Eemian and Vistulian pol len se quence at Kubłowo (Cen tral Po land):
im pli ca tions for the limit of the Last Gla cial Max i mum
Małgorzata ROMAN and Zofia BALWIERZ
Ro man M. and Balwierz Z. (2010) – Eemian and Vistulian pol len se quence at Kubłowo (Cen tral Po land): im pli ca tions for the limit of the Last Gla cial Max i mum. Geol. Quart., 54 (1): 55–68. Warszawa.
The Kubłowo site is sit u ated in the south east ern Kujawy re gion, Cen tral Po land, and slightly to the south of the limit of the Last Gla cial Max i mum (LGM) in the Vistula Lobe. Late Pleis to cene lac us trine and peat de pos its found there have been an a lyzed for their pol len con -tent. The pol len se quence from Kubłowo re cords the lon gest con tin u ous suc ces sion of veg e ta tion cov er ing the Eemian Inter gla cial, Early Vistulian and the lower part of the Plenivistulian in Cen tral Po land. In the Early Vistulian two warm (Brörup and Odderade) and two cool (Herning and Rederstall) in ter vals have been dis tin guished. The next three cli ma tic os cil la tions cor re spond to the Schalkholtz and Ebersdorf stadials and to the Oerel Interstadial. The lack of till or till residua above the Eemian–Vistulian de pos its at Kubłowo in di cates this area as be ing be yond the ex tent of the last Scan di na vian ice sheet which con firms the re con struc tion of the LGM limit as based on geomorphological ev i dence.
Małgorzata Ro man, Chair of Qua ter nary Reasearch, Uni ver sity of Łódź, Kopcińskiego 31, PL-90-142 Łódź, Po land, e-mail:
email@example.com; Zofia Balwierz, Wyszyńskiego 72 m 35, PL-94-047 Łódź, Po land, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (re ceived: April 24, 2009; ac cepted: Oc to ber 23, 2009).
Key words: Cen tral Po land, Eemian Inter gla cial, Early Vistulian and Plenivistulian, lac us trine and peat de pos its, pol len anal y sis, palynostratigraphy.
Palaeobotanical lit er a ture de scribes nu mer ous sites with the Eemian Inter gla cial pol len suc ces sion. More rare are sites, which in con tin u ous se quence em brace both the Eemian as well as the Vistulian suc ces sions. Mamakowa (1989) pro vides a long list of Eemian and Eemian–Vistulian sites in Po land up to the year 1986. Among them is the Zgierz-Rudunki site (JastrzębskaMamełka, 1985) com pris ing the Eemian Inter gla -cial, Early Vistulian and the low est Plenivistulian in ter val. In the 1990’s a few new sites were de scribed, i.a. Ruszkówek (Janczyk-Kopikowa, 1997), Mikorzyn (Stankowski et al., 1999) and Machnacz (Kupryjanowicz, 1991), which con tain the whole Eemian and part of the Vistulian suc ces sion. At the be gin ning of the 21st cen tury sub se quent sites were de scribed which, ex cept for the Eemian and Early Vistulian, com prise a sig nif i cant part of the Plenivistulian. Most rep re sen ta tive are the Kuców site (Balwierz, 2003), Dzierniakowo and Solniki (Kupryjanowicz, 2005, 2008) and the Horoszki Duże site, de -scribed in de tail (Granoszewski, 2003; Fig. 1). In west ern Eu
-rope the Grand Pile site (Woillard, 1978) rep re sents, up to now, the full est inter gla cial-gla cial suc ces sion. Even though the num ber of lo cal i ties em brac ing in con tin u ous se quence Eemian and Vistulian suc ces sions is grow ing, they are still few in num -ber, and each suc ces sive site is sig nif i cant for un der stand ing the de vel op ment of veg e ta tion, cli mate and stra tig ra phy of the Late Pleis to cene.
Nu mer ous sites with or ganic de pos its of Eemian Inter gla -cial age have been de tected through out the area oc cu pied by the Vistula Lobe dur ing the Last Gla cial Max i mum (LGM) (Fig. 1). The ma jor ity of those were found dur ing geo log i cal sur vey ing for the De tailed Geo log i cal Map of Po land (1:50 000 scale) and ex am ined for pol len and li thol ogy.
The Kubłowo site is lo cated in the south east ern Kujawy re -gion (Cen tral Po land), 1 km to the south of the max i mum limit of the Vistulian (Weichselian) Gla ci ation ice sheet (Figs. 1 and 2). A widely ac cepted re con struc tion of the LGM limit dur ing the Late Vistulian main stadial by Kozarski (1986, 1988, 1995) is shown in Fig ure 1. The max i mum ex tent of the last Scan di na vian ice sheet in Po land is diachronous (cf. Marks, 2002, 2004; Wysota, 2002). In West ern Po land it was con nected with the Leszno (Brandenburg) Phase, but in Cen tral and East ern Po land
the youn ger Poznań (Frank furt) Phase has been found as the most ex ten sive (Fig. 1). There is now a con sen sus that the last Scan di na vian ice sheet only once reached the south east ern Kujawy re gion (Baraniecka, 1989, 1991, 1993; Ro man, 2006, 2007, 2008b; Molewski, 2007; Wysota and Molewski, 2007; Wysota et al., 2009) and left a sep a rate till, the strati graphic po -si tion of which was well de ter mined as youn ger than the Eemian Inter gla cial, re fer ring to the sites of subfossil plants at Kaliska (Domosławska-Baraniecka, 1965; Janczyk- Kopi kowa, 1965) and Ruszkówek (Kozydra and Skompski, 1995; Kopikowa, 1997; Fig. 1). This ice sheet ad vance did not take place be fore 21 ka BP (Stankowska and Stankowski, 1988; Kozarski, 1986, 1995), and not ear lier than 20 300 ka BP (Przegiętka et al., 2008). Since the rec og ni tion of the last Scan di -na vian ice sheet in Po land, a lobe of which in vaded the Płock
Ba sin (Lencewicz, 1927), a num ber of pa pers have been pub -lished on its max i mum ex tent in the Vistula Lobe. A re view of opin ions on this has re cently been pre sented by Wysota and Molewski (Wysota and Molewski, 2007; Wysota et al., 2009) and Ro man (2006, 2007). The LGM limit in the Vistula Lobe, pre sented here (Fig. 2) has been re con structed by means of geomorphological and lithostratigraphical ev i dence (Skompski, 1969; Baraniecka, 1989, 1991, 1993; Ro man, 1999) and re cently by sedimentological re search and lu mi nes cence datings of the Late Vistulian gla cial se quence in sev eral key ex po sures within the mar ginal zone of the last gla cial ad vance (Ro man, 2003, 2007, 2008a, b). How ever, the LGM ex tent has been pre cisely de lin eated only in the west ern part of the area oc cu pied by the Vistula ice lobe, but in the cen tral and east ern part it is still un -clear, es pe cially be cause of doubt ful or i gin of land forms in the
Fig. 1. Lo ca tion of Eemian subfossil flora sites in Cen tral Po land (af ter Bruj and Ro man, 2007, mod i fied)
Eemian subfossil flora sites: 1 – Kazimierz (Stankowski and Tobolski, 1981); 2 – Jóźwin (Borówko- Dłużakowa, 1979; Tobolski, 1991); 3 – Mikorzyn (Stankowski et al., 1999); 4 – Krzyżówki (Noryśkiewicz, 1999; Szałamacha and Skompski, 1999); 5 – Ruszkówek (Kozydra and Skompski, 1995; Janczyk-Kopikowa, 1997); 6 – Kubłowo; 7 – Kaliska (Janczyk-Kopikowa, 1965; Domosławska-Baraniecka, 1965); 8 – Łanięta (Balwierz and Ro man, 2002); 9 – Studzieniec (Kotarbiński and Krupiński, 1995); 10 – Babiec Pasieczny (Krupiński, 2005); 11 – Nadolnik (Kotarbiński and Krupiński, 2000); 12 – Rostowa (Krupiński, 2005); 13 – Leszczyno (Krupiński et al., 2006); 14 – Sokolniki (Baraniecka and Janczyk-Kopikowa, 1991); 15 – Główczyn (Niklewski, 1968); Dz – Dzierniakowo (Kupryjanowicz, 2005, 2008); H – Horoszki Duże (Granoszewski, 2003); K – Kuców (Balwierz, 2003); M – Machnacz (Kupryjanowicz, 1991); S – Solniki (Kupryjanowicz, 2005, 2008); W – Władysławów (Tobolski, 1986); ZR – ZgierzRudunki (JastrzębskaMamełka, 1985); LGM – Last Gla cial Max i mum; P(F) – Poznań (Frank -furt) Phase; L(B) – Leszno (Brandenburg) Phase
glaciomarginal zone and a lack of chrono stratigraphic data based on ra dio car bon or lu mi nes cence meth ods. Whether the Eemian de pos its in sites lo cated in the glacio marginal zone have been till-cov ered pro vides suf fi cient re li able ev i dence to es tab lish the limit of the Last Gla cial Max i mum in Cen tral Po land (Baraniecka, 1989; Kotarbiński and Krupiński, 1995; Krupiński et al., 2006; Ro man, 2008b; Fig. 2).
Biogenic de pos its un der ly ing the glaciofluvial sands at Narty near Kubłowo (Fig. 2) were re corded by Baraniecka (1993) and de ter mined as prob a bly Eemian based on palynological ex am i na tion. Subfossil or ganic de pos its at Kubłowo have been found as so ci ated with mar ginal forms of the LGM in the Vistula ice lobe (Ro man, 2007, 2008 a, b; Ro man and Balwierz, 2007). The palynological re cord of the lac us trine and peat de pos its from Kubłowo rep re sents a long con -tin u ous Eemian–Vistulian se quence, span ning the Eemian Inter gla cial and the sec ond Plenivistulian cold in ter val. In this pa per the au thors pres ent re sults of palynological stud ies, with em pha sis placed on the post-Eemian phases of the Kubłowo suc ces sion. The re sults are com pared with in ter vals of the same age from ad ja cent ar eas.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
To de lin eate the bur ied ba sin at Kubłowo five bore holes were drilled in the ax ial part of the shal low de pres sion within the outwash plain (Fig. 3). In two (Kubłowo and Narty), subfossil biogenic de pos its were found (Fig. 3). At Kubłowo, the drill ing reached a depth of 14.5 m. Be low 3.5 m of glaciofluvial sands and gravely sands, min eral and or ganic lac -us trine sed i ments and peat 6.1 m thick were encounterd (Fig. 5). Un der neath, at 11.1 m depth, were glaciofluvial sands with then a gray cal car e ous till from 12.8 m (Figs. 4 and 5). The suc ces sion of the Kubłowo core is as fol lows:
Fig. 2. Lo ca tion sketch
Li thol ogy
0.0–0.20 sandy soil, dark gray
0.20–1.00 poorly sorted sand with gravel up to 2 cm, yel low ish-gray 1.00–1.15 gravel with sand, rusty-gray ish
1.15–1.30 fine-grained sand, light gray, –HCl 1.30–1.50 silty sand, light gray, +HCl
Lac us trine and swamp de pos its of the Kubłowo pro file, be tween the depths of 3.8 and 11.1 m, were an a lyzed for their pol -len con tent. 126 sam ples were col lected at in ter vals of 5 cm, and 71 were se lected for pol len anal y sis. De pos its youn ger than Eemian were the sub ject of de tailed palynological in ves ti ga -tion. Ra dio car bon dat ing of biogenic de pos its of the up per part of the Kubłowo core, from depths of 5.45 and 5.80 m, was also car ried out (Fig. 5), at the Łódź Ar che o log i cal and Ethno -graphical Mu seum.
Sam ples for pol len anal y sis were boiled in 10% KOH and then, in or der to re move min eral par ti cles, were left in hy dro flu oric acid for 48 hours. The ma te rial so pre pared was mac er -ated by acetolysis following Erdtman (1960). The sed i ment did not con tain car bon ates.
The num ber of sporomorphs counted in par tic u lar sam ples ranged from 500 to 1500. At in ter vals where the fre quency was low, the amount of pol len grains was be low 500. The cal cu la -tion of per cent ages was based on the to tal ter res trial pol len sum (AP + NAP): trees and shrubs (AP) and her ba ceous plants (NAP). Aquatic and swampy plants, spores of Sphag num and Pteridophyta, along with in de ter min able sporomorphs, were ex cluded from the to tal sum. The in de ter min able sporomorphs
con sist of cor roded pol len grains, un known, as well as bro ken or crum pled ones. The share of ex cluded sporomorphs was cal -cu lated in re la tion to the to tal sum. The pres er va tion of pol len was good from sed i ments rep re sent ing warm pe ri ods, and rather poor from sed i ments rep re sent ing cooler con di tions.
Re sults of the pol len anal y sis were plot ted us ing POLPAL for Win dows (Walanus and Nalepka, 1999). The pol len di a -gram pre sented here is a sim pli fied ver sion, curves of some taxa be ing omit ted, while oth ers are pre sented to gether as a sin -gle curve.
The Kubłowo site is lo cated in the north ern part of the Kłodawa Pla teau within the area of the Warta Stadial, the fi nal stadial of the Odranian (Late Saalian) Gla ci ation (for merly Wartanian Gla ci ation) (cf. Lindner and Marks, 1999; Lindner, 2005; Ber et al., 2007) and slightly to the south of the limit of the Last Gla cial Max i mum (Figs. 2 and 3). The Kłodawa Pla -teau is a mo not o nous morainic plain at 120–130 m a.s.l., mainly com posed of till (Figs. 3 and 4). There are no postglacial lakes but in fos sil de pres sions at e.g. Łanięta (Balwierz and Ro man, 2002) and Kubłowo (Fig. 2) biogenic de pos its are to be found, which ac cu mu lated through out the Eemian Inter gla cial and the lower part of the Vistulian, and sub se quently were cov ered by glaciofluvial sed i ments dur ing the ad vance of the last ice sheet.
To the north of Kubłowo ex tends the fresh gla cial land -scape of the Kujawy Lakeland (Pojezierze Kujawskie) (Figs. 2 and 3), with nu mer ous lakes and ket tle-holes along with tun nel val leys. Such a marked change in land scape sug gests that the south ern limit of the last Scan di na vian ice sheet runs in the vi -cin ity of Kubłowo. The last ice sheet max i mum limit in the Kujawy Lakeland has been de rived from geomorphological ev i dence such as the dis tal parts of the gla cial troughs and the be -gin nings of the glaciofluvial fans (Fig. 3). More over, the ex tent has been de lin eated as based on geo log i cal cri te ria upon the spa tial dis tri bu tion of the till, which con sti tutes a sep a rate lithostratigraphic ho ri zon (Ro man and Lisicki, 2000; Ro man, 2003) and at Kaliska it lies above Eemian biogenic de pos its (Domosławska-Baraniecka, 1965; Janczyk-Kopikowa, 1965; Baraniecka, 1989, 1993; Fig. 4).
The Kujawy Lakeland morainic pla teau is com posed of a till and is cov ered, in places, by thin glaciofluvial sands and grav els (Figs. 3 and 4). Glaciofluvial fans, fix ing the ice sheet ex tent and formed at the mouth of the gla cial tun nel val leys, are com posed of sands and grav els, with spo radic in ter ca la tions of flow till (Fig. 4). They are lo cated at 125–134 m a.s.l. and are the high est, al though not dis tinc tive, el e ment of the re lief in this area (Fig. 3). Their sur face in clines gently south wards into an ex ten sive outwash plain. In the vi cin ity of Kubłowo a nar row NW–SE de pres sion oc curs with a length of ca. 1.5 km where, be low glaciofluvial sands, lac us trine and swamp de pos its have been rec og nized (Figs. 3 and 4). These sed i ments fill up a small bur ied ba sin that was formed by dead ice at the de cline of the Warta Stadial.
The mean thick ness of the Qua ter nary near Kubłowo var ies from 30 to 50 m. Neo gene clays un der lie the Qua ter nary de pos its Depth
Li thol ogy
1.50–3.10 me dium sand, light gray 3.10–3.50 gravely sand, light gray 3.50–3.80 sandy silt, light gray, –HCl
3.80–4.85 lam i nated silt, with ad mix tures of fine sand at a depthof 4.20–4.30 m, gray, –HCl 4.85–5.32 lam i nated silt with plant de tri tus, gray to dark gray 5.32–5.70 silty gyttja, dark gray, –HCl
5.70–6.00 peat strongly de com posed and com pressed, brown ish-black 6.00–6.32 silty gyttja, high com pressed, brown ish-gray, –HCl 6.32–7.10 lam i nated silt, gray, –HCl
7.10–7.37 silt with laminae of or ganic mat ter, dark gray 7.37–7.45 peat, strongly de com posed and com pressed, dark brown 7.45–8.00 or ganic shale, brown ish-black
8.00–8.20 silty gyttja, gray ish-brown, –HCl
8.20–8.75 peat loamy at the bot tom, high com pressed,brown ish-black 8.75–8.81 loamy peat, dark brown
8.81–9.22 clayey silt, gray, –HCl
9.22–9.40 lam i nated silt and silty clay, gray to brown ish-gray,–HCl 9.40–10.10 gyttja, high com pressed, dark gray
10.10–10.35 silt with or ganic mat ter, dark gray 10.35–10.50 very fine humic sand, light gray 10.50–11.10 silty sand, light gray, –HCl
11.10–12.80 vari-grained sand with ad mix ture of gravelat the bot tom, light gray, +HCl 12.80–14.50 diamicton, gray, ++HCl
at 80–90 m a.s.l. (Fig. 4). The Pleis to cene ap pears mainly as gla cial and glaciofluvial de pos its and in fre quently as flu vial de pos -its, while sporadical or ganic lac us trine de pos its and peat are to be found. Four till units have been dis tin guished (Fig. 4) and cor -re lated, from bot tom to top, with the South Pol ish Gla ci ation (Elsterian) – one till, the Mid dle Pol ish Glaciations (Saalian) – two tills: Krznanian and Odranian with Warta Stadial, and with the Vistulian (Weichselian) Gla ci ation – one till. The Mazovian Inter gla cial (Holsteinian) is rep re sented by sand-grav elly river de pos its with thin mud interlayers oc ca sion ally con tain ing dis -persed or ganic mat ter. River de pos its are com monly over laid by glaciolacustrine silts and clays, that form a sig nif i cant cor re la tion ho ri zon in the Kłodawa Pla teau re gion (Baraniecka, 1979, 1993). The Pleis to cene stra tig ra phy of the re gion is mainly based on lithostratigraphic cri te ria. Only the strati graphic po si tion of the up per most till has been well de ter mined as youn ger than the Eemian Inter gla cial, based on the site with subfossil plants at Kaliska (Domosławska- Baraniecka, 1965; Janczyk- Kopi kowa, 1965). The till rep re sents the Main Stadial of the Vistulian Gla ci -ation (ca. 20–18 ka BP).
POLLEN ANALYSIS AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY
The re sults of pol len anal y sis from Kubłowo are shown in a pol len di a gram (Fig. 6). In this, 18 lo cal pol len as sem blage zones (L PAZ) were dis tin guished ac cord ing to cri te ria sub mit -ted by Janczyk-Kopikowa (1987). The fea tures of each L PAZ are pre sented in Ta ble 1. The pol len se quence from Kubłowo re cords an inter gla cial suc ces sion and a num ber of stadial/interstadial-rank phases of veg e ta tion de vel op ment. The cor re la tion of lo cal pol len as sem blage zones (L PAZ) from Kubłowo with re gional pol len as sem blage zones (R PAZ) dis -tin guished by Tobolski (1991) for the Konin re gion, by Krupiński (2005) for the Płock Pla teau, by Mamakowa (1986, 1988, 1989) for Po land and also with the chronostratigraphy (Menke and Tynni, 1984; Behre and Lade, 1986; Behre, 1989) is shown in Ta ble 2.
Lo cal pol len as sem blage zones K1 to K7 re cord the inter gla cial veg e ta tion suc ces sion con cur rent with re gional pol len as
D – C d n a B – A :s n oi t c es -s s o r c l a c i g o l o e G . 4 . gi F J 3 ; ci ss a r uJ r e p p U – l O hs il o P ht u o S – P ; e n e c oil P d n a e n e c oi M et a L – l P-M ; e n e c oi M – M ; e n e c o gil O – s n oit ai c al G ( n ai r et sl E – a M ; ) n ai v o z a M ( l ai c al gr et nI n ai ni et sl o H ; ) hs il o P el d di M – Ś s n oit ai c al G ( n ail a a S – 1 Ś : ) n ai n a n zr K – 2 Ś , n ai n ar d O – E ; n ai m e E – V ; l ai c al gr et nI n ail ut si V ( n oit ai c al G n ail es h ci e W ,l ai v ul f – f ; e n e c o l o H – H ; ) – b e ni rt s u c al oi c al g , e ni a r o m d n e – c m , gf – l ai v ul f oi c al g g o b d n a e k al – i l ,
sem blage zones of the Eemian Inter gla cial de fined for Po land by Mamakowa (1986, 1989). Thus other pol len zones, K8 to K18 L PAZ, ly ing above the Eemian, may be cor re lated with the Vistulian. Pol len spec tra of the K9–K10 and K12–K15 pol len zones re cord two warm cli ma tic os cil la tions cor re lated re spec -tively with the Brörup and Odderade interstadials (Behre and Lade, 1986; Behre, 1989). The pol len zone K14 (Pinus–Betula L PAZ), re lated to the up per part of the Odderade Interstadial, has been ra dio car bon dated (Figs. 5 and 6). The age of loamy gyttja from 5.45 m depth is de ter mined as 42 700 ±3 000 14C BP and the age of peat, from 5.80 m, as older than 45 000 14C BP (Fig. 5). How ever, at the Oerel site, the top of the Odderade de -posit has been dated as 60 800 + 2 300/–1 800 14C BP (Behre and Plicht, 1992). The first date from Kubłowo is thus “re ju ve nated” as com pared to the one from Oerel. The sec ond date is re li able, al though scarcely sig nif i cant. Pol len zones K8 and K11, rep re -sent ing cool os cil la tions, have been cor re lated with the Herning and Redestall stadials (Behre and Lade, 1986; Behre, 1989). The interstadials and stadials, men tioned above, have been re lated to the Early Vistulian. The three up per most pol len zones, K16, K17 and K18, have been in cluded in the Plenivistulian (Ta ble 2).
Dif fer ences be tween the K17 Pinus–Poaceae L PAZ and the K16 Poaceae–Ar te mi sia–Pinus L PAZ are not very dis tinct but are clear. They de pend on a higher AP share than in the ad ja cent pol len lev els, mostly Pinus, and also on a less di ver si fied as sort -ment of her ba ceous taxa than in the K16 zone. Pol len zones K16 and K17 rep re sent non-for est veg e ta tion in ter vals. The north ern for est limit was shifted far to the south of Kubłowo. How ever, the in crease in AP in the K17 zone may in di cate that the bound ary shifted back to the north, which pos si bly shows an ame lio ra tion in cli mate (Balwierz, 2003; Grano szewski, 2003). This fea -ture was es sen tial to dis tin guish the K17 L PAZ and to cor re late it with the Oerel Interstadial. Con se quently, the lower K16 L PAZ has been cor re lated with the Schalkholz Stadial, and the K18 L PAZ, ly ing above, with the Ebersdorf Stadial (Behre and Lade, 1986; Behre, 1989; Ta ble 2).
The Eemian Inter gla cial de pos its at Kubłowo are 175 cm thick, of which only 55 cm come from the cli mate op ti mum. The de pos its are thus strongly com pressed. With a 10 cm sam -ple res o lu tion for that part of the pro file, some phases ap pear only in one sam ple which the con sec u tive ones over lap, ren der -ing re con struc tion of Eemian veg e ta tion his tory around Kubłowo rather gen eral. Con se quently, and as the Eemian Inter gla cial veg e ta tion of Po land is well known, this pa per con -cen trates on Vistulian veg e ta tion for which the num ber of sites is much smaller. The de vel op ment of veg e ta tion in the Eemian Inter gla cial in the vi cin ity of Kubłowo was sim i lar to that in ad -ja cent ar eas i.e. the Płock Pla teau (Krupiński, 2005), the Konin area (Tobolski, 1991; Stankowski et al., 1999) and also around other sites near Kubłowo (Janczyk-Kopikowa, 1965, 1997; Niklewski, 1968; Kotarbiński and Krupiński, 1995; Balwierz and Ro man, 2002) shown in Fig ure 1.
. 6 . gi F b u K ł o w o m a r g ai d n e ll o p
T a b l e 1
De scrip tion of the lo cal pol len as sem blage zones from Kubłowo
Lo cal pol len as sem blage zones
[cm] De scrip tion of lo cal pol len as sem blage zones (L PAZ)
K18 Ar te mi siaPoaceae––Cyperaceae 380–395
Val ues of AP are the low est (15.1%) in the whole pro file. Dom i nates Poaceae (49.3%), Cyperaceae,
and Ar te mi sia. Herbs at tain great va ri ety, among oth ers Armeria, Helianthemum, Pleurospermum,
Sanguisorbaofficinalis, Plantagoma jor, P.me dia, Rumexacetosa, R. acetosella,
Ranunculusacris t., Caryophyllaceae, Rubiaceae and Cichorioideae.
K17 Pinus–Poaceae 405–435 Cyperaceae and AP in crease to 65.3%, mainly Sphag num. Pol len of Pinus (46.2%) and Poaceae falls. More abun dant pol len of Salix and Juniperus as well as Botrychium sporesare pres ent. Ar te mi sia,
K16 Ar te mi siaPoaceae––Pinus 445–490 Al ter nat ing per cent ages of AP from 44.2 to 58.2%. Val ues of more sta ble. Pres ent are Botrychium spores. In crease of Sphag num Betulaspores value pol len is lower than . A rise of AP, andPinus and
mainly Pinus, marks the up per limit of the zone.
K15 PinusAr te mi sia–Poaceae– 500–530 The curve of Pinustaxa grows. The up per limit of the zone is pointed by a de cline of AP, falls. The share of Betula is slightly be low 20%. Va ri ety of her ba ceous plants
and an abrupt in crease of Poaceae pol len.
K14 Pinus–Betula 540–590 The AP value reaches 94.9%, and is de noted by a drop in AP and an in crease in Pinus dom i nates again (72.5%). The up per bound ary of the zoneAr te mi sia and Poaceae.
K13 Betula–Pinus 600 The AP share slightly rises (83.5%), but the bound ary of the next zone. Betula pol len dom i nates (57.3%). The rise of Pinus marks
K12 Pinus–Betula 620 AP climbs to 75.6%. of herbs also falls. The limit of the next zone is marked by an in crease in Pinus pre vails (46.7%). Curves of Ar te mi sia and Poaceae de scend. Di ver sityBetula.
K11 Poaceae–Ar te mi siaJuniperus– 625–730
Only in 2 sam ples AP value is higher than 50%, in oth ers it re mains lower than 40%. The curve of
Betula, af ter adis tinct fall in the ear lier level, in creases to about 20%. Pinus value is less than 10%.
Pol len of Juniperus and Salix oc curs.Dom i na tion of NAP, an in creas ing in Ar te mi sia (max. 33.6%), Poaceae (20.8–34.6%) and Cyperaceae. High va ri ety of her ba ceous taxa (Helianthemum,
Rumexacetosella, R.acetosa, Pleurospermum, Polygonumviviparum, Sanguisorbaofficinalis,
Plantago maritima s. str., Linum catharticum t., Ranunculus acris t., Caryophyllaceae,
Chenopodiaceae). The up per limit of the zone is marked by a growth in AP.
K10 Pinus 740–790
AP value per sists very high (max. 99.5%), but with Pinus dom i nant. Only some pol len grains of
Larix and Juniperus are pres ent. Up per part of the zone shows a rapid fall of AP curve ac com pa nied
with a growth of Ar te mi sia value. Sharp de crease of AP curve con sti tutes the bound ary with the next zone.
K9 Betula 800–870
High val ues of AP (97%), and Betula dom i nates. A small but dis tinct de crease of AP is vis i ble in the up per part of the zone ac com pa nied by a growth of Ar te mi sia and Juniperus pol len share.
The top of the zone is marked by a drop of the Betula pol lenandin crease in Pinus.
K8 Poaceae–JuniperusAr te mi sia–Salix– 880–915
The AP curve de clines to 53.5%, par tic u larly in Pinus (23.5 %). Betula pol len val ues per sist on the same level. The share of Poaceae rises to 24.4%. Pol len of Salix, Juniperus and Ar te mi sia (8.4%) is
pres ent. Herbs at tain greater va ri ety, i.al. Cyperaceae, Calluna, Chenopodiaceae, Rubiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Thalictrum, Rumexacetosella, Helianthemum, Sanguisorbaofficinalis.
The value of Sphag num reaches 12.5%.
K7 Pinus–Picea 925–960
Sharp rise of Pinus (77.1%) and slight of Betula (18.6%). The curve of Quercus, Corylus, Alnus,
Carpinus and Abies dis ap pears and Picea drops no tice ably. The con tin u ous curve of Poaceae and
Ar te mi sia ap pears for a sec ond time which to gether with a sig nif i cant de crease of AP value points
the up per limit of the zone.
K6 Picea–Abies–Carpinus 965
The share of Picea and Abies reach 43.9% and 4.9% re spec tively. The curve of Pinus as cends to 14.8%. The bound ary with next zone is marked by a de crease of Picea and pro gres sive
in crease in Pinus.
K5 Carpinus–Alnus–Corylus–Tilia 975–995 The up per limit of the zone is de notedThe curve of Carpinus reaches 47.4%. by a de crease of Corylus and AlnusCarpinus, curves de scend and an ap pear ance and in creas ingTilia dis ap pears.
amount of Picea pol len and also ap pear ance of a con tin u ous curve of Abies.
K4 Corylus–Tilia–Alnus 1010–1020 The level of AP ex ceedsA con tin u ous curve of Alnus99.1%. The and Tilia Corylus ap pears, and curve rises and reaches its max i mum value of 68.9%.Tilia shows its max i mum value (14.9%). A fall
of Corylus pol len to gether with a in crease in Carpinus fea tures theup per zone bound ary.
K3 Quercus 1030 The AP curve reachesBetula pol len is very low93.4%. Max i mum value of. The top of the zone is marked by the Quercus is 59.4% whereas share ofQuercus curve de cline Pinus and
and an in crease in Corylus.
K2 Pinus–Betula–Quercus 1040–1090
AP value per sists high. The curves of Pinus and Betula re main the same. Ar te mi sia and Juniperus
dis ap pear and Quercus pol len emerges. The con tin u ous curve of Ulmus ap pears and at tains the max i mum value of 2.7%. The up per limit of the zone is in di cated by a rise in Quercus
and a drop in Pinus and Betula.
K1 Ar te mi sia–JuniperusPinus– 1100
AP over 90% and Pinus pol len dom i nates (66.9%). Betula reaches 22.4%. Poaceae, Cyperaceae,
Ar te mi sia and Juniperus pol len is pres ent. The up per bound ary of the zone is marked
Sed i men ta tion of the or ganic de pos its at Kubłowo com -menced when in the neigh bor hood there were open pine for ests with a dis tinct share of birch (K1 L PAZ), scarce unforested ter rains be ing grassy with heliophytes, ju ni pers (Juniperus), sea-buckthorn (Hippophaë) and sage-brush (Ar te mi sia) pre -vail ing. Ame lio ra tion of the cli mate led to a vis i ble re duc tion in heliothytes, re placed by dense birch-pine for ests (K2 L PAZ). The inter gla cial cli ma tic op ti mum be gins with oak for ests and some elm and ash (K3 L PAZ). Those for ests were sub se -quently re placed by multispecies de cid u ous ones with ha zel and lime dom i nant (K4 L PAZ). In hu mid hab i tats, per haps near wa ter bod ies, al der has been found. With time, horn beams be gan to spread. Horn beam for est de vel oped, in which ini tially were also oaks and lime. Ha zel may have grown in the un der -brush. With time the num ber of var i ous tree spe cies de clined and horn beam be came dom i nant (K5 L PAZ). The de cline of the cli ma tic op ti mum was marked by the pre-em i nence of
horn beam for est. The grad ual cool ing of the cli mate led to a re -ces sion of thermophilous trees and the ap pear ance of spruce and fir (K6 L PAZ). Yew also grew in that phase, hav ing spo -rad i cally ap peared ear lier in the ha zel phase. Al though the amount of yew pol len in the Kubłowo spec tra is in sig nif i cant it may have been pres ent in the tree-stand. It is equally scarce at Łanięta (Balwierz and Ro man, 2002; Figs. 1 and 2). The Studzieniec site on the Płock Pla teau shows the amount of the yew pol len at 9% (Krupiński, 2005) while at other sites in the area it is only 1–4%. The spread ing of pine trees with some spruce and ini tially also fir (K7 L PAZ) marks the de cline of the Eemian Inter gla cial.
The ef fect of cli mate change at the on set of the Vistulian was the with draw ing of the for est from the area in ves ti gated as open veg e ta tion com mu ni ties spread (K8 LPAZ). At the be gin -T a b l e 2
Cor re la tion of lo cal pol len zones (L PAZ) from Kubłowo with re gional pol len zones (R PAZ) dis tin guished for the Konin re gion (Tobolski, 1991), for the Płock Pla teau (Krupiński, 2005), and for Po land (Mamakowa, 1986, 1988, 1989)
and also with the chronostratigraphy (Menke and Tynni, 1984; Behre and Lade, 1986; Behre, 1989)
Depth [cm] L PAZ at Kubłowo Płock Pla teau R PAZ (Krupiński, 2005) Konin re gion R PAZ (Tobolski, 1991) Po land R PAZ (Mamakowa, 1986, 1988, 1989) Chronostratigraphy (Menke and Tynni, 1984;
Behre and Lade, 1986; Behre, 1989) 380–395 Ar te mi sia–K18Poaceae–Cyperaceae
– NAP II – WP III Ebersdorf Stadial na il ut si vi ne l P na il ut si V 405–435 K17 Pinus–Poaceae Betula nana– Empetrum WP II Oerel Interstadial Betula alba– Ar te mi sia
445-490 Ar te mi siaK16 Poaceae––Pinus (Ar te mi sia–PinusNAP– ) Salix–Equisetum Schalkholz StadialWP I
500–530 Poaceae–K15 PinusAr te mi sia–
Pinus Pinus EV4 Pinus–Betula WE IV Odderade Interstadial yl ra E na il ut si V 540–590 K14 Pinus–Betula 600 K13 Betula–Pinus Pinus–Betula 620 K12 Pinus–Betula
625–730 PoaceaeK11 Ar te mi sia––Juniperus NAP–(LarixAr te mi sia–) NAP I Ar te mi sia–Betula nanaEV3 Gramineae– Rederstall StadialWE III 740–790 K10 Pinus (Larix–Ar te mi sia)Pinus–Betula– Pinus
EV2 Betula–Pinus WE II Brörup Interstadial Betula–NAP
800–870 K9 Betula Betula–(Pinus) Betula–Larix
880–915 Ar te mi sia–Juniperus–SalixK8 Poaceae– NAP–Ar te mi sia Ar te mi sia–NAP Gramineae–EV1Ar te mi sia– Betula nana
WE I Herning Stadial
925–960 K7 Pinus–Picea Pinus Pinus Pinus
Late na i me E la i c al gr et nI
965 K6 Picea–Abies–Carpinus Picea Picea–Abies Picea–Abies–Alnus
975–995 K5 Carpinus–
Alnus–Corylus–Tilia Carpinus Carpinus
Mid dle 1010–1020 K4 Corylus–Tilia–Alnus Corylus Corylus Corylus
1030 K3 Quercus Quercus Quercus Quercus
1040–1090 K2 Pinus–Betula–Quercus Pinus Pinus–Betula Pinus–Betula
ning of the first post-Eemian stadial (K8 LPAZ), pine was still pres ent whereas in its youn ger part it prob a bly dis ap peared (Fig. 6). Shrub com mu ni ties grew, mainly ju ni per and wil low. Most prev a lent, how ever, were meadowtype grass land com -mu ni ties. Meadow com -mu ni ties were mostly at moist and fresh sites with Sanquisorba officinalis, Polygonum bistorta, Rumex acetosa, Ranunculus acris t., and Plantago ma jor ac com pa ny -ing var i ous grass spe cies. At wet sites were pres ent Cyperaceae, Filipendula and Thalictrum. Dry sites were pop u -lated by nu mer ous sage-brushes, rock-roses and sor rels (Rumex acetosella). In open set tle ments and leached soils heathers developed. Ephedra fragilis pol len show that the veg -e ta tion com mu ni ti-es w-er-e of an op-en typ-e.
The Brörup Interstadial (K9–K10 L PAZ) at Kubłowo was tri par tite (Fig. 6). In its older sta dium birch was dom i nant (K9 L PAZ). Ex pan sion of birch had al ready be gun be fore the end of the first Early Vistulian stadial and re sulted in a sig nif i cant re duc tion of her ba ceous com mu ni ties. The share of pine pol len is low, which may be in dic a tive of the ab sence of the pine at that time around Kubłowo. It is, how ever, pos si ble that ini tially birch outcompeted pine, the lat ter only ap pear ing at few sites, hence its in sig nif i cant share in the pol len spec tra de spite its pres ence in the tree stands. Its short-lived ex pan sion took place at the end of the birch phase. At that time pine was also com -mon in Cen tral Po land (Krupiński, 2005) and East ern Po land as shown by macrofossil re mains (Granoszewski, 2003). The end of the birch phase was a cool cli ma tic event ex pressed by the growth of her ba ceous com mu ni ties, mainly Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Ar te mi sia, Rumex acetosella and shrubs with Juniperus (Fig. 6). Then, fol low ing a short cooler ep i sode, birch for est re gained sig nif i cance al though in the youn ger part of the interstadial it be came re stricted. Dense pine for ests spread with larch and spruce (K10 L PAZ). At the end of the pine phase we ob serve a sub se quent cool event within the Brörup. It is char ac ter ized, sim i larly to the for mer one, of a larger growth of her ba ceous com mu ni ties in clud ing heliophytic sage-brush, fol lowed by a short-term re turn of pine for ests. The pine phase ter mi nated rap idly and a sub se quent stadial of the Early Vistulian be gan.
The sec ond Early Vistulian Stadial (K11 LPAZ) was a forest less in ter val (Fig. 6). A very low share of pine pol len sug -gests that the tree was ab sent at that time around Kubłowo. The bound ary be tween the Brörup and the Rederstall Stadial is quite sharp, sug ges tive of a hi a tus. Thus it is pos si ble that at the be gin -ning of the stadial there were patches of pine for est like wise at Łanięta (Balwierz and Ro man, 2002), Mikorzyn (Stankowski et al., 1999) and the Płock Pla teau (Krupiński, 2005). This also re -fers to birch, of which macro re mains along with those of larch and spruce have been found at Horoszki (Granoszewski, 2003). At mid-stadial, how ever, heliophytic com mu ni ties and mainly grasses and sage-brushes were dom i nant at that time, and much more nu mer ous than in the Herning Stadial. There were also more taxa char ac ter is tic of open dry and dry/fresh sites (Armeria, Plantago me dia, Centaurea jacea t., Helianthemum, Rumex acetosella), fresh/moist and wet (Thalictrum, Filipendula, Sanguisorba officinalis, Plantago maritima s. str., Polygonum viviparum, Plantago ma jor, Ranunculus acris t.) and also her ba ceous plants at var i ous hab i tats. Betula nana grew in peat bogs. Ju ni per and wil low were also com mon and birch spread sig nif i cantly at the end of the stadial.
The Odderade Interstadial (K12 –K15 L PAZ) is marked by a short spread of pine (K12 L PAZ) which is fol lowed by a short dom i nance of birch (K13 LPAZ; Fig. 6). The pine (K14–K15 L PAZ) re turned later to the in ves ti gated area. A con stant ap pear ance of heliophytic plants in di cates that for -est com mu ni ties of the Odderade were not very dense. There were olso open site com mu ni ties. These were most nu mer ous at the on set and to wards the end of the interstadial. Birch was pre -dom i nant at the be gin ning of the interstadial and later its share de creased. A clearly birch-type char ac ter of the interstadial was also found at Mikorzyn (Stankowski et al., 1999), Horoszki (Granoszewski, 2003) and Dzierniakowo (Kupryjanowicz, 2008). No birch phase, how ever, has been found on the Płock Pla teau (Krupiński, 2005).
The Schalkholz Stadial (K16 L PAZ) around Kubłowo was a forest less pe riod (Fig. 6). The for est lim its re ceded south -wards. In the area in ves ti gated, how ever, there may have been small tree stands or iso lated trees. Herbs and mainly grasses were pre dom i nant. Ar te mi sia pol len is here much lower than in the Rederstall Stadial, pos si bly show ing ei ther a lesser in flu -ence of the con ti nen tal cli mate or a higher ground wa ter level and more wide spread moist and wet lo ca tions pos si bly in di cat -ing grass land com mu ni ties.
The Oerel Interstadial (K17 L PAZ) has been de lim ited based on the AP curve growth and mainly that of Pinus (Fig. 6). Ame lio ra tion of the cli mate may have shifted the north ern limit of the for est and/or a greater re lease of pol len. Hence a higher Pinus pol len share (Fig. 6), al though the land scape around Kubłowo may have re mained forest less. Her ba ceous com mu -ni ties still dominanted in the area
An Ebersdorf Stadial (K18 L PAZ) frag ment in the di a gram fea tures the high est her ba ceous plant pol len in the en tire pro -file, where it amounts to 84.9% (Fig. 6). Thus, in the area in ves -ti gated, no trees were pres ent. A high per cent age of Poaceae pol len in di cates a dom i nance of fresh/moist grass land set tle -ments in clud ing Thalictrum, Sanguisorba officinalis, Rumex
acetosa, Pleurospermum, Plantago ma jor and Ranunculus acris t. Dry/fresh hab i tats were pop u lated by Ar te mi sia, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Helianthemum, Plantago me -dia and Juniperus. More over plants of the Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Rubiaceae, Cichorioideae, Asteroideae and Apiaceae have been found. The prev a lence of Poaceae and Cyperaceae over pol len grains of plants char ac ter is tic of dry hab i tats in di cates the dom i nance of most grassy tun dra com mu -ni ties over steppe forms. The pres ence of spe cies char ac ter is tic of fresh/moist as well as dry set tings sug gests that at that time tun dra and steppe com mu ni ties could co habit.
A great num ber of paly no logi cal ly well-doc u mented Eemian sites in Po land, de scribed up to the year 1986 (Mamakowa, 1989), later (Tobolski, 1991), and re cently (Krupiński, 2005; Kupryjanowicz, 2008) al lowed pre cise doc u men ta tion of the suc ces sion of veg e ta tion of that in ter val. In the light of this knowl edge an age de ter mi na tion of the bot tom part of the de posit at the Kubłowo site as Eemian, in spite of its strong com pac tion, is be yond dis cus sion. A low share of Pinus and Betula pol len
grains at the Kubłowo site shows an ab sence of those trees in the area in ves ti gated in the youn ger part of the first post-Eemian stadial (Fig. 6) but at other sites (Granoszewski, 2003) birch-tree macro re mains have been found, which in di cated their pres ence at that time; how ever, there were no pine macro re mains. Nita (Stankowski et al., 1999) does not ex clude the with drawal of the trees from the Mikorzyno area, Krupiński (2005), by con trast, sug gested in di vid ual oc cur rence of pine, birch and spruce on the Płock Pla teau.
The next is sue is the pres ence of the cool cli ma tic os cil la -tion that took place at the end of the Brörup Interstadial birch phase. This os cil la tion is dis tinctly fea tured in the Kubłowo di -a gr-am (Fig. 6) and also ap peared in the di a gram from Łanięta (Balwierz and Ro man, 2002), Władysławów (Tobolski, 1986), Mikorzyn (Stankowski et al., 1999), Horoszki (Granoszewski, 2003), Solniki and Dzierniakowo (Kupryjanowicz, 2008). How ever, that os cil la tion has not been marked in the di a grams from the Płock Pla teau (Krupiński, 2005). The older, birch part of the interstadial is cor re lated by Kupryjanowicz (2008) with the Amersfoort Interstadial, and the youn ger, the pine part, with the Brörup sensu stricto. Ac cord ing to Granoszewski (2003) the older part of the interstadial at the Horoszki site cor re -sponds with the Amersfoort Interstadial (Zagwijn, 1961), and the youn ger one with the Brörup Interstadial sensu Andersen (1961). Other au thors (Stankowski et al., 1999; Balwierz, 2003) cor re late both the older as well as the youn ger part of the interstadial with the Brörup (Behre and Lade, 1986; Behre, 1989). On ac count of the dis tinct cool os cil la tion be tween the birch and the pine phases at Kubłowo one should de ter mine that interstadial as the Brörup sensu lato. In the pine phase de -cline of the Brörup Interstadial at Klubowo there is still one cool os cil la tion, ex pressed by an in crease of the share of the open com mu ni ties (Fig. 6). This os cil la tion has been marked also at the Mikorzyn site (Stankowski et al., 1999); how ever, there is no os cil la tion at Horoszki (Granoszewski, 2003) or at, Dzierniakowo and Solniki (Kupryjanowicz, 2008).
The dis tinc tion two stadials and one interstadial in the Plenivistulian in the di a gram from Kubłowo (Fig. 6) is debateable. That dis tinc tion in the con tin u ous pol len di a grams is dif fi cult, es pe cially with no in de pend ent dat ing. It has been noted ear lier, and no stadials and interstadials were dis tin -guished (Balwierz, 2003) or in ter pre ta tion was am big u ous (Granoszewski, 2003). A low AP share shows, that the Plenivistulian in Cen tral Po land was a woodless pe riod. Slight fluc tu a tions of the AP curve, al most all of Pinus and Betula, can only show move ment of the for est bound ary in the south
-ern part of Po land. There fore the tree pol len grains found in Plenivistulian de pos its in Cen tral Po land prob a bly orig i nated from long-dis tance ae olian trans port and redeposition (Balwierz, 2007).
Changes in the her ba ceous plant com mu ni ties reg is tered in the pol len di a grams may have de pended more on hab i tat changes, mainly on changing ground hu mid ity, and might have re sulted from other lo cal causes or be syn chro nous with changes in climate. The con tin u ous pol len di a grams from the Dzierniakowo sec tion (Kupryjanowicz, 2005) may plau si bly be help ful for dis tin guish ing the stadials and interstadials in Plenivistulian.
The Kubłowo pro file com prises one of the lon gest Up per Pleis to cene inter gla cialgla cial suc ces sions in Po land. Lac us -trine and peat sed i men ta tion at Kubłowo be gan at the on set of the Eemian Inter gla cial and lasted con tin u ously through out that inter gla cial, the Early Vistulian and part of the Plenivistulian. Two stadials and two interstadials have been dis tin guished in the Early Vistulian. In the Brörup Interstadial, to wards the close of the birch phase, a cool ing event has been re corded. Two stadials and one interstadial have been found in the Plenivistulian. The warm and cool units in the Vistulian were cor re lated with the di vi sions es tab lished for West ern Eu rope (Menke and Tynni, 1984; Behre and Lade, 1986; Behre, 1989). The dif fer ent cli ma tic con di tions shown in the pol len re cord are clearly vis i ble as re flected in li thol ogy changes which in di cates an or ganic to min eral tran si tion ob served at the bound -aries be tween the Eemian Inter gla cial and the Vistulian, and also be tween interstadials and stadials within the Vistulian. The lack of till or till residua overlying the Eemian de pos its at Kubłowo in di cates the area as be ing be yond the reach of the last Scan di na vian ice sheet, which con firms the re con struc tion of the LGM ice sheet limit as based on geomorphological ev i -dence. Anal y sis of the spa tial dis tri bu tion of till-cov ered and till-free Eemian sites ap pears use ful for re gional de lim i ta tion of the LGM ex tent around the Vistula ice lobe.
Ac knowl edge ments. Field work and pol len anal y sis were sup ported by the Min is try of Sci ence and Higher Ed u ca tion, pro ject 2PO4E 02329. We sin cerely thank Prof. L. Marks and Asst. Prof. W. Granoszewski for crit i cal and help ful com ments on the manu script.
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