued !n .O. No. 17 e9p%essl# %epe!lin PD. No. G13 (hi)h %evo,es !nd )!n)els the f%!n)hise %!nted to the Philippine J!i/Al!i !nd A"use"ent Co%po%!tion. In 177G& ADC t%ied to ope%!te ! J!i/Al!i& ut the B!"es !nd A"use"ent @o!%d inte%vened !nd invo,ed P.D. ''1 (hi)h e9p%essl# %evo,ed !ll e9istin f%!n)hises !nd pe%"its to ope%!te !ll fo%"s of !"lin issued # lo)!l ove%n"ents.

I##%& I##%&

1.58N the f%!n)hise %!nted # the Cit# of $!nil! to ADC is v!lid in vie( of . 3. No. 472 (hi)h t%!nsfe%%ed f%o" lo)!l ove%n"ents to the BA@ the po(e% to %eul!te J!i/Al!i. 2.58N the ADC is )o%%e)t in !ss!ilin th!t P.D. ''1 is viol!tive

of e:u!l p%ote)tion !nd non/i"p!i%"ent )l!uses of the Constitution.

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R.A. <37 p%ovides th!t Con%ess did not dele!te to the Cit# of $!nil! the po(e% *to f%!n)hise the ope%!tion of J!i/Al!i. And .O. 472 %e"oves the po(e% of lo)!l ove%n"ents to issue li)ense !nd pe%"it.

All l!(s !%e p%esu"ed v!lid !nd )onstitution!l. PD ''1 (!s not %epe!led o% !"ended # !n# suse:uent l!(. It did not viol!te the e:u!l p%ote)tion )l!use of the Constitution e)!use the s!id de)%ee h!d %evo,ed !ll f%!n)hises issued # the lo)!l ove%n"ents (ithout e9)eptions.

L L ! ! " " II N N M M ! !   II M M  ; ! &  ) & 4 ' & < < & ; 3

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STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

i)to%i!no v. li-!lde Rope 5o%,e%sF Union

Case No. 1*9 Case No. 1*9 G.R. No. L-224* (#epte6er 12, 1974) G.R. No. L-224* (#epte6er 12, 1974) F!C"#$ F!C"#$

Petitione%& !n *Ilesi! ni C%isto& (!s ! "e"e% of the Respondent Union (hi)h h!d (ith thei% Co"p!n# ! )olle)tive !%!inin !%ee"ent )ont!inin ! )losed shop p%ovision !llo(ed unde% R.A. G'; *$e"e%ship in the Union sh!ll e %e:ui%ed !s ! )ondition of e"plo#"ent fo% !ll pe%"!nent e"plo#ees (o%,e%s )ove%ed # this A%ee"ent *

RA 44;3 !"ended RA G'; *ut su)h !%ee"ent sh!ll not )ove% "e"e%s of !n# %eliious se)t (hi)h p%ohiit !Kli!tion of thei% "e"e%s in !n# su)h l!o% o%!ni-!tion. Petitione% %esined f%o" Respondent Union& (hi)h (%ote ! fo%"!l lette% to the

Co"p!n# !s,in to sep!%!te the Petitione% f%o" se%vi)e. I##%&$

I##%&$

1.58N RA 44;3 viol!tes %iht to fo%" o% +oin !sso)i!tion 2.58N RA 44;3 is )onstitution!l

3.58N the lo(e% )ou%t )o""itted %!ve !use of dis)%etion (hen %ulin th!t the Union should p!# ;33 !nd !tto%ne#Fs fee.

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The %iht to +oin !sso)i!tions in)ludes the %iht not to +oin o% to %esin f%o" ! l!o% o%!ni-!tion. Se)tion 1 73 of A%t III of the 174; Constitution& !s (ell !s Se)tion ' of A%t I of the 17'4 Constitution& p%ovide th!t the %iht to fo%" !sso)i!tions fo% pu%poses not )ont%!%# to l!( sh!ll not e !%ided.

A%ti)le 223G of the Civil Code p%ovides th!t !tto%ne#Fs fees !nd e9penses of liti!tion "!# e !(!%ded *(hen the defend!ntFs !)t h!s )o"pelled the Pl!inti6 to in)u% e9penses to p%ote)t his inte%est !nd *in !n# othe% )!se (he%e the )ou%t dee"s it +ust !nd e:uit!le th!t !tto%ne#Fs fees !nd e9penses of liti!tion should e %e)ove%ed. L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 7!& <3 1 T!V!d! v. Tuve%! Case No. 27 Case No. 27 G.R. No. L-*391 (ece6er 29, 19*) G.R. No. L-*391 (ece6er 29, 19*) Chapter I, Page 37, Footote No.19 Chapter I, Page 37, Footote No.19

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

Due p%o)ess (!s invo,ed # the Petitione%s in de"!ndin the dis)losu%e of ! nu"e% of P%esidenti!l De)%ees (hi)h the# )l!i"ed h!d not een pulished !s %e:ui%ed # l!(. The ove%n"ent !%ued th!t (hile puli)!tion (!s ne)ess!%# !s ! %ule& it (!s not so (hen it (!s *othe%(ise p%ovided !s (hen the de)%ees the"selves de)l!%ed th!t the# (e%e to e)o"e e6e)tive i""edi!tel# upon thei% !pp%ov!l.

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58N the )l!use *othe%(ise p%ovided in A%ti)le 2 of Civil Code pe%t!ins to the ne)essit# of puli)!tion.

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No& the )l!use *othe%(ise p%ovided %efe%s to the d!te of e6e)tivit# !nd not to the %e:ui%e"ent of puli)!tion pe% se& (hi)h )!nnot in !n# event e o"itted.

Puli)!tion in full should e indispens!le. 5ithout su)h noti)e o% puli)!tion& the%e (ould e no !sis fo% the !ppli)!tion of the "!9i" *ino%!nti! >eis non e9)us!t. The )ou%t& the%efo%e& de)l!%es th!t p%esidenti!l issu!n)es of ene%!l !ppli)!tion (hi)h h!ve not een pulished sh!ll h!ve no fo%)e !nd e6e)t& !nd the )ou%t o%de%ed th!t the unpulished de)%ees e pulished in the OK)i!l B!-ette i""edi!tel#.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ )& 7!

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STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

Butie%%e- v. C!%pio Case No.  Case No.  G.R. No. 31+2 (!/g/st 1, 1929) G.R. No. 31+2 (!/g/st 1, 1929) F!C"#$ F!C"#$

The >iti!nts he%e )o"p%o"ised ! )ivil )!se on Jul# 14& 172G& !%eein th!t if (ithin ! "onth f%o" the d!te the%eof the Pl!inti6s f!iled to %epu%)h!se ! )e%t!in l!nd& the o(ne%ship (ould vest in the Defend!nts. @ut (hen the Pl!inti6s dul# tende%ed the !"ount& the Defend!nts !ppe!led th!t # th!t ti"e& Auust 14& 172G& the ti"e (hen the Pl!inti6s tende%ed it& the stipul!ted o% 09ed pe%iod h!d !l%e!d# el!psed.

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58N the stipul!ted pe%iod el!psed on the ti"e of tende%in.

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No. The %epu%) h!se of the l!nd (!s "!de (ithin the stipul!ted pe%iod. The !ove issue depends upon the ,ind of "onth !%eed upon # the p!%ties& !nd on the d!# f%o" (hi)h it should e )ounted. A%ti)le ' of the Civil Code h!d een "odi0ed # Se). 14 of the Ad"inist%!tive Code& !))o%d in to (hi)h *"onth no( "e!ns the )ivil "onth !nd not the %eul!%/43/d!# "onth. In )o"putin !n# 09ed pe%iod of ti"e& (ith %efe%en)e to the pe%fo%"!n)e of !n !)t %e:ui%ed # l!( o% )ont%!)t to e done (ithin ! )e%t!in li"it of ti"e& the d!# f%o" (hi)h the ti"e is %e),oned is to e e9)luded !nd the d!te of pe%fo%"!n)e in)luded& unless othe%(ise p%ovided. The%e is nothin in the !%ee"ent p%ovidin othe%(ise. L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 2!& 47! 1' Bu-"!n v. >i)h!u)o Case No. * Case No. * G.R. No. L-179* (ctoer 21, 1921) G.R. No. L-179* (ctoer 21, 1921) F!C"#$ F!C"#$

Pl!inti6 0led t(o !)tions of unl!(ful det!ine% to %e)ove% possession of )e%t!in p%ope%ties in $!nil!. The t%i!l )ou%t de)ided in f!vo% of the Pl!inti6. The unsu))essful Defend!nts h!vin !ppe!led in oth )!ses on De). 7& 1723 to the Cou%t of i%s t Inst!n)e of $!nil!& it is thei% dut# to )onfo%" (ith the p%ovisions of Se). GG of the CCP& !s !"ended # A)t No. 2;GG& in )!se the# desi%e to !void the i""edi!te e9e)ution of the +ud"ent pendin the !ppe!l& to p!# the Pl!inti 6& o% to deposit in )ou%t& *on o% efo%e the TNTH d!# of e!)h C!lend!% "onth& the su"s of "one# 09ed # the Justi)e of the Pe!)e !s the %e!son!le v!lue of the use !nd o))u p!tion of the p%op e%t# held # the". The

Defend!nts "!de su)h dil!to%# p!#"ents ho(eve% the# f!iled to "!,e su)h p!#"ents on o% efo%e the tenth d!# of the "onth. As ! %esult& the Pl!inti6 "oved the )ou%t to e9e)ute the +ud"ents. The )ou%t o%de%ed the i""edi!te e9e)ution of the +ud"ent.

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58N the p!#"ents (e%e "!de on o% efo%e the Tenth d!# of e!)h "onth.

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The p!#"ent "!de on Auust 11& 1721 (!s one d!# l!te. The te%" *"onth "ust no( e unde%stood to %efe% to )!lend!% "onth& in!s"u)h !s Se) 14 of the Ad"inist%!tive Code h!s "odi0ed A%t. ' of the )ivil )ode in so f!% !s the l!tte% 09es the lenth of ! "onth !t thi%t# d!#s.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 2;!& 2;)

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STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

U.S. v. P!ni!! Case No. 1*1 Case No. 1*1 G.R. No. 223 (March 4, 1914) G.R. No. 223 (March 4, 1914) F!C"#$ F!C"#$

This is !n !ppe!l # the ove%n"ent f%o" !n o%de% of the )ou%t& settin !side the fo%feitu%e of ! !il ond. Jud"ent (!s %ende%ed !!inst the p%in)ip!l on e%u!%# '& !nd the su%eties (e%e noti0ed on the s!"e d!# to p%odu)e the the%eof thei% p%in)ip!l. On e 2G& the )ou%t o%de%ed th!t the Defend!ntFs ond e fo%feited !nd the e9e)ution issued !!inst the p%in)ip!l !nd the su%eties fo% the !"ount the%eof& !nd th!t !n !li!s (!%%!nt e issued fo% the !%%est of the Defend!nt. @# v!%ious o%de%s of the

)ou%t& the s!le (!s postponed f%o" ti"e to ti"e& !nd 0n!ll# o))u%%ed on Jul# G& 1712& (ith ove%n"ent !s the pu%)h!se%. On Jul# 13& 1712& the p%in)ip!l (!s !%%ested. On Jul# 14& 1712& the )ou%t& on !ppli)!tion of the su%eties& set !side the o%de% of fo%feitin the ond& !nd o%de%ed the she%i6 to !nnul the s!le. I##%&$

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58N the e9e)ution s!le o))u%%ed on the d!te di%e)ted # the )ou%t.

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Se). < of the Code of Civil P%o)edu%e p%ovides *unless othe%(ise spe)i!ll# p%ovided& the ti"e (ithin (hi)h !n !)t is %e:ui%ed # l!( to e done sh!ll e )o"puted # e9)ludin the 0%st d!# !nd in)ludin the l!st if the l!st e ! Sund!# o% ! le!l holid!#& it sh!ll e e9)luded. This se)tion is onl# !ppli)!le if the%e is ! )o"put!tion needed to e done. Ho(eve%& in this )!se& the%e is no ne)essit# fo% su)h )o"put!tion fo% the d!te is 09ed fo% (hen the !)t e pe%fo%"ed. It is !lso di%e)ted th!t the s!le should t!,e pl!)e on ! n!"ed futu%e d!te. The s!le he%e of the p%ope%t# "ust st!nd. L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ ) 1G PN@ v. CA Case No. 23 Case No. 23 G.R. No. 932 (Ma0 17, 1993) G.R. No. 932 (Ma0 17, 1993) Chapter I, Page 47, Footote No.19 Chapter I, Page 47, Footote No.19

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

To se)u%e p!#"ents of his lo!ns& P%iv!te Respondent "o%t!es t(o lots to Petitione% !n,. o% f!ilu%e to p!# the oli!tion& Petitione% !n, e9t%!+udi)i!ll# fo%e)losed the "o%t!ed p%ope%t# !nd (on the hihest idde% !t the !u)tion s!le. Then& ! 0n!l deed of s!le (!s %eiste%ed in the @u!)!n Reist%# of P%ope%t# in f!vo% of the Petitione% !n, !nd l!te% sold the s!id lots to ! thi%d p!%t#.

The noti)es of s!le of Appell!ntFs fo%e)losed p%ope%ties

(e%e pulished on $!%)h 2G& Ap%il 11 !nd Ap%il 12& 177 issues of the ne(sp!pe% D!il# Re)o%d. The d!te $!%)h 2G& 177 f!lls on ! %id!#& (hile the d!tes Ap%il 11 !nd 12 f!ll on ! %id!# !nd S!tu%d!#& %espe)tivel#. Se)tion 4 of A)t No. 414; %e:ui%es th!t the noti)e of !u)tion s!le sh!ll e *pulished on)e ! (ee, fo% !t le!st th%ee )onse)utive (ee,s.

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58N the Petitione% !n, )o"plied (ith the %e:ui%e"ents of (ee,l# puli)!tion of noti)e of e9t%!+udi)i!l fo%e)losu%e of "o%t!es.

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It "ust e )on)eded th!t th!t A%ti)le 14 is )o"pletel# silent !s to the de0nition of (h!t is *(ee,. In Con)ep)ion v. Anduet!& the te%" *(ee, (!s inte%p%eted to "e!n !s ! pe%iod of ti"e )onsistin of seven )onse)utive d!#s. The Defend!nt/ Appellee !n, f!iled to )o"pl# (ith the le!l %e:ui%e"ent of puli)!tion.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 1& 7!& 7

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STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

Hid!lo v. Hid!lo Case No. 124 Case No. 124

G.R. No. L-232* (Ma0 29, 197+) a G.R. No. L-2327 (Ma0 29, G.R. No. L-232* (Ma0 29, 197+) a G.R. No. L-2327 (Ma0 29, 197+)

197+)

Chapter II, Page 2, Footote No.19 Chapter II, Page 2, Footote No.19

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

Petitione%s p%!# to A%!%i!n Cou%t to e entitled !s sh!%e ten!nts to %edee" p!%)el of l!nd the# !%e (o%,in f%o" the pu%)h!se%s (he%e no noti)e (!s p%eviousl# iven to the" # the vendo% of the l!tte%Fs intention to sell the p%ope%t# !nd (he%e the vendo% did not e9e)ute the !Kd!vit %e:ui%ed # Se). 14 of the A%i)ultu%!l >!nd Refo%" Code efo%e the %eist%!tion of the deed of s!le. A%!%i!n Cou%t dis"issed petitions& st!tin th!t the %iht of %ede"ption %!nted # Se). 12 of the s!"e )ode is onl# fo% le!sehold ten!nts !nd not fo% sh!%e ten!nts& )l!i"in th!t sh!%e

ten!n)# !nd le!sehold ten!n)# !%e (ithin the +u%isdi)tion of the )ode  th!t the )ode e9p%essl# %!nts s!id %iht to le!seholde%s onl# !nd nood# else. $o%eov e%& the )ou%t held th!t if the intention of Con%ess (!s to e9tend the %iht of %ede"ption to sh!%e ten!nts th%ouh +udi)i!l leisl!tion& the se)tion (ould h!ve e9p%essl# s!id so.

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58N not the %iht of %ede"ption %!nted # Se). 12 of the A%!%i!n Refo%" Code !dd%esses onl# le!seholde%s !nd not sh!%e ten!nts.

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A%!%i!n Cou%t fell into seve%!l e%%oneous !ssu"ptions !nd p%e"ises& %edu)in *!%i)ultu%!l lessee to onl# *le!sehold ten!nts. The pu%pose of the A%i)ultu%!l >!nd Refo%" Code is the !olition of !%i)ultu%!l sh!%e ten!n)#. The poli)# of the St!te is to est!lish o(ne% )ultiv!to%ship. Adhe%en)e to the lette% (ould %esult in !su%dit#& in+usti)e !nd )ont%!di)tions !nd (ould defe!t the pl!in !nd vit!l pu%pose of the st!tute.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 7!& 7)& 11!& 12!& 4!& 4'& <3! $!9i"s invo,ed # lo(e% )ou%t )& 43& <4

17 U.S. v. N!v!%%o Case No. 3++ Case No. 3++ G.R. No. *1*+ (March 21, 1911) G.R. No. *1*+ (March 21, 1911) Chapter II, Page 2, Footote No.2+ Chapter II, Page 2, Footote No.2+

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

The# "!de !n o!th efo%e !n ele)tion oK)e% in the "uni)ip!lit# of Piddi =in p%o)eedins in )onne)tion (ith the ene%!l ele)tion held on Nov. 2& 1737? th!t the# o(ned %e!l p%ope%t# (ith the v!lue of P;33. viden)e sho(ed th!t the Appell!nts& e9)ept fo% D!niel N!v!%%o !nd Ben!%o C!li9t%o& did not o(n p%ope%t# of the !ssessed v!lue of P;33.

I##%&$ I##%&$

58N the s!id st!tuteFs t%ue test of p%ope%t# :u!li0)!tion to vote is the !)tu!l8"!%,et v!lue of the p%ope%t# o(ned o% the !ssessed v!lue the%eof.

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It (!s the intention of the leisl!to% !s p%oved f%o" !n e9!"in!tion of the i""edi!te )onte9t of p%ovisions of the st!tute de0nin *p%ope%t# :u!li0)!tions of ! vote%& !nd of the st!tute !s ! (hole. In the st!tute& p%ope%t# :u!li0)!tion is !n !lte%n!tive to :u!li0)!tion !sed upon !n !nnu!l p!#"ent. @oth :u!li0)!tions !%e unde% ! sinle he!d& suestin !n inti"!te %el!tion et(een the t(o in the "ind of the leisl!to%. Anothe% se)tion of the st!tute dis:u!li0es people (ho !%e delin:uent in the p!#"ent of puli) t!9es !ssessed sin)e Au. 14& 1G7G& f%o" votin. This p%ovision (!s di%e)ted to the )!se of delin:uen)# in the p!#"ent of l!nd t!9es !s (ell !s !ll othe% t!9es. The st!tute !s ! (hole =!s !n ele)tion l!(? is intended to se)u%e pu%it# of the !llot o9. If the p%ope%t# :u!li0)!tion is !)tu!l8"!%,et v!lue& it (ould e hihl# i"p%o!le to enfo%)e the st!tute (ithin ! %e!son!le ti"e e)!use it (ill e diK)ult to dete%"ine.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$

(23)

13& 11!& 12!& 2G& 4!& 4'

STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

>ite9 "plo#ees Asso)i!tion v. duv!l!

Case No. 149 Case No. 149

G.R. No. L-411+* (#epte6er 22, 1977) G.R. No. L-411+* (#epte6er 22, 1977) Chapter II, Page 3, Footote No.22 Chapter II, Page 3, Footote No.22

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

Respondent& OK)e%/in/Ch!%e of @u%e!u of >!o% Rel!tions& %e:ui%ed %efe%endu" ele)tion !"on Petitione%s to !s)e%t!in thei% (ishes !s to thei% !Kli!tion (ith ede%!tion of %ee 5o%,e%s. Petitione%s )ontend ed th!t the%e (!s no st!tuto%# !utho%i-!tion fo% the Respondent to %e:ui%e %efe%endu" ele)tion !nd th!t Respondent !nd the @u%e!u (e%e e#ond +u%isdi)tion. I##%&$

I##%&$

58N the%e is ! st!tute !utho%i-in Respondents !nd ivin the" +u%isdi)tion.

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A%ti)le 22 of the >!o% Code !dd%esses this. Respondent !nd the @u%e!u (e%e (ithin +u%isdi)tion. Petition denied. A%ti)le 22 of >!o% Code is ve%# )le!% )on)e%nin e9e)utive dep!%t"entFs *o%iin!l !nd e9)lusive !utho%it# to !)t. L!"IN M!IM$

L!"IN M!IM$ 7!& 7)& 23!& 2<!

23 Re!l!do v. Yulo Case No. 2 Case No. 2 G.R. No. L-42293 (Fer/ar0 13, 193) G.R. No. L-42293 (Fer/ar0 13, 193) Chapter II, Page , Footote No.2 Chapter II, Page , Footote No.2

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

Petitione% (!s Justi)e of Pe!)e of $!lin!o& Al!#. On Nove"e% 1& 1741& A)t No. 4G77 (hi)h p%ov ided fo% the !e %eti%e"ent !"on +usti)es (!s !pp%oved. A fe( #e!%s l!te%& Petitione% e)!"e ; #e!%s of !e =!e %eti%e"ent !s p%ovided # Se). 234 of the Ad"inist%!tive Code& !"ended fu%the% # A)t. No. 4G77?. Sho%tl# the%e!fte%& ste!n T. ill!% (!s !ppointed !s Justi)e of Pe!)e to t!,e the pl!)e of Petitione%. On De)e"e% 1'&

174<& ill!% !ssu"ed oK)e. I##%&$

I##%&$

58N unde% the p%ovisions of Se)tion 234 of the Ad"inist%!tive Code& !s fu%the% !"ended # A)t No. 4G77& the

(24)

Justi)es of Pe!)e !nd !u9ili!%# +usti)es !ppointed p%io% to the !pp%ov!l of the A)t sh!ll )e!se to hold oK)e upon %e!)hin the !e of ;.

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Justi)es !ppointed p%io% to the !pp%ov!l of the A)t (ill not e !6e)ted # s!id !"end"ent =A)t No. 4G77?.

L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 1& <!

STATUTORY

CONSTRUCTI

ON

@.. S!n Dieo In). v. CA Case No. 2* Case No. 2* G.R. No. +223 (Fer/ar0 , 1993) G.R. No. +223 (Fer/ar0 , 1993) Chapter II, Page *, Footote No. 27 Chapter II, Page *, Footote No. 27

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

On $!%)h 4& 17G& Petitione% instituted !n !)tion in the RTC of !len-uel! !!inst P%iv!te Respondent De Jesus fo% %e)ove%# of possession of ! p!%)el of l!nd in s!id !%e!. In he% defense& De Jesus !%ued th!t the l!nd in :uestion (!s )ove%ed # PD 231 =!

)o"ple"ent!%# p%ovision of PD 1;1'& (hi)h !i"s to p%ote)t ten!nts f%o" un+ust evi)tion.?

I##%&$ I##%&$

58N PD 231 is ! v!lid defense of De Jesus in upholdin he% %ihts !s ! lessee.

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PD 231 is ! v!lid %ound fo% De Jesus in invo,in he% %ihts !s ! ten!nt. 5hile it "!# dep!%t f%o" its sou%)e& PD 1;1'& s!id p%ovision still !i"s to p%ote)t the ten!nts f%o" uns)%upulous l!ndo(ne%s f%o" de"!ndin ! steep p%i)e fo% the l!nd& !s (ell !s un+ust evi)tion. L!"IN M!IM$ L!"IN M!IM$ 12!& 2;! 21 A%!net! v. Dinl!s!n Case No. 4 Case No. 4 G.R. No. L-2+44 (!/g/st 2*, 1949) G.R. No. L-2+44 (!/g/st 2*, 1949) Chapter II, Page *, Footote No. 29 Chapter II, Page *, Footote No. 29

F!C"#$ F!C"#$

9e)utive O%de%s& in pu%su!n)e of Co""on(e!lth A)t No. '1 ="e%en)# Po(e%s A)t?& (e%e :uestioned fo% its v!lidit# until the N!tion!l Asse"l# Convention of 17<2

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58N the p%o)l!"!tions !%e v!lid. '&L$

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These 9e)utive O%de%s !%e v!lid e)!use the# h!ve een en!)ted du%in the ti"e of the in!ilit# of the Con%ess to

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