NYSIEB- Principal presentation February 10, 2012







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Thinking about Multilingualism in Schools in the 21st century Ofelia García



NYSIEB- Principal presentation February 10, 2012



School Leaders as Scholars

• Bilingualism in 21st century • Bilingualism in education




century geopolitics & bilingualism


Subtractive bilingualism

Language difference as



Additive bilingualism

Language as Privilege for Elite,

their Right


Bilingualism in 20



Monoglossic ideologies

• A bicycle with two full

separate wheels

• L1 + L2 = L1 + L2


21ST century

Dynamic bilingualism


Jim Cummins’ Interdependence Hypothesis


Dynamic bilingualism

• Heteroglossic Language practices:


– Interconnectivity – Multiplicity


Dynamic bilingualism

Fluid language practices in bilingual families & communities


Enacting Dynamic bilingualism



Fluid communicative norm of

multilingual communities and families.



by which bilinguals

“make sense” of the communicative

situation by performing bilingually and

drawing on their entire linguistic



Bilingualism and Education

Monoglossic principles in the 21



• “Ultimate English attainment” as goal. “Native

English speaker” as model.

• Language separation is good; Translanguaging


Monoglossic school structures

ESL Programs • ESL pull-out • ESL push-in • Structured immersion or Sheltered English Bilingual Education • Transitional bilingual education • [Developmental bilingual education] • “Dual language” bilingual education


Beyond monoglossic school structures

Translanguaging as pedagogical practice Bilingualism in education

“from the children up”

1. 3/4thESL” self-contained class in Queens 2. A “dual language” bilingual 5th grade in NR


An “ESL” class

3rd and 4th ESL: Christina Celic

• Mini-lessons in English

• Beginners and advanced emergent bilinguals paired

• “Turn and talk” in different languages

• Children pose questions in Spanish also

• Children have reading groups by level, supported by dictionaries, annotated texts, cognate study. • Children read independently in the

language of their choice • Children at listening center • Multilingual word walls


“Dual language” bilingual

5th grade : Maritza Ríos

• 1 teacher

• Spanish in morning

English in afternoon

• Only one recently

arrived and not bilingual


5th grade

• Teacher lectures in one language, students

take notes in another

• Students read in one language but discuss in


• Students read in one language and write in



Translanguaging in “English” class: Camila Leiva: PAIHS-Queens


Translanguaging in “English lesson”

By students

To participate- “No sé cómo decirlo en inglés, pero….

Que ….”

To initiate participation – “ Que las familias, this guy,

every time he has problem.”

To elaborate an idea- “ Because he has a problem with

other people, and cuando fueron reparar el carro; no es, pero que tiene un problema,

To raise questions- “Miss, ¿yo puedo poner que muchas


Translanguaging in “English lesson”

By teacher

To involve - “R., cuéntanos en español.”

To extend and ask questions - “ ¿A causa de


To clarify - “What are four keywords? Las

palabras importantes, palabras claves?”

To reinforce what students have said – “It’s a very

worrying situation”

To advance pace - “Si, ya terminaron, avancen a


Translanguaging in “English lesson”

Constructing a Latino pan-ethnicity - “los

Latinos es una sociedad”

Constructing fluid identities – “Even though the

song is in Spanish, we’re choosing words in

English. Quinto Sol grew up in the US but they do hip-hop in Spanish, and we’re doing the same.”

Giving voice – “Don’t shoot her down. We’re

respecting each other’s opinions.” “People who havent’ spoken.” “Cuéntanos en español.” “No sé cómo decirlo en inglés.”


Translanguaging in “English lesson”

Problematizing –T: ”What do you think the

problem is?” “¿A causa de qué?

Tensions: “Majority/minority// Somos


Translanguaging as

US Latino languaging


Translanguaging to change

• Monoglossic view of bilingualism

• Bilingualism as 1+1=2, fixed within static language

identities (L1/L2; NL)

• Dynamic view of bilingualism to give

voice/agency/power to American bilingual students to “self-regulate” and deepen their learning.


Dynamic bilingualism

Principles for principals

Bilingualism is not right for the privileged or problem for the poor.

Bilingualism is resource for individuals & society.

1. Use bilingualism/multilingualism as resource to deepen education of their students, and


Dynamic bilingualism

Principles for principals

Emergent bilinguals do not acquire separate

second language. They develop and integrate

new language practices into complex dynamic bilingual repertoire.

2. Use home language practices to scaffold more accomplished performance in English.

3. Build new language practices in interrelationship


Dynamic bilingualism

Principles for principals

Emergent bilinguals can never be expected to “have” English but rather to use/do English

(“to English”) to negotiate situations and

meet academic expectations.

4. Provide emergent bilingual students with opportunities (“affordances”) to use school practices in English AND home language



Dynamic bilingualism

Principles for principals

There is no first or native language.

There is no second language.

There is only “languaging” (language practices). 5. Recognize emergent bilingual students not as

second language learners, but as American bilingual children at beginning points of the bilingual continuum.


Dynamic bilingualism

Principles for Principals

Categorization of bilingual children as “ELLs” or Non-ELLs are not absolute points.

Bilingual children perform their language

practices depending on the situation at hand.

6. Recognize and use the home language

practices of all students, beyond those of emergent bilinguals.


Dynamic bilingualism

Principles for principals

Language practices of all bilinguals are fluid and are used as resources to make meaning.

7. Use translanguaging as strategy to help ALL bilingual students make meaning, legitimate their intelligence and capabilities, & develop advanced cognitive skills.


Dynamic bilingualism

Principles for principals

Emergent bilinguals are never finished learning language and never just become monolinguals

• There are no ELLs and Former ELLs

• There are only bilingual students at different points of

flexible bilingual continua that adapts to situation.

8. Provide ALL students opportunities to use ALL their language practices to negotiate academic content & develop deeper understandings.


Principles for Principals

1. Use bilingualism/multilingualism as resource.

2. Utilize home language practices to scaffold.

3. Bring into play new language practices in interrelationship

with others.

4. Provide opportunities (“affordances”) to use school

“English” practices.

5. Recognize emergent bilinguals as American bilingual

children at beginning points of bilingual continua.

6. Recognize and use home language practices of ALL children

7. Incorporate translanguaging strategies.

8. Provide ALL students opportunities to use ALL their


Translanguaging as Pedagogy

Dual, linear bilingualism (subtractive or additive)

L1 /// L2

Dynamic bilingualism (Dynamic)

“Even though Spanish runs through my heart, English rules my veins”





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