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Rugby Turf Performance Specification

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Rugby Turf Performance Specification

Technical Manual*

April 2015 Edition

Contents Page 1. Introduction

2. The World Rugby process to achieve a successful field certification 3. Testing protocol

4. Test Institute requirements 5. Test methods

6. Laboratory test requirements 7. Field test requirements 8. Field dimensions and markings 9. Maintenance procedures

Appendices

Plan of test locations for all tests Additional requirements for AAA Standard wetting procedure

* The World Rugby Rugby Turf Performance Specification has, with the kind permission of FIFA, been reproduced in part from the FIFA Turf Manual

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Rugby Turf Performance Specification

April 2015

Disclaimer: Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this document any party who makes use of any part of this document in the development of an artificial turf pitch (a "User") does so at its own risk and shall indemnify World Rugby their officers, directors, servants, consultants and agents against all claims, proceedings, actions, damages, costs, expenses and any other liabilities for loss or damage to any property, or injury or death to any person that may be made against or incurred by the World Rugby arising out of or in connection with such User's use of this document.

Compliance with the requirements detailed in this document by a User does not of itself confer on that User immunity from legal obligations. Compliance with the requirements detailed in this document by a User constitutes acceptance of the terms of this disclaimer by that User.

World Rugby reserves the right to amend, update or delete sections of this manual at any time as deemed necessary. All rights in the FIFA Turf Manual are reserved to FIFA exclusively. This World Rugby manual may not be reproduced in whole or in part in any manner without the permission of FIFA and World Rugby.

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1. Introduction

Rugby Union as a sport was quick to adopt new generation (3G) artificial grass surfaces for the development of the game. What is now referred to as World Rugby Regulation 22 was introduced in 2003 to ensure that 3G surfaces replicate the playing qualities of good quality natural grass. Climatic conditions, in many countries where the game is played, make it difficult to grow natural turf. In countries where Rugby Union is developing, these surfaces offer credible alternatives to those parts of the world where climate or resources make good quality natural grass pitches difficult or impossible to achieve. In future it is hoped that the development of multi-use artificial turfs, where Rugby and Association Football can be played, will provide a potential solution to facility operators wishing to maximise the use of their facilities through community use and those struggling with stadium microclimates that make the maintenance and growth of natural grass difficult. Guidelines for natural turf can be found on www.worldrugby.org under Play Rugby or upon request from the World Rugby Technical Services Department.

To ensure that these new types of playing surfaces replicate the playing qualities of good quality natural grass, provide a playing environment that will not increase the risk of injury to players and are of adequate durability (providing they are maintained), World Rugby has developed the Rugby Turf Performance Specification. Revised in 2011, 2012, and again in 2015 the Performance Specification is a rigorous test programme for artificial turf that assesses the ball surface interaction, player surface interaction and durability of products and has been modified to align the standard with that of the FIFA Quality Concept for Football Turf and ensure that there is continuous improvement as artificial turf develops. In accordance with World Rugby Regulation 22 any artificial turf used for any form of competitive rugby (at all levels of the game) needs to comply with World Rugby Regulation 22 and the Rugby Turf Performance Specification.

The laboratory test programme, which an artificial turf must satisfy as part of the Rugby Turf Performance Specification, includes a programme of simulated use to assess the ability of a surface to perform over a period of time. The degree of simulated use undertaken on a product is designed to replicate moderate levels of use which are significantly greater than those achieved by natural turf systems. Potential installers of artificial turf fields should note, however, that experience has shown fields subjected to very high intensity use may not be able to retain the demanding performance criteria of the Rugby Turf Performance Specification for the life of the playing surface. Manufacturers of Rugby Turf systems should be able to clearly advise on the weekly usage of these surfaces for rugby. Failure to undertake adequate maintenance will also reduce the period of time a field may satisfy the requirements of the Rugby Turf Performance Specification.

This edition of the manual supersedes previous editions with effect from April 1, 2015.

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Rugby Turf Performance Specification

April 2015

2. The World Rugby Process to Achieve Successful Field Certification

Unions, clubs or organisations seeking to install/use Rugby Turf must comply with the Rugby Turf Performance Specification.

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3. Testing Protocol

When a manufacturer/World Rugby Preferred Turf Producer requests a laboratory type approval test they must consult with a World Rugby Accredited Test Institute to ensure that the correct samples are submitted to enable the test to be carried out in accordance with this standard. Products submitted for testing must incorporate yarn(s) which have previously been tested by a World Rugby Accredited Test Institute. The minimum size of the samples provided for type testing must comply with requirements specified in the testing manual.

Note: The World Rugby Member Union must receive evidence that the system that is due to be installed has gone through all the relevant laboratory testing and has met all requirements of such. The manufacturer/World Rugby Preferred Turf Producer must submit the relevant documentation to World Rugby and the World Rugby Member Union in whose jurisdiction the field lies in advance of the installation.

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Rugby Turf Performance Specification

April 2015

4. Test Institute Requirements

Test Institutes shall be independent testing establishments who have been approved by World Rugby and have entered into a contract with World Rugby to provide these services. Test Institutes must take part in the rigorous round robin testing together with proving ISO 17025 compliance. These companies must satisfy the exacting professionalism necessary to become a World Rugby Accredited Test Institute. Further information can be obtained from info@worldrugby.org.

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5. Test Methods

The test methods used to assess artificial turfs and installed fields are described in either the Rugby Turf Performance Specification. Where a test method is given a dated reference, subsequent amendments to or revisions of the method will apply to this document only when incorporated into it by amendment or revision. For undated references, the latest edition of the publication referred to applies.

Note: All fields submitted for initial testing after April 2015 shall meet the requirements of this Performance Specification. Fields designed or contracted prior to April 2015 and submitted for initial testing during 2015 that are surfaced with products that have satisfied the laboratory requirements of the previous edition of the Rugby Turf Performance Specification shall meet the field test requirements of the previous edition of the Rugby Turf Performance Specification. Fields tested to the previous edition of the Rugby Turf Performance Specification shall continue to be tested and comply with that edition of the Specification applicable at the time of the initial field test. In order to ensure that manufacturer/World Rugby Preferred Turf Producer has adequate time to test products to the new requirements, there will be a twelve month transition period from date of issue. This transition period also applies to product testing. The new version will come fully into effect by April 1, 2016 and all manufacturers/World Rugby Preferred Turf Producers must have products validated by that date.

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Rugby Turf Performance Specification

April 2015

6. Laboratory Test Requirements 6.1 General

When a product is submitted for testing to a World Rugby Accredited Test Institute for initial product type approval the artificial turf shall fully satisfy the requirements as set out in Table 1 and 2 using the test methods specified. The components of the artificial turf system shall be identified using the test methods called up in Table 2 and the results compared to the data given in the declaration supplied by the manufacturer/World Rugby Preferred Turf Producer. The difference between the product identification and the manufacturer/World Rugby Preferred Turf Producer declaration shall be no greater than the tolerances set out in Table 3. Artificial rugby turf has a minimum pile length requirement of 60mm. Tolerances are as set out below.

Results should be recorded as accurately as the apparatus used allows, averages should be calculated to this number of decimal places or to one decimal place more than the permitted values are expressed in, whichever is the greater.

6.2 Use of Data from Previously Tested Artificial Turf – Resistance to Artificial Weathering

If an artificial turf product has been previously tested by a World Rugby Accredited Test Institute for resistance to artificial weathering the results may be used for the new rugby product where;

Table 1

Property Test Requirement Tolerance

Pile characteristic DSC

ISO 11357 - 3

Ø Within ± 3°C of previously declared value (polymer peaks, commonly LDPE, MDPE + LLDPE) if applicable with a similar signature, if there is any doubt on signatures seek advice from World Rugby

Pile thickness Measurement by microscopy and graduated scale of 10 micron resolution

Within 20% of declared value shape and profile to be recorded.

Pile profile Measurement by microscopy pictures of yarn/profile must be provided in report

To be similar to declared shape

Colour RAL Number To be similar to declared colour

Pile length ISO 2549 Within ± 5% of stated declared value

Note; Ø with low density polyethylene, medium density polyethylene and linear low density polyethylene, the melting point or reaction point will be determined by the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Higher density polyethylene will generally have a higher melting point as it takes more energy to melt a higher density polymer. Some fibers have a blend of different density polymers with a double peak DSC.

6.3 Use of Existing Shock Pad Systems and Other Base Types

If an existing artificial turf pitch is converted to an artificial rugby pitch in the refurbishment of an old pitch, there may be existing shock pad systems which can be retained and incorporated into the new pitch. Existing shock pad systems can be retained so long as the following requirements are verified by in-situ sampling by an independent laboratory:

1. The mean shock absorption of the existing pad is between 90% and 110% of the manufacturers declared shock absorption value when the product was initially submitted for type approval.

2. The mean deformation is no greater than ± 2mm of the deformation of the manufacturers declared value when

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the product was initially submitted for type approval.

3. The water permeability of the laid shock pad is greater than 500mm/hr when tested in accordance with EN 12616. 4. Visually, there is no apparent binder failure or loose friable rubber or significant variance in all areas.

Note: The shock pad may have been sampled and tested to identify the aforementioned properties at tender stage however it is important that the exposed shock pad is checked when the old carpet is removed for the issues identified in Clause 4 above to ensure it has retained its sports functional characteristics.

The installed shock pad shall be tested for each property above in 29 positions as detailed in Figure 1. Tests on the existing shock pad shall be carried out prior to refurbishment, but in any case no longer than 12 months prior to the initial field test, to ensure that the properties of the shock pad do not change in this period. This dispensation does not negate the need for the field to fully meet the Rugby Turf Performance Specification.

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Table 2 – Laboratory Test Requirements

Property Test Method

Test conditions

Requirements

Preparation Temperature Condition

Vertical ball rebound – football EN 12235 (results expressed as absolute rebound) Pre-conditioning 23ºC (±2ºC) Dry 0.60m - 1.0m Wet 0.60m – 1.0m

Simulated Wear 23ºC (±2ºC) Dry 0.60m - 1.0m

Angle ball rebound Determination of

Angle Ball Rebound ᶠ Pre-conditioning 23ºC (±2ºC)

Dry 45% -70%

Wet 45% - 80%

Shock Absorption AAA Version

(Appendix 1) Pre-conditioning 23ºC (±2ºC) Dry 57% - 68% Wet

Simulated Wear Dry 57% - 68%

Pre-conditioning 40ºC (±2ºC) Dry 57% - 68%

Pre-conditioning -5ºC (±2ºC) ∞ Frozen 57% - 68%

Energy Restitution AAA Version

(Appendix 1) Pre-conditioning 23ºC (±2ºC) Dry 22% – 48% Wet

Simulated Wear Wet 22% – 48%

Pre-conditioning -5ºC (±2ºC) Frozen 22% – 48%

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Table 2 – Laboratory Test Requirements (CONT’D)

Property Test Method

Test conditions

Requirements

Preparation Temperature Condition

Head Injury Criteria EN 1177

Loose particulate Pre-conditioning 23ºC (±2ºC) Dry ≥1.4m Wet

Simulated Wear** Dry ≥1.3m

Head Injury Criteria* EN 1177

Loose particulate Pre-conditioning 40ºC (±2ºC) Dry ≥1.4m Vertical Deformation** AAA Version (Appendix 1) Pre-conditioning 23ºC (±2ºC) Dry 6mm – 10mm Wet

Simulated Wear Wet 6mm – 10mm

Pre-conditioning -5ºC (±2ºC) Frozen 6mm – 10mm

Pre-conditioning 40ºC (±2ºC) Dry 6mm – 10mm

Rotational Resistance

EN 15301 – 1

With football studs

Pre-conditioning

23ºC (±2ºC)

Dry 32Nm - 43Nm

Wet 32Nm - 43Nm

Simulated Wear 23ºC (±2ºC) Dry 32Nm - 43Nm

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Rugby Turf Performance Specification

April 2015

Table 2 – Laboratory Test Requirements (CONT’D)

Property Test Method Test conditions Requirement

Preparation Temperature Condition

Linear Friction - Stud Deceleration Value

Determination of Linear Friction Stud

Slide Value & Stud Deceleration ᶠ

Pre-conditioning 23ºC (±2ºC)

Dry 3.0g - 6.0g

Wet 3.0g – 6.0g

Linear Friction - Stud Slide

Value Pre-conditioning 23ºC (±2ºC)

Dry 120 – 220

Wet 120 – 220

Skin / surface friction

Determination of Skin/Surface Friction

and Skin Abrasion ᶠ

Pre-conditioning 23ºC (±2ºC) Dry 0.35 - 0.75

Skin abrasion

Procedure for simulated mechanical

abrasion during use ᶠ

Pre-conditioning 23ºC (±2ºC) Dry + 30%

ᶠ Developed by FIFA as FIFA Test Methods for the FIFA Quality Concept (FQC) for Football Turf Handbook of Test Methods.

* The HIC test at 40°C shall be conducted as soon as practicable after removing the sample from the heating chamber. It shall then be tested via the determination of three single impacts of HIC <1000 at 1.4m drop height.

** As determined by three single drops on the surface of the conditioned sample after simulated wear.

Samples shall be preconditioned using a studded roller as per the FIFA methods. Simulated wear shall mean 20,200 cycles of the Lisport machine. Where the test method specifies that a sample shall be tested ‘wet’ a standard wetting procedure shall be adopted see Appendix 2. All tests will be carried out using a FIFA approved ball which has been supplied through the FQC.

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Table 2 – Laboratory Test Requirements (CONT’D)

Property Characteristic

Test Method Requirement

Following Artificial Weathering in accordance with EN 14836:2005 (UVA) the following tests should be carried out 1

Artificial turf Colour change EN ISO 20105-A02 > Grey scale 3

Pile yarn (s) Tensile strength minimum requirements EN 13864 Fib ≥30N

Mono ≥8N

Pile yarn (s) Tensile strength EN 13864 % change from unaged

to be no more than 50%

Polymeric infill Colour change EN ISO 20105-A02 > Grey scale 3

Joint strength: stitched seams

Joint strength – unaged EN 12228 Method 1

2500N/100mm Joint strength – after immersion in hot

water EN 13744 & EN 12228 Method 1

Joint strength: bonded seams Joint strength – unaged EN 12228 Method 1 2500N/100mm

Joint strength – after immersion in hot water

EN 13744 & EN 12228 Method 1

Joint strength: peel strength (bonded seams only)

Joint strength – after immersion in hot water

EN 13744 & EN 12228 Method 2 25N/100mm

Carpet strength Direct tension ISO 13934-1 25N/mm

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Rugby Turf Performance Specification

April 2015

Table 2 – Laboratory Test Requirements (CONT’D)

Property Test Method Condition

Requirement

Tensile strength of shock pads and e-layers (if supplied as part of

system) EN 12230 Unaged ≥0.15MPa

Water permeability 2 EN 12616 Unaged > 500mm/h

Surfaces that fail the shock absorption test at -5°C may only be installed on pitches that have an under pitch heating system or in locations that do not experience temperatures below 0°C.

1 In instances where a local requirement exists, which exceeds the UVA criteria as set out in EN 14836:2005, then local requirements shall supersede this requirement. 2 Not applicable to surfaces designed specifically for indoor use.

Note: SBR and coated SBR shall be treated as two separate products.

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Any product being installed must have been lab tested and be shown to comply with Regulation 22 prior to the installation taking place.

When a field is tested it shall satisfy the requirements of Table 3, 4, 5 or 6 as appropriate in any position on the field. There are 29 locations tested with the AAA apparatus as set out in Figure 1 below. The nine red numbered locations must also be tested for HIC, rotational resistance and vertical ball rebound, as must a minimum of one of the test locations along each touchline as indicated by the white numbering. Manhole covers/sprinkler heads must also be tested if not within the 29 test locations specified below.

The field shall be tested in the positions as specified in the Rugby Turf Performance Specification. Field tests should be carried out on areas of turf which do not contain seams, inlaid lines or painted on lines. Maintenance of the field shall not be undertaken during the field test therefore no brushing, levelling or topping up of infill should be carried out. Should a minor problem be identified during testing which can be resolved within 24 hours the World Rugby Accredited Test Institute may be commissioned to return to the field to complete the testing programme.

Weather conditions during the test should allow for the proper and correct performance of the test procedures which should not be hindered or altered by wind, rain or cold conditions. Testing will be conducted within the temperature range +5oC to +45oC (temperatures refer to the surface temperature of the infill materials). Wind speed should not be so great as to affect the testing process, namely a maximum of 2.0m/sec. Pitches must be re-tested every two years before the anniversary of the initial test.

The number of test areas on smaller pitches, e.g. training pitches, must be pro-rated by area using the 15 test points within the field of play, where six test points is the minimum number for any field.

Results should be recorded as accurately as the apparatus used allows, averages should be calculated to this number of decimal places or to one decimal place more than the permitted values are expressed in, whichever is the greater.

Pitch Plan with Test Points for AAA

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Table 3 – Product Identification Tests

Component Characteristic

Test Method Permitted variation between laboratory component

and manufacture’s declaration

Artificial turf

Mass per unit area ISO 8543 < ± 10%

Tufts per unit area ISO 1763 < ± 10%

Tuft withdrawal force ISO 4919

> 40N

Pile length ISO 2549 < ± 5%

Pile weight ISO 8543 < ± 10%

Pile yarn(s) Pile yarn characterisation DSC Same polymer

Infill Layer thickness EN 1969 ± 15% of manufacturers declared value

Performance infill (if supplied as part of system)

Particle size EN 933 - Part 1 < ± 20%

Particle shape EN 14955 Similar shape

Bulk density EN 1097-3 < ± 15%

% organic Thermo-gravimetric analysis

(for information)

Within 10% of declared value

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Table 3 – Product Identification Tests (Cont’d)

Component Characteristic Test Method Permitted variation between laboratory component

and manufacture’s declaration

Performance infill

(if supplied as part of system) Change in appearance

In-house method photography EN 14955

Similar shape

Stabilising infill (if supplied as part of system)

Particle size EN 933 - Part 1 < ± 20%

Particle shape EN 14955 Similar shape

Bulk density EN 1097-3 < ± 15%

Shock pads / e-layers (if supplied as part of system)

Shock Absorption AAA < ± 5% Force Reduction

Thickness EN 1969

> 90% of manufacturer’s declaration

Unbound sub-bases (if tested as part of system)

Composition - Same composition

Particle size range (attach particle size grading to test report)

EN 933 - Part 1 < ± 20%

Particle shape EN 14955 Similar shape

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World Rugby Regulation 22 Performance Specification – Technical

7.1. Visual Inspection of Field Prior to Testing

Prior to, and during, the field test programme it is necessary to conduct a visual inspection of the surface to ensure that there are no significant defects in the surface which could be hazardous to players. Features such as the following should be noted:

• Seam failures of any type such as lumps of glue, incorrect stitch orientation • Looped yarn/pile

• Uneven fill - low or proud areas • Exposed irrigation heads • Exposed goal and flag sockets • Upright goals

• Position of goals

• Loose bungs for goal sockets

• Loose or dangerous goal structures, flags which do not comply with safety requirements

• Checks should also be made to ensure that the line markings are; straight, in the correct position and the right colour.

• Any other untypical feature of the system

Where an World Rugby Accredited Test Institute deems that there is an issue with a hazard on the field of play then the manufacturer/World Rugby Preferred Turf Producer/installer shall be required to make safe the issue identified to the satisfaction of the World Rugby Accredited Test Institute prior to the issue of the Field Test Report to the World Rugby Member Union in whose jurisdiction the field lies.

Note: The inspection carried out by the World Rugby Accredited Test Institute does not constitute a formal site safety audit and is carried out as a requirement of the Rugby Turf Performance Specification. The responsibility for the safety of the facility rests fully with the proprietor and neither the World Rugby Accredited Test Institute, nor World Rugby, can be held responsible for any matter arising from the inspection report issued by the World Rugby Accredited Test Institute to the World Rugby Member Union in whose jurisdiction the field lies.

7.2. Material Identification – First Field Test

In order to ensure the components of artificial turf installed on a field are the same as those previously tested in the laboratory the first field test shall include the identification tests detailed in Table 3. The maximum variation between the installed materials and the manufacturer/World Rugby Preferred Turf Producer/installer’s declaration, as detailed on the World Rugby Laboratory Report, shall be as specified in Table 3.

The samples of artificial turf shall be supplied to the laboratory when they undertake the field test. Samples of yarn, sand and rubber from the field shall be obtained by the laboratory. Samples should be submitted in adequate time so that if it is found they do not comply with the requirements of the World Rugby specification a new laboratory test using the new materials can be made prior to installation of the artificial turf and subsequent field test.*

Note: Where alternative suppliers of infill materials to those detailed in the original laboratory test report are to be used, samples of the infill should also be submitted in advance of construction so that compliance of these materials with the requirements of the World Rugby Artificial Rugby Turf Performance Specification can be determined prior to installation.

* This is a rare occurrence and will result in significant delay for the approval of the field, as laboratory testing will take several months to complete before a new laboratory report can be generated.

7.3. Material identification – Field Retests

To check that the artificial turf installed on a field has not been materially altered from that tested previously any retest must include the identification tests detailed in Table 5 and 6 and the artificial turf must comply with the requirements of Table 5 and 6.

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* Year One refers to the date of the field test and not the date of installation

Characteristic Test Method Requirement

Vertical ball rebound

EN 12235

(results expressed as absolute rebound)

0.60m – 1.00m

Shock Absorption AAA Version (Appendix 1) 55% - 70%

Vertical Deformation AAA Version (Appendix 1) 5.5mm – 11mm

Energy Restitution AAA Version (Appendix 1) 20% – 50%

Rotational Resistance EN 15301 - 1 30Nm - 45Nm

Surface regularity of playing surface EN 13036 3m straight-edge <10mm

Head injury criteria EN 1177 ≥1.4 during Year One*

≥1.3m Thereafter

Slope Surveyors level Maximum slope 1.0%

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World Rugby Regulation 22 Performance Specification – Technical

Table 5 – Material identification and consistency – First site test

Component Characteristic Test method Permitted variation between manufacture’s

declaration and installed materials

Artificial turf

Mass per unit area ISO 8543 < ± 10%

Tufts per unit area ISO 1763 < ± 10%

Tuft withdrawal force ISO 4919 > 90% of manufacturer’s declaration

Pile length above backing ISO 2549 < ± 5%

Total pile weight ISO 8543 < ± 10%

Water permeability of turf system (without infill) 1

EN 12616 using a single ring infiltrometer in which the artificial turf carpet is sealed prior to testing using 300mm diameter ring and location

with least porosity holes

>500mm/h and greater than 75% of laboratory result

Pile yarn(s) Pile yarn characterisation DSC Same polymer

Performance infill (if supplied as part of system)

Particle size EN 933 - Part 1 < ± 20%

Particle shape EN 14955 Similar shape

Bulk density EN 1097-3 < ± 15%

Stabilising infill (if supplied as part of system)

Particle size EN 933 - Part 1 < ± 20%

Particle shape EN 14955 Similar shape

Bulk density EN 1097-3 < ± 15%

Shock pads / e-layers 2

(if supplied as part of system)

Shock Absorption EN 14808 or AAA < ± 5% Force Reduction

Thickness EN 1969 > 90% of manufacturer’s declaration

1 Outdoor pitches only.

2 When measured in at least four locations. However it is desirable to have the shock pad tested in places other than the four corners therefore where practicable the

exposed shock pad should be tested in the 29 locations shown in Figure 1.

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Component Characteristic Requirement Sampling Procedure

Artificial grass1

Pile height (above primary backing)

< ± 5% of the value measured on the site sample tested

during the initial site test Measurements shall be made in four different areas of the field not subjected to high areas of wear or usage.

The number of tufts per m2 shall be calculated by multiplying the number of stitches per 100mm by the stitch

gauge. Number of stitches per

100mm The number of tufts per m2 shallnot differ by more than ± 10% of the manufacturer’s declaration Stitch spacing (mm)

Performance infill2 Particle grading

The largest sieve retaining at least 10% by mass of the infill shall be within the range detailed in the manufacturer’s declaration when compared to the actual grading curve of the product’s IRB Laboratory

Test Report.

A minimum sample of 250g shall be taken from the top portion of the performance infill (20mm) on each of the six

tests positions detailed in Figure 1.

The infill shall be graded in accordance with EN 933 Part 1 and the largest sieve retaining at least 10% by mass of the

infill determined.

1 These measurements are made to check the carpet has not been replaced.

2 This test is carried out to ensure that coarser infill material has not been installed on the field.

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8. Field dimensions and markings

The World Rugby Laws of the Game stipulate the maximum dimensions of the field of play in Law 1 – The Ground (www.worldrugby.org). In cases where there is variation from the World Rugby Laws of the Game and a preferred size cannot be achieved then it will be the responsibility of the World Rugby Member Union to declare a field of play suitable for matches in terms of dimensions.

8.1. Field Dimensions

The field of play has a maximum length of 100 metres and a minimum length of 94 metres from try line to try line. Each in-goal can have a maximum length of 22 metres and a minimum length of 6m and the width of the pitch can be a maximum of 70 metres and a minimum of 68 metres. These measurements should be taken as follows:

• 70 metres is from the inside of the touch in goal line to the inside of the touch in goal line • 100 metres excludes the goal line

• The 22m in-goal includes the goal line but excludes the dead ball line • Carpet size and site dimensions

The length and breadth of the playing area are to be as near as possible to the dimensions indicated in Figure 1 in order to comply with World Rugby Laws of the Game Law 1 – The Ground. All areas are rectangular.

8.2. Field Markings

The field shall be field marked in accordance with Law 1 – The Ground as detailed in the World Rugby Laws of the Game. The line markings and respective competition regulations must be met and checked by the relevant World Rugby Member Union.

All turf used for line markings and any other inlaid designs included on the field must undergo and comply with the same identification tests as the turf used for the main field. On retest, the pile height for these areas must match that of the main field and be checked for fibrillation of fibres. In cases where substantial fibrillation has occurred, the field will be deemed to have failed and the sections must be replaced prior to the field being considered compliant. Guidance will be provided to test institutes regarding what constitutes substantial fibrillation on the test report document. If there is any doubt about whether substantial fibrillation has occurred World Rugby should be consulted for a decision.

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fundamental part of the care of an artificial turf pitch. Procedures and equipment are prescribed by the manufacturers of the artificial turf system which, if followed, will keep the field of play in good condition. The most important aspect of these procedures for Rugby is maintaining high performance and ensuring a safe surface for the players. It is essential that properties such as shock absorption are maintained due to the nature of the game which involves contact between players and the surface. Maintenance is crucial to player welfare, the quality of play, longevity of the playing surface and overall aesthetics of the field.

The manufacturer/World Rugby Preferred Turf Producer’s guidance document will contain specific instructions on how to maintain a pitch and what type of equipment to use. In the context of this document maintenance is referenced to highlight the impact it can have on the safety and performance of a pitch.

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World Rugby Regulation 22 Performance Specification – Technical

APPENDIX 1

AAA Testing

Test Method for the determination of

Force Reduction, Vertical Deformation and Energy Restitution

* The World Rugby One Turf Manual has, with the kind permission of FIFA, been reproduced in part from the FIFA Turf Manual

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1. Scope

This standard specifies a method for the determination of force reduction, vertical deformation and energy restitution characteristics of artificial turf.

2. Normative references

This standard incorporates by dated or undated reference provisions from other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications will apply to this standard only when incorporated into it by amendment or revision. For undated references, the latest edition of the publication referred to applies (including amendments).

• EN 12229 – Surfaces for sports areas -Procedure for the preparation of artificial turf and textile test pieces

• ISO 6487 Road Vehicles – Measurement techniques in impact tests – Instrumentation

• EN 12504-2 Testing concrete in structures-Part 2: Non-destructive testing – Determination of rebound number

3. Terms and Definitions

For the purposes of this standard, the following term and definitions apply.

3.1. Start position

The start position is the position of the falling weight including the spring before release where the registered acceleration (g) is zero.

The registered acceleration after the release is the actual acceleration for the calculation of force reduction, vertical deformation and energy restitution.

3.2. Force reduction

The ability of a sports surface to reduce the impact force of a body falling onto the surface and which is a physical quantity consisting of damping and resilience due to a certain impact.

This reduction is expressed as a percentage of the reference impact force of 6760 N. This is the calculated maximum impact force of a non-shock absorbing surface at the same impact. This parameter is also known as shock absorption.

3.3 Vertical deformation

Deformation of the surface to an applied load.

3.4 Energy restitution

The energy returned by the surface after an applied load.

4. Principle

A weight, with a spring attached to it, is allowed to fall on the test piece and from the recorded acceleration of the weight from the moment of release till after the impact the force reduction, vertical deformation and energy restitution are calculated.

5. Test piece

A piece of surface of minimum size 500 mm by 500 mm, in combination with the supporting layers to be used in service and using the recommended method of attachment in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Laboratory test pieces of artificial turf shall be prepared in accordance with EN 12229.

6. Conditioning and Test Temperature

For tests in the laboratory, condition the test piece for a minimum of 24 hours at the test temperature.

If the material is known to be very sensitive to humidity, condition for a minimum of 48 hours at a relative humidity of 50 ± 10% at the test temperature. Unless otherwise specified the test temperature shall be 23 ± 2ºC.

Tests on site shall be made at the prevailing ambient temperature and humidity, which shall be recorded and reported.

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World Rugby Regulation 22 Performance Specification – Technical

7. Test method – Advanced Artificial Athlete (AAA) 7.1 Apparatus

7.1.1

The principle of the apparatus is shown in Figure 1 and consists of the following essential components specified in 7.1.2 to 7.1.10.

7.1.2

Falling weight, provided with a spiral metal spring and steel base plate, having a mass of 20 kg ±0.1 kg.

7.1.3

Spiral steel spring, whose characteristic is linear with a spring rate of 2000 ± 100 N/mm over the range 0.1 to 7.5 kN. The spring should have three or more coaxial coils which shall be rigidly fixed together at their ends. This may be achieved, for instance, by milling the spring from a single piece of steel. The weight of the spring shall be 0.80 ± 0.05 kg. The diameter shall be 70 ±1 mm.

7.1.4

Steel base plate having a lower side rounded to a radius of 500 mm ±50 mm; an edge radius of 1 mm, a diameter 70 ± 1 mm and a minimum thickness of 10 mm. The steel base plate weight must be 400g ± 50g.

7.1.5

Adjustable supporting feet, no less than 250 mm, for a point elastic sports surface and no less than 600 mm for an area elastic sports surface from the point of application of the load depending of the type of sports surface. The apparatus weight must be evenly distributed on its feet.

Pressure on each foot must be less than 0.020 N/mm².

7.1.6

A piezoresistive acceleration-sensing device with the following characteristics: • frequency range: bandwidth until 1000 Hz (-3dB)

• linearity : 2% operating range 7.1.7

A means of supporting the weight, allowing it to be set to the falling height with an accuracy of ± 0.25 mm.

7.1.8

A means of conditioning and recording the signal from the acceleration sensing device and a means of displaying the recorded signal.

• Sampling rate minimum: 9600 Hz

• Electronic A/D converter must have a minimum resolution of 16 bits

• Signal from the acceleration-sensing device must be filtered with a 2nd order low-pass • Butterworth filter with a cut-off frequency of 600 Hz

7.1.9

A means of calculating the speed and displacement of the falling weight during the course of impact by integration and double integration of the acceleration signal. To be verified in accordance with 7.2.4 en 7.2.5.

7.1.10

A laboratory test floor in accordance with the normative reference. The laboratory test floor must be a concrete with a minimum of 10 cm thickness. The surface hardness can be verified according to EN 12504-2 “Testing concrete in structures – Part 2: Non destructive testing – Determination of rebound number”. Minimum concrete hardness: 40 Mpa.

7.2

A calibration of the initial impact speed and the displacement of the falling weight at the

moment of impact. The calibration should be carried out to guarantee correct functioning of the apparatus. The calibration consists of three steps and must be carried out on a concrete floor. Set up the apparatus so that it is vertically positioned on a concrete floor.

7.2.1

Set the height of the lower face of the steel base plate of the weight so it is 55.00 ± 0.25 mm above the concrete floor. Allow the weight to fall onto the concrete floor. Record the acceleration of the falling weight till the moment of impact.

7.2.2

Repeat the procedure of 7.2.1 two times, giving a total of three impacts.

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range the results will be considered invalid.

7.2.4

For each impact calculate by double integration of the acceleration signal, the total displacement drop of the falling weight from the release height till the impact height. On concrete this impact height is 0.1 mm above the height where the downward velocity is maximal. See figure 3 for an example of a displacement curve. The average of the three impacts shall be in the range of 55.0 ± 0.5 mm.

7.2.5

After three impacts from which results must be in the range mentioned in 7.2.3 and 7.2.4, place the falling weight on the concrete floor. Measure the height between a static reference (for example: the magnet) and the weight. The measured height is used for all measurements and will be named “lift height”. The “lift height” will be slightly longer than 55.0 mm. The difference between “lift height” and “drop height” is due to the deflection of the apparatus. It must be quantified and taken into consideration to assure a 55.0 mm ± 0.5 mm drop height.

7.3 Test procedure 7.3.1

Set up the apparatus so it is positioned vertically on the test sample.

7.3.2

Place the underside of the falling weight smoothly onto the surface of the test piece. Immediately set the “lift height” mentioned in 7.2.5 and re-attach the mass on the magnet.

7.3.3

After 30 (± 5) seconds waiting for the relaxation of the material, drop the mass. After the impact within 30 seconds adjust the lift height and immediately lift the weight. Then repeat

During the period that the weight is suspended the values of the previous drop can be recorded.

7.3.4

Calculate and denote Fmax: Fmax = m x Gmax x g + m x g

Fmax is the calculated peak force for the test piece, expressed in Newtons (N); Gmax is the peak acceleration during the impact, expressed in g’s (1g = 9.81 m/s²)

m is the falling weight including spring, base plate, acceleration sensing device expressed in kg, 20kg g is the acceleration by gravity (=9.81 m/s²

7.3.5

Calculate, by integration of the acceleration signal, the velocity V(t) of the weight during the drop, and determine the maximum velocity V1 in the downwards direction at t1 and the maximum velocity V2 in the upwards direction at t2. (See Figure 2 for an example of a speed curve). Denote V1 and V2.

7.3.6

Calculate by integration of V(t) on the interval [t1, t2] the displacement of the weight Dweight (t), starting at the moment where it has reached its highest velocity (at t1). The vertical deformation is defined as:

VD = max [Dweight (t) - Dspring (t)]max on the interval [t1,t2] VD the vertical deformation [mm]

Dweight (t) travel of weight after moment of impact Dspring (t) compression of spring

The compression of the spring can be calculated as follows: Dspring (t) = Fspring (t) / Cspring = m x G(t) x g / Cspring Fspring (t) Force in spring

G(t) recorded acceleration in g’s

g gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s²) Denote VD

7.3.7

Repeat the procedures of 7.3.2 to 7.3.6 twice giving a total of three impacts.

7.3.8

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World Rugby Regulation 22 Performance Specification – Technical

If further tests are to be carried out on the same sample, each must be carried out at a new location, no test position being less than 100 mm from any other or edge of the sample.

7.4 Calculation and expression of the results 7.4.1

Calculate the force reduction (FR) from the expressions: FR = (1 – Fmax (test piece)

Freference ) x 100(%)

FR is the force reduction, expressed as a percentage (%)

Fmax (test piece) is the calculated peak force for the test piece, expressed in Newtons(N) Freference is the reference impact force, 6760 N

7.4.2

Calculate the force reduction (FR), of a single test location as the average of the force reduction results of the second and third impact and report the result to the nearest whole percentage number, e.g. 57%.

7.4.3

Calculate the vertical deformation (VD), of a single testing spot as the average of the vertical deformation results of the second and third impact and report the result to the nearest 0.1 mm, e.g 8.1 mm.

7.4.4

Calculate the energy restitution ER (%) defined by: ER1 = E2

E1 . 100%

E1 is the energy before impact. E2 is the energy after impact; E1 = ½m V1²

E2 = ½m (V2)²

V2 is the take-off velocity [m/s] V1 is the initial impact velocity [m/s] M is the mass [kg]

ER = (V2)² (V1)² . 100%

7.4.5

Calculate the energy restitution (ER), of a single testing spot as the average of the energy restitution results of the second and third impact and report the result to the nearest whole percentage number, e.g. 37%.

8. Test report

The test report shall include the following information: A. Reference to this test method

B. Complete identification of the surface tested; a statement of the manufacturer’s reference type of supporting layers and method of attachment; the dimensions of the test piece

C. The ambient temperature and relative humidity

D. The value of the initial impact speed and the displacement of the falling weight E. The Force Reduction

F. The Energy Restitution G. The Vertical Deformation

H. The condition of the surface at the time of test, i.e. wet or dry I. A statement of the uncertainty on the result reported

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Standard Preparation and Wetting Method in Sample Preparation Preparation of test specimens

Test specimens shall be prepared strictly in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. If required this may include consolidation of the infill by means of a conditioning roller (see below) or other means. The same conditioning procedure shall be used on all test specimens being prepared for sports performance and simulated use tests.

All test specimens (other than those being prepared for simulated use, tests at sub-ambient and elevated temperatures and artificial weathering) shall then be conditioned prior to test by passing a hand-pulled roller over the test specimen for a minimum of 50 cycles and a maximum of 250 cycles (one cycle comprises one outward and one return path by a single roller, where double rollers, etc are used the number of cycles shall be adjusted pro-rota). The barrels of the roller shall weigh 30 ±0.5 kg, be 118 ±5 mm in diameter and have plastic studs (see Section 7) mounted as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 – stud pattern on conditioning roller and Lisport Wear Machine 300 + 10 mm

380 + 10 mm

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World Rugby Regulation 22 Performance Specification – Technical

Test conditions Laboratory tests

Laboratory tests shall be made at an ambient laboratory temperature of 23 ± 2º C.

Test specimens shall be conditioned for a minimum of 3 hours at the laboratory temperature prior to test. Laboratory tests shall be made on dry and wet test specimens as specified in the appropriate test procedure.

Preparation of wet test specimens

Wet specimens shall be prepared by evenly applying to the test piece a volume of water that thoroughly soaks the specimen (if in doubt this is should be equal to the volume of the test specimen). Following wetting the test specimen shall be allowed to drain for 15 minutes and the test carried out immediately thereafter.

References

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