Developing Common Core Criteria for Toner Cartridges

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Developing

Common Core Criteria

for Toner Cartridges

Final Report submitted to

Global Eco-labeling Network

(GEN)

Prepared by

Thailand Environment Institute

Bangkok, Thailand

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Table of Contents

1. BACKGROUND... 3

2. OBJECTIVE... 3

3. COMMON CORE CRITERIA ... 3

3.1 SCOPE... 3

3.2 DEFINITIONS... 3

3.3 CORE CRITERIA... 4

1. Presence of Heavy metals in toner ... 4

2. Presence of Other Hazardous Substances ... 4

3. Photosensitive layers... 5

4. Packaging material ... 5

5. Take Back Policy ... 6

6. User Information ... 6

3.4 ADDITIONAL CRITERIA FOR ORIGINAL TONER CARTRIDGES... 6

1. Limited number of plastic materials... 6

2. Exclusion of plastic additives ... 7

3. Disassembly ... 7

3.5 ADDITIONAL CRITERIA FOR REFILLED AND REMANUFACTURED TONER CARTRIDGES... 7

1. Application of CFCs during washing process ... 7

2. Printing capacity ... 8

3. Labeling ... 8

4. Optional criteria ... 8

3.6 ADDITIONAL CRITERIA FOR COLOR TONER CARTRIDGES... 10

1. Use of Azo colorants... 10

ANNEX: ABOUT THIS STUDY ... 11

A1. TONER CARTRIDGES AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT... 11

A2. STUDY METHODOLOGY... 11

1. Definition ... 11

2. Scope ... 12

3. Status Review of Eco-Label Criteria for Toner Cartridges ... 12

4. Contacts/Interviews: ... 13

A3. COMMON ELEMENTS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE FOR QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENT13 A4. IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING COMMON CORE CRITERIA FOR TONER CARTRIDGES... 15

1. Generic Criteria ... 15

2. Additional Criteria for Consideration... 15

A5. REFERENCES... 17

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1. Background

Eco-labeling acceptance has been growing worldwide as a market based instrument to promote pollution prevention and sustainability. Currently there are more than 40 such programs from most part of the world. Of them, twenty-five (25) eco-labeling organizations have joined the international association, the Global Eco-eco-labeling Network (GEN).

As each program is being implemented in a way that reflects domestic environmental priority, full international harmonization is not occurring. Because of which concerns are increasing as a potential unnecessary barrier to trade. There is a need from many national eco-labelling programs to develop mutual recognition for a more sustainable production of products and international trade facilitation.

2. Objective

The goal for the project is to develop mutual recognition agreements among the Asian country labeling programs, through the development of common Eco-labeling criteria. Toner cartridges have been identified as one of the products for which Common Core Criteria will be developed between the participating eco-labeling programs. The project is the first regional cooperation in Asia and is expected to create more collaboration about eco-labeling in the region.

3.

Common Core Criteria

3.1 Scope

The criteria apply to:

1. Original toner cartridges 2. Refilled toner cartridges

3. Remanufactured toner cartridges

3.2 Definitions

The following definitions apply within the scope of the product group: 1. Toner cartridge

Toner container filled with toner and a drum and/or a developing unit (separable or non-separable), used in laser printers, computer printers, copying machines, telefax machines and multifunctional copiers.

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2. Original toner cartridge

Cartridge manufactured by copier manufacturers or manufactured on consignment by copier manufacturers.

3. Refilled toner cartridge

Cartridge refilled with new toner, following disassembly of recovered cartridges to eliminate waste toner, and repair and replacement of broken or worn parts.

4. Remanufactured toner cartridge

Cartridge that is recycled by refilling toner and replacing worn-out parts. Drums and wiper blades must be replaced.

3.3 Core

Criteria

1. Presence of Heavy metals in toner

Mercury, lead, cadmium and chromium (VI) compounds shall not be used as constituent parts.

Compliance Verification:

The applicant shall prove compliance with these requirements by submitting a copy of the material list obtained from his toner supplier or suppliers.

2. Presence of Other Hazardous Substances

The following substances shall not be used as constituent parts:

2.1. Substance classified in the Directive EEC on the approximation of laws and regulations and administrative provision relating to the classification, packaging and labeling of dangerous substance, and obliged to be marked with the R number according to Annex 1 of the said Directive.

R 26 (very toxic when inhaled)

R 27 (very toxic upon contact with the skin) R 40 (possible irreversible damage)

R 42 (possible sensitisation by inhalation) R 45 (may cause cancer)

R 46 (may cause genetic damage) R 49 (may cause cancer when inhaled) R 60 (may impair the reproductiveness)

R 61 (may be harmful to the reproductiveness) R 62 (may possibly impair the reproductiveness) R 63 (may possibly be harmful to the embryo)

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R 64 (may be harmful to the infant via mother’s milk)

2.2. Substances classified as carcinogenic (Group 1, 2A, and 2B) in the recommendation on allowable concentration by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). However carbon black shall be excluded.

2.3. Substances required to be marked by hazard symbol on the whole product pursuant to Annex II, in the Directive EEC on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances.

2.4. Substances required to be marked R 43 (possible irritability when in contact with skin) number, as a whole product pursuant to Annex III in the Directive EEC shall not be included.

Compliance Verification:

The applicant shall prove compliance with these requirements by submitting a declaration of his toner supplier or suppliers.

3. Photosensitive layers

Photoreceptor used in product shall not intentionally contain cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium compounds.

Compliance Verification:

The applicant shall declare compliance of the product with these requirements.

Test report may be required.

4. Packaging material

The material used in packaging shall not contain PVC and halogenated plastics. CFCs and HCFCs shall not be used in the production of packaging. The corrugated medium, which is used in packaging, shall contain at least 50% recycled pulp.

Compliance Verification:

The applicant shall prove compliance with these requirements by submitting a copy of the certificate from the producer(s) of packaging

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5. Take Back Policy

5.1 The applicant or the applicant’s agent shall carry out recovery and reuse of used toner cartridge.

5.2 Parts of the collected toner cartridges that cannot be used shall be disposed off in an environmentally sensitive way (including energy recovery).

Compliance Verification:

The applicant shall prove compliance with these requirements by submitting the report on the collection, reuse, recycling, or environmentally friendly disposal systems (collection system, processing capability, details of processing, etc.) being used.

6. User Information

The following information shall be provided either on the package, or in a manual in such a way to be clearly visible for consumers.

• Proper procedure for use

• Toner cartridge recovery method for users to return used cartridges • Post-sale service for consumers and contact numbers

• Series of applicablemachines shall include on the package Compliance Verification:

The applicant shall prove compliance with these requirements by submitting a copy of the relevant pages of the user’s manual or equivalent document.

3.4 Additional Criteria for Original Toner Cartridges

Original toner cartridges shall include the following criteria:

1. Limited number of plastic materials The following requirements shall be fulfilled:

1.1. Plastic parts of toner casing shall be made of single homo / copolymer or polymer blends (polymer alloys) in easily separable way.

1.2. Labels/ markings/ stickers must be made of the same material as the parts to which they are affixed or fulfill VDI 2243 (if a little, limited or conformance), if they are difficult to separate.

Compliance Verification:

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2. Exclusion of plastic additives

Cd, Pb, Hg shall not be used, except for in electrical or electronic components and wires. PBB, PBDE and short-chained chloroparaffins shall not be added to any plastic part.

Compliance Verification:

The applicant shall prove compliance with these requirements by submitting a report on material used issued by the manufacturer/supplier of plastic materials.

3. Disassembly

The following requirements to be fulfilled to ensure that the product is easy to disassemble:

• Modules must be easily separable

• There must be sufficient space to insert tools at fixing points/ dismantling points

• Joints between different materials must be easy to find

• Non-separable joints such as glued or welded joints between different materials may not be used (for case parts and chassis). • IC chip or other devices or designs shall not be installed or

implemented to prevent disassembly and reuse. Compliance Verification:

The applicant shall declare compliance of the product with these requirements. Sample inspection may be carried out.

3.5 Additional Criteria for Refilled and Remanufactured Toner

Cartridges

Refilled and remanufactured toner cartridges shall include the following criteria: 1. Application of CFCs during washing process

CFCs or organic chlorinated compounds shall not be used in the washing process.

Compliance Verification:

The applicant shall declare compliance of the product with these requirements. On-site audit may be carried out.

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2. Printing capacity

Printing capacity shall not less than 90% of original model. Compliance Verification:

The applicant shall prove compliance with these requirements by submitting the result calculated from the following formula:

PC= (M1-M2)/(M1-M3)*100 Where

M1 = weight of new cartridge

M2 = weight of cartridge after use (housing & waste toner weight)

M3 = weight of cartridge after printing 100 pages of A4 paper at 5% coverage

3. Labeling

Labeling shall indicate the brand name or company name, whether the product is refilled or remanufactured one. This is to be done to clarify distinctions between remanufactured and refilled toner cartridges for the users.

Compliance Verification:

The applicant shall prove compliance with these requirements by submitting a copy of photographs or samples of the product.

4. Optional criteria

The following criteria are optional:

Characteristic Testing Criteria Compliance Verification Uniformity of

black color density

Difference of color density between the points shall be lower than 3%.

Measuring black color density on 5 points by using reflection rate.

Uniformity of background color density

Difference of color density between the points shall be lower than 2%.

Measuring difference of background color density between first page and second page by using reflection rate on 5 points.

White & black spots

White & black spots larger than 0.5 mm (diameter) should not exist.

White & black spots 0.3- 0.5 mm (diameter) should be less than 5.

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White & black lines

White & black lines longer than 1 mm or bolder than 0.3 mm should not exist.

White & black lines 0.1-0.3 mm bold or 1 mm long should be less than 2.

Inspection by using test format.

Cleanness of Printed Side of Paper

There should not be any spot, scratch or contaminant on the printing side of paper.

Inspection by using test format

Adsorption There should not be any scrap of toner powder on the paper.

The printing side of two pages of A4 paper at density of 80 g/m2 are put together and rubbed then the results are inspected. Or using test format.

Temperature Resistance

Abnormality in resolution should not be detected.

Inspecting printing resolution 2 hours after at temperature 12 C and humidity 30%

Inspecting printing resolution 2 hours after at temperature 32 C and humidity 80%

Note:

The ISO Image Quality standard (ISO 30660) will be added in the Common Core criteria if it becomes applicable after a measurement apparatus comes into available.

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3.6 Additional Criteria for Color Toner Cartridges

Color toner cartridges shall include the following criteria: 1. Use of Azo colorants

The following azo colorants (dyes or pigments) of toner that degenerate into amines through decomposition of one or more of the azo compounds (in accordance with official test method compilation based on Article 35 of the German law on foods and sundries) shall not be used.

Name CAS No.

4-aminodiphenyl 92-67-1 4-aminoazobenzene 60-90-3 Benzidine 92-87-5 4-chioro-o-toluidine 95-69-2 2-naphthylamine 91-59-8 o-aminoazotouene 97-56-3 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene 99-55-8 p-chloroaniline 106-47-8 2,4-diaminoanisole 615-05-4 4,4’-diaminodiphenylmethane 107-77-9 3,3’-dichlorobenzidine 91-94-1 3,3’-dimetoxybenzidine 119-90-4 3,3’-dimethylbenzidine 119-93-7 3,3’-dimethyl-4,4’-diaminodiphenylmethane 838-88-0 p-cresidine 120-71-8 4,4’-methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline) 101-14-4 4,4’-oxydianiline 101-80-4 4,4’-thiodianiline 139-65-1 o-toluidine 95-53-4 2,4-toluilenediamine 95-80-7 2,4,5-trimethylaniline 137-17-7 o-anisidine 90-04-0 Compliance Verification:

The application shall prove compliance with these requirements by submitting a declaration of the colorant supplier(s) or the toner supplier(s).

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Annex: About this Study

A1. Toner Cartridges and their environmental impact

Most laser printers and other computer printers as well as some copying machines; telefax machines and multifunctional copiers utilize toner cartridges. The main contents of these cartridges include toner container filled with toner and a drum and/or a developing unit (separable or non-separable).

During manufacture and use, the toner cartridge has environmental impact in terms of the heavy metals contained in the toner and dust. The toner contains heavy metals like mercury, lead, cadmium or chromium, which have severe effect on the human health. Similarly dust can be emitted from the cartridge when in use because of leakage and which also affects the human health.

Toner cartridges have environmental impact after use also. Generally, the toner cartridges have been regarded as dispensable. As the demand for office automation machinery has increased, the adverse environmental impact generated by toner cartridge consumption and disposal has become a serious problem. Using cartridges several times reduces the total consumption of cartridges and accordingly, the environmental impact of the product throughout the life cycle. In this regard, recycling and reuse of disposed toner cartridges is an alternative to minimizing waste generation and resource conservation.

A2. Study

Methodology

The study consisted of the following steps;

• Various Eco-labeling programs were studied and the eco-labeling criteria for the toner cartridges were reviewed within each eco-labeling program by the literature review.

• Additional information collection was done through interviews / email communication.

1. Definition

Toner cartridge includes toner container filled with toner and a drum and/or a developing unit (separable or non-separable), used in laser printers, computer printers, copying machines, telefax machines and multifunctional copiers.

Note: For certain type of toner cartridges, drum may be a separated unit. Toner container alone is excluded.

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2. Scope

In this study three types of toner cartridges used in laser printers, computer printers, copying machines, telefax machines and multifunctional copiers were taken into consideration:

• Original toner cartridges: Cartridges manufactured by copier manufacturers or manufactured on consignment by copier manufacturers.

• Refilled Toner cartridges: Cartridges refilled with new toner, following disassembly of recovered cartridges to eliminate waste toner, and repair and replacement of broken or worn parts.

• Remanufactured Toner cartridges: Cartridges that are recycled by refilling toner and replacing worn-out parts - drums and wiper blades must be replaced. 3. Status Review of Eco-Label Criteria for Toner Cartridges

The Eco-labeling criteria for the three types of toner cartridges viz. original and refilled/remanufactured were reviewed from countries around the world, viz., Korea, Thailand, Taiwan, Germany, Netherlands and Canada.

The information was gathered mainly from the Global Eco-labeling Network website. (http://www.gen.gr.jp/eco.html). From this web portal, the individual websites for the eco-labeling program for different countries were reviewed. These programs included: -

• Nordic Swan Ecolabeling program (Norway): • Blue Angel (Germany):

http://www.blauer-engel.de/englisch/navigation/body_blauer_engel.htm

• Eco Mark (Japan): http://www.jeas.or.jp/ecomark/english/nintei.html • Environmental Choice Program (Canada):

http://www.environmentalchoice.com/guidelines/guide.cfm?content=Guidelines &Name=

• Environmental Labeling Program (Korea): http://www.kela.or.kr/english/ • Green Label Program (Thailand):

http://www.tei.or.th/Program_Projects/bep/GL_Home_Related/GL_home.htm • Green Mark Program [R.O.C.(Taiwan)]

• Milieukeur (the Netherlands): http://www.milieukeur.nl/english/

In addition a number of other related websites were reviewed to collect the necessary background technical information. These have been cited under the REFERENCES.

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4. Contacts/Interviews:

In order to get more information regarding the technical background and the environmental aspects of toner cartridges the members were contacted by e-mail with specific queries. Some personal interviews were also made to get more information on the background of developing eco-labeling criteria.

The summary of information from different eco-labelling programs is compiled in a tabular form and is attached in the Annex 1.

A3. Common Elements and their Importance for Quality and

Environment

Upon reviewing the criteria for individual eco-label programs, a number of common elements have been identified among different eco-labeling programs, which are summarized below.

It may be noted here, that the following criteria are applicable for three types of toner cartridge i.e. original, refilled and remanufactured toner cartridges.

1. Reusable

parts

The cartridge or toner powder container shall consist of 75% in weight of recycled parts. This helps in recycling of the toner cartridges.

2.

Exclusion of additives in plastic parts

Cadmium, lead, mercury and short-chained chloro-paraffins shall not be added to any plastic part. These compounds emit dioxins when burned into air and have effect on the human health as well as the environment.

3. Azo

colorant

No azo dyes (colorants and pigments) may be used. The azo colorant that degenerates into amine through decomposition of one or more of the azo compounds (in accordance with official test method compilation based on Article 35 of the German law on foods and sundries) shall not be used. These azo colorants with amine components are classified as carcinogenic or are suspected to be carcinogenic and they have an effect on the human health.

4.

Presence of Heavy Metals in toner

Materials containing mercury, lead, cadmium or chromium VI compounds shall not be used as constituent parts. This is because PBB, PBDE produce dioxin when burned. It affects health and environment especially from chart control agent, which contain heavy metal and PBB, PBDE.

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With regard to other hazardous substance concerning the toner, those substances listed below shall not be included as constituent parts.

1. Substance classified in Directive ECC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provision relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substance, and obligated to be marked with the following R number according to the annex 1 of the said directive.

R 26 (very toxic when inhaled)

R 27 (very toxic upon contact with the skin) R 40 (possible irreversible damage)

R 42 (possible sensitisation by inhalation) R 45 (may cause cancer)

R 46 (may cause genetic damage) R 49 (may cause cancer when inhaled) R 60 (may impair the reproductiveness)

R 61 (may be harmful to the reproductiveness) R 62 (may possibly impair the reproductiveness) R 63 (may possibly be harmful to the embryo) R 64 (may be harmful to the infant via mother’s milk)

2. Substances classified as carcinogenic (Group 1, 2A, and 2B) in the recommendation on allowable concentration by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). However carbon black shall be excluded.

3. Substances required to be marked by hazard symbol on the whole product pursuant to Annex IV, in the Directive EEC on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances.

4. Substances required to be marked R 43 (possible irritability when in contact with skin) number, as a whole product pursuant to Annex IV in the Directive EEC shall not be included.

6.

Application of CFCs during the washing process

The recycling process of toner cartridge requires washing of collected waste cartridges. In this washing process, using CFCs or organic chlorinated compounds for the purpose of improving washing effect shall be prevented, as those materials have ozone depleting influence and exposure risk to human health.

7.

Treatment of pollutants and industrial waste

Waste shall be sorted and the different fractions shall be recycled or disposed of in a controlled manner. The environmental laws should regulate this where the plant is located.

8.

Packaging material

The corrugated medium which is used in packaging shall be produced from recycle pulp with at least 80% recycled pulp content and material which is used in packaging

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must not contain PVC and chlorinated plastics. The following solvents, included in the Montreal protocol, may not be used in the production of packaging: CFCs, HCFCs, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and carbon tetrachloride. All of these compounds have environmental effect and hence their presence is not recommended.

9. Labelling

The original label on the cartridge must be removed and the cartridges or their packaging must be clearly labelled with information indicating that they are to be returned for recycling instead of discarded. Labelling shall indicate the brand name, whether the product is recycled, or remanufactured or refilled one. This is to be done to clarify distinctions between original, remanufactured and refilled toner cartridges for the users.

10.

User information

The following information should be provided either on the package, or in a manual in such a way to be clearly visible for consumers.

1. Proper procedure for use

2. Toner cartridge recovery method for users to return used cartridges 3. Post-sale service for consumers, and contact numbers

4. Identification number of product, series of printer should include telephone number of manufacturers or distributors on the package.

A4. Important Considerations for Developing Common Core

Criteria for Toner Cartridges

1. Generic Criteria

Upon reviewing individual programs, based on the foregoing discussion, following common elements have been identified, which have been included in most of the eco-label programs:

• Reusable parts

• Exclusion of plastic additives • Azo colorant not to be used

• Presence of Heavy Metals in toner • Presence of other hazardous substances

• Application of CFCs during the washing process • Treatment of pollutants and industrial waste • Packaging material

• Labeling

• User information

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these are being contemplated by only a few eco-labelling programs, but include some important elements that could address some emerging environmental issues including recycling. These are elaborated below.

Disassembly:

The following requirements to be fulfilled to ensure that the product is easy to disassemble:

• Modules must be easily separable

• There must be sufficient space to insert tools at fixing points/ dismantling points

• Joints between different materials must be easy to find

• Non-separable joints such as glued or welded joints between different materials may not be used.

The above criteria can be taken into consideration as they support the policy and priority in recycling and disposal of plastic and metal waste generated from the cartridge.

Limited number of materials:

The following requirements shall be fulfilled:

Plastic parts must consist of single homo / copolymer or polymer blends (polymer alloys)

Labels/ markings/ stickers must be made of the same material as the parts to which they are affixed or fulfil VDI 2234, if they are difficult to separate.

The above criteria can be taken into consideration as they support simplified plastic recycling and provide various types of plastics in wider range to recycle.

Styrene emission:

At the time of loading into the unit, styrene emission shall not exceed the specified concentration in indoor air 0.07 mg/m3. The styrene emission should be measured in accordance with the appropriate and established test methods such as, for example, the test conditions described in Attachment 5 of the Blue Angel (RAL-UZ62).

The criteria can be taken into consideration as styrene emissions during operation from joint component of toner cartridge can affect the health and environment. However, the acceptable threshold concentration value needs to be specified and the techno-economical feasibility of including this criterion needs to be reviewed and appropriate test conditions and procedures need to be established.

Dust emission:

At the time of loading into the unit, dust emissions discharged from the product shall not exceed a specified concentration in indoor air 0.075 mg/m3. The dust emission shall be measured should be measured in accordance with the appropriate and established test methods such as, for example, the test conditions described in Attachment 3 of the Blue Angel.

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The criteria could be taken into consideration as the dust emission from the leakage from refillable toner cartridge, which is not perfectly sealed, could affect the health and environment. However, the acceptable threshold concentration value needs to be specified and the techno-economical feasibility of including this criterion needs to be reviewed and appropriate test conditions and procedures need to be established.

Photosensitive layers:

Photoreceptor used in product shall not contain cadmium compounds, lead compounds, mercury compounds and selenium as they affect the human health. The photoreceptor consisting of heavy metals including Hg, Pb, Cd and Cr is abandoned by most of the toner cartridge manufacturers. However, some photoreceptors, which are currently used in the market, still contain heavy metals like selenium. Taking into consideration the above criteria, could be a means to prevent the use of mentioned substances in the future.

Identification of plastic parts:

Plastic parts shall be labeled in accordance with the National Standards. However, this need not apply to parts weighing less than 25g, parts having a flat surface area less than 200 mm2 or reused plastic parts. The mentioned criteria can be taken into consideration to facilitate recycling activity.

A5. References

• Blue Angel (Germany):

http://www.blauer-engel.de/englisch/navigation/body_blauer_engel.htm • Nordic Swan Ecolab ling program (Norway):

• Eco Mark (Japan): http://www.jeas.or.jp/ecomark/english/nintei.html • Environmental Choice Program (Canada):

http://www.environmentalchoice.com/guidelines/guide.cfm?content=Guidelines &Name=

• Environmental Labeling Program (Korea): http://www.kela.or.kr/english/ • Green Label Program (Thailand):

http://www.tei.or.th/Program_Projects/bep/GL_Home_Related/GL_home.htm • Green Mark Program (R.O.C.(Taiwan))

• Milieukeur (the Netherlands): http://www.milieukeur.nl/english/ • Helwett Packard: http://www.hp.com/

• Canon Inc.: http://www.canon.com/index.html

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A6. Table of Toner Cartridges Criteria from Different Countries

Criteria Country

Environmen tal Criteria

Korea Nordic Swan Canada Germany Taiwan Japan Thailand

Scope of applicability

Refillable toner cartridges for laser printers

Toner cartridges – as containers that contain toner powder, as drum and other necessary operational mechanism in connection with electrographic (xerographic) and similar reproduction process, also includes cartridge where the toner powder is delivered in separate container which should label “ recycle OPC-unit”, also applies to containers containing only toner powder which should label “recycle toner powder container”

-reusable

ink-ribbon cassettes with textile ink ribbons for typewriters and printers.

- refillable plastic toner modules which may include further parts required for the printing process and which can be used for computer printers , copying machines and multi-function devices. Recycled and refilled toner cartridges for printers Original products Remanufactured products and Refilled products Refillable and Remanufactured toner cartridges Presence of harmful substances in new toner powder - Substances classified as harmful to the environment in accordance with EU Directive67/548/EEC and adaptations (25th adaptation of directive in November 1998) - Carcinogenic and hazardous substances which are classified according to section 4a of the annex 1 to directive 67/548/EEC must - Substances classified in Directive EEC and obligated to be marked by following R number R 26 (very toxic when inhaled)

R 27 (very toxic upon contact with skin)

R 40 (possible irreversible -

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Criteria Country

Environmen tal Criteria

Korea Nordic Swan Canada Germany Taiwan Japan Thailand

must not be present in new toner powder in quantities in excess of 2%/w. Must not contain carcinogenic, harmful to reproductive system, genetically harmful, toxic, very toxic and allergenic according to regulations in Finland, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden not be present as listed below: R 26 (very toxic when inhaled) R 27 (very toxic upon contact with the skin) R 40 (possible irreversible damage) R 42 (possible sensitisation by inhalation) R 45 (may cause cancer) R 46 (may cause genetic damage) R 49 (may cause cancer when inhaled) R 60 (may impair the reproductive ness) R61 (may be harmful to the embryo) R 62 (may possibly impair the reproductiveness) R63 (may possibly be harmful to the embryo) R 64 (may be harmful to the infant via breast

damage) R 42(Possible

sensitization by inhalation) R 45 (may cause cancer) R 46( may cause genetic damage)

R 49(may cause cancer if inhaled)

R 60(may impair the reproductiveness) R 61(may be harmful to the reproductiveness) R 62 (may possibly impair the reproductiveness) R 63(may possibly be harmful to the embryo) R64(may be harmful to the infant via the mother’s milk)

-Substances classified as carcinogenic issued by IARC. However carbon black should be excluded -Substances required to be marked by hazard symbol on the whole product pursuant to Annex IV, in directive EEC -Substances required to be marked by R 43 (possible irritability when in skin contact)

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Criteria Country

Environmen tal Criteria

Korea Nordic Swan Canada Germany Taiwan Japan Thailand

to TGRS 905 , as amended are classified as carcinogens mutagens or substances toxic to reproduction , which require labelling of the entire product with the danger symbols according to Annex ii to directive 67/548/EEC, which require marking of the entire product with the risk phrase R43(may cause sensitisation by skin contact) Presence of Azo colorant - - - No azo dyes or colorants may be used.

- An azo colorant of toner, that degenerate into amine amines shall not be used

Azo dyes should not be used Presence of heavy metals in toner - - - Materials containing cadmium, lead, mercury and chromium VI must not be used as constituent parts.

- With regard to heavy

metal contained in the toner, mecury compounds, Pb compounds, Cd compounds and Cr (VI) compounds shall not be included as constituent parts.

All parts should be

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Criteria Country

Environmen tal Criteria

Korea Nordic Swan Canada Germany Taiwan Japan Thailand

reusable must consist of 75% in weight of recycled parts (not be included the weight of the toner powder)

times. (for ink-ribbon cassette) and must be reusable at least 5 times for toner modules by recycling process. recycle assembly not less than 75% by weight (weight of ink powder is not included) Printing capacity - - - - Greater than 95% that of a new toner cartridge - Must not be lower than 95% when compared with the original toner cartridge

Properties in use

Properties in use (such as print quality, print capacity and toner capacity) of recycled cartridges shall at least as good as that new original cartridge of the same type. The annual average proportion of complaints relating to ecolabeled

production must not exceed 1% Products must meet and exceed the requirements of CAN/CGSB-53.148, Rejuvenation of laser printer cartridges and must meet or exceed all applicable governmental and industrial safety and performance standards. - - - - Toner transfer efficiency

- Shall have a toner

transfer efficiency as high enough to eliminate the risk of

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Criteria Country

Environmen tal Criteria

Korea Nordic Swan Canada Germany Taiwan Japan Thailand

high as the lowest theoretical

The annual average proportion of

complaints relating to ecolabeled

production must not exceed 1% CFCs not to be applied during the washing process CFCs not to be applied during the washing process - - - In the process of cleaning, chemical substances containing CFCs should not be used. Treatment of pollutants and industrial waste Should be regulated by the relative environmental laws and agreements set by locals where plant is located.

Waste shall be sorted and the different fractions shall be recycled or disposed of in a controlled manner

- The refill toner units must meet the requirement of DIN 33870 (persuant to Article 14, Ordinance on Hazardous Substances). The refilling company shall forward toner residues dust-proof sealed to a waste incineration plant.

- Parts of the collected toner cartridges that cannot be used shall be disposed off in an environmentally sensitive way (including energy recovery) Should be disposed off in a manner as requested by governmental acts and regulations. Plan for collection and recycling of discharged products Should be established and implemented annually.

To ensure that the products are returned for further recycling, a cartridge Manufacturer must direct waste metals, plastics and Applicant shall accept the return of own-supplied empty and used

- The applicant or his agent must carry out collection of used toner cartridges. Parts reuse and recovery

Manufacturer must declare the take back policy of used toner

(23)

Criteria Country

Environmen tal Criteria

Korea Nordic Swan Canada Germany Taiwan Japan Thailand

be established. The collection system must comprise one or more of the following measures: • A deposit system • A prepaid address label, • Agreements between manufacturers and distributors A report on mass balance for consumption of cartridges and spare parts is to be submitted to ecolabelling secretariat annually. appropriate recycling facilities where available. toner modules (including their components) to allow their refilling. If for technical reasons, another refill meeting the required standards won’t be possible the applicant shall guarantee a proper utilization and disposal. Return terms as well as return station shall be indicated in the product papers. This shall also apply to empty units which can not be recycled for technical reasons.

would be preferable. was returned by the consumer. The product must be attached with a plastic bag in order to contain the used toner cartridge and returned to the manufacturer.

(24)

Criteria Country

Environmen tal Criteria

Korea Nordic Swan Canada Germany Taiwan Japan Thailand

Packaging - Packaging of product must not contain PVC or other chlorinated plastics. Must not consist of mixture of different materials since this makes recycling difficult - Toner cartridges must be hermetically sealed to prevent toner dust from escaping during storage and handling as long as the toner cartridge is not properly fitted into the appliance for its final use. Packagings must not contain any halogenated compounds. The product information must be printed on chlorine-free bleached paper (preferably recycled wasted-paper). Corrugated carton used for packaging should be made from recycled pulp with at least 80% recycled paper content. Packaging material shall not contain ozone-depleting substances controlled by Montreal Protocol. The recycled product status, product number and applicable printer model shall be indicated on the packaging material. The name of and address of the Green Mark user must be clearly printed on the product or the packaging material. The product of the packaging material shall bear a label

Packaging may not utilize plastic polymers

containing halogens. The solvents like CFCs, HCFCs, 1,1,1-trichloro-ethane and carbon tetrachloride included in the Montreal protocol may not be used in the production of packaging. Corrugated medium used in packaging must be produced from recycle pulp not less than 80% and material used in packaging should not contain PVC or chlorinated plastics.

(25)

Criteria Country

Environmen tal Criteria

Korea Nordic Swan Canada Germany Taiwan Japan Thailand

reading “Reduction of Waste”. Limited number of materials

- - - Plastic parts must consist

of a single

homo/copolymer or polymer blends.

Lables/markings/stickers must be made of the same material as the parts to which they are affixed or fulfill VDI 2243, if they are difficult to be separated. - Plastic additives - - - -plastics and plastic parts of cassettes and modules manufactured, added or exchanged by the applicant must not contain any PBDE (Polybrominated diphenyl ethers) or PBB (Polybrominated biphenyls) as flame proofing agents. No cadmiated cassette or module parts may

- Cd, Hg, Pb may not be

used except for electrical or electronic components including wires. PBB, PBDE and short-chained chloroparaffins shall not be added to any plastic parts.

(26)

Criteria Country

Environmen tal Criteria

Korea Nordic Swan Canada Germany Taiwan Japan Thailand

shall not exceed a concentration of 0.07 mg/m3 in indoor air. The emission shall be measured in accordance with the test method established by JBMS-66 or under the test condition described in attachment 5 of Blue Angel (RAL-UZ62)

Dust emission

- - - Toner modules

must be sealed dustproof to prevent the toner from escaping during storaged or handling as long as the toner modules has not yet been properly fitted into the device for its designed used.

- At the time of loading into

the unit, the dust emission shall not exceed a concentration of 0.075 mg/m3 in indoor air. The emission shall be measured in accordance with the test method established by JBMS-66 or under the test conditions described in attachment 3 of the Blue Angel (RAL-UZ62)

-

Photographic layers

- - - Photoreceptor used in the

product shall not intentionally contain Cd compounds, Pb compounds Hg compounds and Se compounds - Identification of plastic parts

- - - Plastic parts shall be

labeled in accordance with ISO 11469. However, this need not apply to parts weighing less than 25 g, parts having flat surface

(27)

Criteria Country

Environmen tal Criteria

Korea Nordic Swan Canada Germany Taiwan Japan Thailand

reused plastic parts

Disassembly No default in case of assembly condition of parts.

- - - - The following

requirements have to be fulfilled to ensure the product is easy to disassemble:

-Modules must be easily separable.

-There must be sufficient space to insert tools at fixing points/dismantling points.

-Joints between different materials must be easy to find.

-Non-separable joints such as glued or welded joints between different materials may not be used.

-

1. Appearance No default - Cartridge must

appear in complete condition, no roughness on the surface and perfect seal and pack in the package. 2. Resolution of image No default (Indictable by DPI) - - Must exceed 50% of printing capacity when compared with new cartridge at

(28)

Criteria Country

Environmen tal Criteria

Korea Nordic Swan Canada Germany Taiwan Japan Thailand

3. Rubbing test, Cleanness of printed side paper, assembly condition of parts

No default - No scrap of ink

powder slip or dispose on the paper 4. Condition of drum No default (for drum attached type ) - Surface of drum must exist in complete condition and ready to use 5. Weight ±10 of reference value

- Must equal net

weight of filling powder in cartridge in acceptable range of error as ± 10 g. 6. Density (g/m3) 0.55±0.05 Medium ,The difference in the printout image densities between new and recycled/refilled toner cartridges shall be less than 5%.(tested on A4 paper with 5% paper coverage rate) - Must equal to 0.55 ± 0.05 g/m3. Information to be given on the package or - Appropriate discharge method Must be clearly labeled with information indicating Must include educational materials with User must be informed about the proper Test printing page bearing the product’s

The following technical information must be specified in the user’s

Remanufactured cartridge or refillable

(29)

Criteria Country

Environmen tal Criteria

Korea Nordic Swan Canada Germany Taiwan Japan Thailand

service for consumers and contact numbers - Number of refill times and serial number

returned for recycling instead of discarded. and maintenance procedures cartridge. Product papers must include a note stating that toner cartridges must not be opened with force and if the toner dust escaped should not be inhaled or come in contact with skin. The product papers must underline that they must be kept out of reach of children. Refilled and refillable products must be clearly labelled as such.

printed with the product shall be enclosed in the product packaging. Information on the toner recycling system and telephone number for consumer complaint shall also be enclosed.

1. Proper procedure for use

2. Information on how the used cartridges be returned and collected.

be clearly marked. Identification number of product, series for printer, telephone number of manufacturer or distributor must be notified on the package. The product must be accompanied by detail instruction for use and guarantee service.

Figure

Updating...

References

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