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Smart Cities. Sehl Mellouli Professor Faculty of Business Administration Laval University Quebec, Canada


Academic year: 2021

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Smart Cities

Sehl Mellouli


Faculty of Business Administration

Laval University


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 2


!  An international project funded by the Social Societies and

Humanities Research Council of Canada

!  Project duration : 2010-2012

!  Six cities participating to the study : Quebec (Canada), New

york, Philadelphia, and Seattle (USA), Mexico (Mexico), Macao and Shanghai (China)



!  Introduction

! Cities data

!  Smart cities perspectives

!  Smart cities initiatives in Quebec City


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 4

Cities Data

!  Quebec city (Wikipedia):

–  Population : 715.515

–  Language : French

–  Area : 456.26 km2

–  Jobs : public administration, defence, services,

commerce, transport and tourism


Cities Data

!  New York city (Wikipedia):

–  Population : 8.175.133

–  Language : English

–  Area : 1.214 km2

–  Jobs : hub of the international business and commerce

and is one of the three « command centers » for the worl economy.


Bibliothèque Gabrielle Roy 6

!  Philadelphie (Wikipedia):

–  Population : 1.526.006

–  Language : English

–  Superficie: 369 km2

–  Jobs: manufacturing, Oil refining, health and

biotechnology, tourism, et financial service.


Cities Data

!  Seattle (Wikipedia):

–  Population : 608.600

–  Language : English

–  Area : 369.2 km2

–  Jobs : mix of older industrial companies and new company

Internet and technology companies, service, design and clean technology companies


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 8

Cities Data

!  Mexico city(Wikipedia): –  Population : 8,851,080 –  Language : Spanish –  Area : 1,485 km2

–  Jobs : One of the most economic hubs in Latin America.


Cities Data

!  Macao (Wikipedia):

–  Population : 544,600

–  Language : Chinese, Portuguese

–  Area : 29,5 km2

–  Jobs : Tourism, export-geared textile and garment


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 10

Cities Data

!  Shanghai (Wikipedia): –  Population : 23,019,148 –  Language : Chinese –  Area : 6,340 km2

–  Jobs : The commercial and financial center of mainland



!  Introduction

!  Cities data

! Smart cities perspectives

!  Smart cities initiatives in Quebec City


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 12

Smart Cities Perspectives



!  Introduction

!  Cities data

!  Smart cities perspectives

! Smart cities initiatives in Quebec City


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 14

Smart Cities Initiatives in Quebec


!  Project 1 :

–  Name of the project : Wi-Fi deployment

–  Project objectives : Connecting Quebec city to a free

Wi-Fi service


Smart Cities Initiatives in Quebec


!  Project 2 :

–  Name of the project : Inter cities Network

–  Project objectives : Connecting major cities in the

province of Quebec


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 16

Smart Cities Initiatives in Quebec


!  Project 3 :

–  Name of the project : snow cleaning info

–  Project objectives : citizens send an sms to know when

their street will be cleaned


Smart Cities Initiatives in Quebec


!  Project 4 :

–  Name of the project : Quebec city website

–  Project objectives : Developing a mobile version of the

City's web site


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 18

Smart Cities Initiatives in Quebec


!  Project 5 :

–  Name of the project : optimizing snow cleaning

–  Project objectives : Using sensors at each truck to

control their work


Smart Cities Initiatives in Quebec


!  Project 6 :

–  Name of the project : Infrastrucutre management system

–  Project objectives : Integrating different information systems

to coordinate infrastructure management activities


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 20

Smart Cities Initiatives in Quebec


!  Project 7:

–  Name of the project : public transportation

–  Project objectives : developing a new plan for public



Smart Cities Initiatives in Quebec


!  Project 8 :

–  Name of the project : open data

–  Project objectives : How Quebec city can make data

avalaible to citizens


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 22


!  Introduction

!  Cities data

!  Smart cities perspectives

! Smart cities initiatives in Quebec City

! Research results


Research results

!  37 projects have been studied

!  87 people have been interviewed

!  Three languages are used for the interviews : French,


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 24

Research results

Categories Questions

Description of initiatives How did the initiative start?

What are the main goals of the initiative? What organizations are involved and how?

Technology How are technologies being used for the initiative?

What are the barriers or challenges to using technologies for the initiative?

Management and organization How is the initiative organized and managed?

What organizational challenges is the initiative facing in achieving its objectives?

How are those challenges being overcome?

Policy What is the relationship between the initiative and the policy


Governance How is the initiative governed?

What’s the authority and role of staff, partners, and stakeholders?

How are citizens and other organizations involved in the initiative?

People and communities How does the initiative affect the population and communities

of the city?

Economy What is the relationship between the initiative and the economy

of the city?

Built infrastructure What is the relationship between the initiative and the built

infrastructure such as roads, bridges, power grid, water systems, etc?

Natural Environment What is the relationship between the initiative and the city’s natural environment?


Research results


!  Smart city initiatives involve adopting new systems.

!  A single database system for a number of different government

programs is used to integrate and share information.

!  Social media and smart phones are drawing attention.

!  City governments’ attention to smart phones as a possible way to


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 26

Research results

!  Various mobile services through short text messaging and smart

phone applications include collecting requests for municipal services and sending residents alerts of city information.

!  All four different cities have experienced financially insufficient

support stemming from budget constraints.

!  Some city governments lose human resource, particularly

technology staff, and others miss an opportunity to update and


Research results

!Management and organization

!  There are diverse organizational forms : a committee, one

particular city agency or department takes the lead to organize a smart city initiative, or a collaborative structure.

!  The role of communication and interaction is central to managing

and organizing smart city initiatives : sharing information, resources, and sometimes authorities.


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 28

Research results

!  Public management is increasingly being driven by data and

information : more data and information can open governmental internal processes to the public.

!  These changes consistently increase transparency, integrity, and

accountability to a substantial extent.

!  The role of the top management in envisioning a smart city and

championing smart city initiatives.

!  An obvious managerial challenge indicated budgetary constraints

because some initiatives have not been full-blown due to limited funding.


Research results

Policy Context

!  Interdepartmental agreements are considered as policy

requirements for interdepartmental workings for smart city initiatives.

!  The mayor’s policy directions shape the city’s overall strategies to

make it smarter.

!  The mayor’s political position also impacts policy directions that


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 30

Research results


!  Participatory, hierarchical, and/or hybrid models are found in

various initiatives.

!  Interviewees identified the committee system as hierarchical and

effective for relatively swift decision making.

!  In another city, there is no formal governance body for a smart

city initiative, but regular interdepartmental meetings.

!  Smart city initiatives often entail intersectoral as well as

interagency collaboration.

!  In addition, governments increasingly pay attention to citizen

participation in decision making, monitoring city services, and providing feedback.


Research results

People and communities

!  One meaning of a city’s smartness may be to better know

citizens’ wants and needs and their opinions.

!  One interviewee’s comment is noteworthy: “We want to be able to

use constituents as eyes and ears to tell us what’s going on.”

!  People are getting more involved in smart city initiatives because

they know those initiatives have a great impact on the quality of their life.


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 32

Research results


!  Interviewees considered a smart city as a city that intelligently

combines its resources to provide the best economic and social conditions.

!  Some smart city initiatives aim at fostering economic growth and

enhancing a city’s competitiveness in local and global markets.

!  Smart city initiatives should find more innovative ways and

solutions in order to overcome economic challenges such as budget cuts and financial recession across countries.

!  One city had looked beyond its boundaries and had actively

teamed up with neighboring municipalities in order to make the entire region more competitive and attractive.


Research results

Built infrastructure

!  We heard more about information and communication

infrastructures than other physical infrastructures.

!  Interviewees said IT infrastructures enable and facilitate various

smart city initiatives. These information and communication

infrastructures create capacity to deliver city services seamlessly to residents and businesses.

!  Some smart city initiatives aim to develop and further improve


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 34

Research results

Natural Environment

!  The smart city initiatives that interviewees involve do not directly

address issues of the natural environment, but some interviewees mentioned the impact of those initiatives on the natural

environment as a larger context of a space for living.

!  Cities are being socially responsible and striving to make various

options available in order to be able to remain green and

environmentally sustainable. Energy saving and environment protection are a tag for smartness in one city.



!  Introduction

!  Cities data

!  Smart cities perspectives

!  Smart cities initiatives in Quebec City


Colloque Villes Intelligentes 2012 36


!  Big competitions between cities around the World

!  Smart cities is a key concept of development of the cities

!  An international project to understand this concept

!  Several interviews have been conducted to compare at



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