Unit 13 Notes - Animalia.pptx

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Unit 13

Kingdom Animalia

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

A. Overview

1. most diverse kingdom in appearance 2. what is an animal?

a. heterotrophic b. eukaryotic

c. multicellular d. lack cell walls

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

3. zoology – the study of animals

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

B. Essential characteristics of animals 1. Movement

a. most animals engage in some type of locomotion – movement thru the environment

b. animals that move from place to place – motile

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

2. Support

a. some animals are small and require little or no structure for support

b. some animals are large and need to support their own weight

c. exoskeleton – a system of tough plates covering the

outside of the animal

d. endoskeleton – flexible, lighter internal system of bones and cartilage

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

4. Nutrition

a. herbivore – eats plants b. carnivore – eats animals

c. omnivore – eats plants and animals

d. detritivore – feeds on decaying organic material

e. filter feeder – aquatic animals that strain food from water

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

5. Respiration

a. take in O2 and give off CO2

b. lungs, gills, through skin, or simple diffusion 6. Circulation

a. the transport of materials throughout the animal b. very small animals rely on diffusion

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

7. Excretion

a. the elimination of waste material

b. without this, animal cells would become clogged and poisoned by accumulated waste

8. Response

a. the ability to perceive and respond to stimuli in the environment – irritability

b. nerves, brain,… 9. Reproduction

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

B. Basic Anatomy of Animals

1. the body plan of the animal – how its parts are arranged

2. symmetry – the different ways organisms can be divided

into equal halves

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

3. types of symmetry:

a. Radial symmetry

1. a body pattern that can be divided in

equal halves by a cut made through the center of the animal and along its

length

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

b. Bilateral symmetry

1. a body pattern that can be divided into equal halves only

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

4. cephalization – an anterior concentration of sense organs (to have a head)

a. the more complex the animals become, the more pronounced their cephalization

b. anterior – toward the head c. posterior – toward the tail d. dorsal – back side

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

C. Classification of the Animal Kingdom 1. 9 phylum:

a. Phylum Porifera (10,000) – sponges b. Phylum Cnidaria (10,000)

1. Class Hydrozoa – hydras 2. Class Scyphozoa – jellyfish

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

c. Phylum Platyhelminthes (14,000) – flatworms 1. Class Trematoda – flukes

2. Class Cestoda – tapeworms

d. Phylum Nematoda (12,000) – roundworms

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

f. Phylum Molluska (75,000)

1. Class Bivalvia – 2 shelled mollusks

2. Class Gastropoda – stomach-footed mollusks 3. Class Cephalopoda – head-footed mollusks g. Phylum Echinodermata (5800)

1. Class Asteroidea – starfish

2. Class Echinoidea – sea urchins, sand dollars 3. Class Holothuroidea – sea cucumbers

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

h. Phylum Arthropoda (1,071,300) 1. Subphylum Crustacea 2. Subphylum Chelicerata

a. Class Arachnida

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

i. Phylum Chordata (47,460)

1. Class Osteichthyes – fish

2. Class Agnatha – jawless fish

3. Class Chondrichthyes – cartilaginous fish 4. Class Amphibia (4,460) – amphibians

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

5. Class Reptilia (6,900) – reptiles

a. Order Squamata – snakes, lizards

b. Order Testudinata – turtles, tortoises c. Order Crocodilia – alligators, crocodiles d. Order Rhynchocephalia – tuatara

6. Class Aves (9,300) – birds

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Introduction: Kingdom Animalia

a. Order Rodentia – gnawing mammals h. Order Edentata – toothless mammals

b. Order Carvivora – meat-eating mammals i. Order Chiroptera – flying mammals c. Order Pinnipedia – fin-footed mammals j. Order Insectivora – insect-eating

mammal

d. Order Cetacea – aquatic mammals k. Order Sirenia – sea cows

e. Order Primates – erect mammals l. Order Proboscidea – trunked mammals

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Phylum Porifera - Sponges

A. Overview

1. the simplest animal

2. “tissue animal” – have no organs or systems

a. the only level of cellular organization is that of tissues

3. all are aquatic 4. sessile

5. asymmetrical

6. structure - have a porous body wall. The pores or holes allow water to pass through this animal.

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Phylum Porifera - Sponges

7. reproduction – budding

a. type of asexual reproduction where a group of cells from the sponge’s body enlarges and

separates from the parent to form a new individual. b. they can also re-form after being separated!

Sponges Pumping

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Phylum Cnidaria

A. Overview

1. all are aquatic 2. radial symmetry

3. have 2 basic shapes: a. polyp

1. cup-shaped, tubular

2. mouth and tentacles on one end and basal disc for attachment on other end

3. sessile – but can “release” themselves and float to a new site

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Phylum Cnidaria

b. medusa

1. expanded bell-shaped body and swims freely

2. contracts and relaxes body to glide through water 3. example – jellyfish

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Phylum Cnidaria

B. Class Hydrozoa – Hydras 1. feeding

a. simply dangle their tentacles in the water

b. cnidoblasts – stinging cells that line the tentacles and produce

nematocysts –

1. capsules containing poisonous barbs, long coiled threads, or a sticky substance

2. when a food source comes along, the hydras use their nematocysts to discharge

2. reproduction

a. reproduce asexually by budding and sexual reproduction during fall and winter

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Phylum Cnidaria

C. Class Scyphozoa – Jellyfish

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NbpB5F9CcLc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7tD5WLwSiGo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dMcUH2rMnY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dMcUH2rMnY

D. Class Anthozoa – Corals, Sea Anemones 1. “flower animals”

2. fragile animals, often found in colonies

3. sea anemones are polyps with rows of tentacles that use their nematocysts to sting their prey

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Phylum Platyhelminthes -

Flatworms

A. Overview

1. found in aquatic and land environments 2. have thin, flat body

3. bilateral symmetry – with a head and tail region

4. body has 3 main layers of tissues: (these give way to 1st phylum

that

shows organs)

5. have cephalization – end with head

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Phylum Platyhelminthes -

Flatworms

B. Free-Living Flatworms – Planarians

1. commonly found in freshwater lakes and streams 2. have eyespots that are sensitive to light

3. hermaphroditic – have both male and female reproductive organs

a. still mate by cross –fertilization and release eggs enclosed in capsules that attach to rocks that hatch after about 1

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Phylum Platyhelminthes -

Flatworms

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Phylum Platyhelminthes -

Flatworms

C. Parasitic Flatworms – Flukes, Tapeworms 1. Class Trematoda – Flukes

a. adult flukes attach to a host with powerful “suckers” and feed upon their tissue, fluids

2. Class Cestoda – Tapeworms

a. spend their adult life in the gut of vertebrate animals b. head – called a scolex

c. deprive host of some of its food, release toxic waste for host to

absorb

d. danger occurs when tapeworm get too long and gets tangled /

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Phylum Platyhelminthes -

Flatworms

The Tapeworm

The Fluke

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVo6ARYhtd4

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Phylum Nematoda - Roundworms

A. Overview

1. tiny, cylindrical worms usually less than 1 inch long 2. live in almost every habitat

a. frozen arctic tundra b. heat of hot springs c. mountaintops

d. ocean floor

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Phylum Nematoda - Roundworms

3. bilateral symmetry – with anterior and posterior end

4. body plan - is long, smooth and unsegmented. Their cylindrical bodies are tapered at both ends and are covered by a

protective

cuticle. “A tube within a tube”

5. have 3 tissue layers – ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm.

6. Digestive System- roundworms have a complete digestive system which means their digestive tract has 2 openings; a mouth to ingest

food and an anus to eject waste.

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Phylum Nematoda - Roundworms

Dracunculis medinensis

(guinea worm)

Numbers 21

5 And the people spake against God, and against Moses, Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, neither is there any

water; and our soul loatheth this light bread. 6 And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died. 7 Therefore the people came to Moses, and said, We have sinned, for we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that he take away the serpents from us. And

Moses prayed for the people. 8 And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery

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Phylum Nematoda - Roundworms

The Mesopotamians devised a technique for removal still in use today. The worm must be removed slowly in order to get it out intact. The

solution is to roll up the worm daily on a stick. A carefully rolled worm was a symbol of technical know-how, something that in time became a symbol of the physician's practical skill. Medical scholars suspect that the worms were the 'fiery serpents' that afflicted the Children of Israel in the migration from Egypt. Moses demonstrated the winding of the 'serpent' and made a model in brass of the procedure.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u4kQWvUv_Ns&has_verified=1

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Annelida- Segmented Worms

A. Overview

1. Annelida – means “little rings”

a. their bodies are divided both externally and internally into segments

b. septum – thin layer that separates each segment on the inside

of worms

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Annelida- Segmented Worms

B. The common earthworm 1. clitellum

a. barrel-shaped swelling covering segments 32-37 b. used in reproduction

2. prostomium

a. lip-like structure at the anterior end of earthworm b. mouth found just below it

3. anus – posterior end

4. anterior end – usually darker and more pointed in appearance 5. setae – tiny bristles, 4 pairs on each segment, used for

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Annelida- Segmented Worms

6. movement – also by contracting their muscles as the setae “anchor”

the worm

7. nutrition – eats vegetation, refuse, decayed animal matter in the soil

a. mouth -> esophagus -> crop (stored temporarily) -> gizzard (muscles grind up food here) -> intestine (broken further by enzymes) -> anus (waste) or absorbed by blood

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Annelida- Segmented Worms

9. nervous system – “brain” (a mass of nervous tissue)

a. double ventral nerve cord extends from ganglia to a large ganglia at posterior end of worm

10. sensory cells all over their bodies – sensitive to light, touch, certain

chemicals

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Annelida- Segmented Worms

C. Leeches

1. there are 650 known species of leeches.

2. the largest leech discovered measured 18 inches.

3. about 1/5 of leech species live in the sea, where they feed on

fish

4. the leech has 32 brains

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Annelida- Segmented Worms

Interesting Leech Facts:

Blood-sucking leeches suck your blood in two ways: they use a proboscis to puncture your skin, or they use their three mouths and millions of little teeth. They live just about anywhere there is water. Leeches find you by detecting skin oils, blood, heat, or even the carbon dioxide you breathe out.

 

Leeches do not feed often. That is because they take in a lot when they do feed. Four or five large leeches can drain the life from a rabbit in a half an

hour. Hikers have reported leeches feeding unnoticed until they are the size of small bananas!

 

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Annelida- Segmented Worms

Doctors often used leeches in the past to draw blood. Some barbers used to do surgery as well as cutting hair, and they used leeches. When a barber finished

surgery, he took the bloody bandage and wrapped it around a pole to show he did surgery, too. That’s how the white and red swirled barber pole came to be.

 

And leeches are still being used to suck blood! Doctors are now turning to leeches to help restore blood circulation to grafted tissue and reattached fingers and toes. In 1985, microsurgeons in a Boston hospital used leeches to save the ear of a 5 year old boy that had been bitten off by a dog. The leech can remove any

congested blood to allow normal circulation to return to the tissues, thus preventing gangrene from setting in.

 

The leech will gorge itself until it has had its fill and then just fall off.  

The leech will gorge itself up to five times its body weight.  

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Annelida- Segmented Worms

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QeOOpkb0Tyo

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Phylum Molluska

A. Overview

1. 2nd largest phyla of animals – 75,000 species of snails,

slugs,

clams, octopuses, oysters, squids…

2. habitat – salt water, fresh water, terrestrial 3. symmetry - bilateral

4. all mollusks except for the bivalves (Class Bivalvia) have clear

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Phylum Molluska

5. all share the following characteristics:

a. mantle – sheath of tissue that encloses the vital organs, secretes its shell, and forms its respiratory apparatus.

1. a fold of skin that surrounds the body organs.

2. acts like a gland because it is capable of secretion. a. these secretions harden to help form the shells of mollusks.

b. shell – tough, multilayered structure secreted by the

mantle as a means of protection or body support.

c. visceral hump – part of the body that contains its heart, digestive organs, excretory organs, and is often

covered

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Phylum Molluska

d. foot – fleshy, muscular organ used for locomotion e. radula – small organ covered with many tiny teeth, scrapes up food particles and draws them into it’s mouth.

6. 6 classes based on: a. shape

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Phylum Molluska

B. Class Bivalvia: Two-Shelled Mollusks 1. over 10,000 species

2. clams, oysters, mussels, scallops

3. each ½ of the shell is called the valve 4. have no radula

5. respiration – gills

a. thin-walled, filled with blood vessels

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Phylum Molluska

C. Class Gastropoda: Stomach-Footed Mollusks 1. snails, slugs

2. found on land and in water

D. Class Cephalopoda: Head-Footed Mollusks 1. squid, octopus, cuttlefish, nautilus

2. live in seas

3. foot extends from the head region

a. divided into many sucker-bearing arms

4. many can squirt a dense black, inky fluid into the water to confuse their attackers

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebeNeQFUMa0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oSyEZAm8nb8

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Phylum Echinodermata

A. Overview

1. 5,800 species divided into 5 main classes

2. habitat – all are marine, mainly living on the ocean floor 3. symmetry – radial

4. endoskeleton of plates called ossicles

a. thin layer of skin covering these plates, holding them together

5. water-vascular system

a. water-filled tubes that run through their body.

b. by moving water in and out of tubes, echinoderms can

move on “jets” of water or use their tubed feet as suction cups.

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Phylum Echinodermata

B. Class Asteroidea: Starfish

1. 5 or more arms extending out from a central disc

C. Class Echinoidea: Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars 1. sea urchins – “porcupine of the sea”

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3W4OCnHyCs

D. Class Holothuroidea: Sea Cucumbers 1. slow moving, sac-shaped

2. lacks the bony endoskeleton, making it vulnerable to predators a. so, only defense is self-mutilation

1. when attacked, releases some of its internal organs which often suffices for its attackers. It then hides and

regenerates

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Phylum Echinodermata

E. Class Ophiuroidea: Brittle Stars and Basket Stars

1. resemble starfish, but has thin, tentacle-like arms 2. discards its arms when being attacked

F. Class Crinoidea: Sea Lilies and Feather Stars

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Phylum Arthropoda

A. Overview

1. over 1,000,000 species

2. 4/5 animal species are arthropods

3. includes lobsters, spiders, scorpions, millipedes,

insects…

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Phylum Arthropoda

5. common characteristics:

a. exoskeleton

1. nonliving body covering, a triple layer “suit of armor”

*2. weight of exoskeleton can limit the size of the

organism

a. the larger arthropods are usually aquatic for this

reason

3. molting

b. chitin – found in exoskeleton, gives it toughness and

flexilbility

c. jointed appendages

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Phylum Arthropoda

2. some appendages are used for sensory, some to capture

food, some for defense

d. body segmentation

1. 3 major segments:

a. head

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Phylum Arthropoda

e. open circulatory system with a dorsal heart

1. the dorsal heart pumps blood through short vessels and

empties it into cavities within the body and bathes its

organs.

2. not as efficient as a closed system b/c depends partly on

gravity for its movement.

f. ventral nervous system

1. “brain”

6. nervous system

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Phylum Arthropoda

7. eyes - 2 kinds:

a. compound eye – thousands of individual lenses

1. found in most insects and crustaceans

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Phylum Arthropoda

B. 5 Major Classes of Arthropods

1. Crustacea

a. lobsters, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, barnacles

b. 5 or more pairs of legs (10 or more legs total)

c. no wings

d. 2 pair of antennae

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Phylum Arthropoda

2. Arachnida

a. spiders, ticks, mites, scorpions

b. 4 pairs of walking legs (8 legs total) c. no wings

d. no antennae

e. body is divided into 2 segments – cephalothorax and abdomen f. chelicerae – mouthparts that appear as claws or fangs

g. no mandibles (jaw)

h. usually 4 pair of simple eyes

i. book lungs – air enters through a slit in the abdomen and flows btwn.

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Phylum Arthropoda

3. Insecta

a. grasshoppers, flies, bees, butterflies…

b. ~1 million species! ~80% of all animal species!

c. 3 pairs of walking legs (6 legs total)

d. wings usually present

e. body divided into 3 segments – head, thorax, abdomen

f. 1 pair of sensory antennae

g. undergo metamorphosis – a series of developmental

changes

1. incomplete metamorphosis – egg  nymph (mini adult)  adult 2. complete metamorphosis – egg  larva  pupa (cocoon)  adult

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Phylum Arthropoda

4. Chilopoda

a. centipedes

b. 1 pair of legs per body segment

c. no wings

d. 1 pair of antennae

e. carnivorous – eat smaller insects

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Phylum Arthropoda

5. Diplopoda

a. millipedes

b. 2 pairs of legs per body segment

c. no wings

d. 1 pair of antennae

e. herbivores and decomposers

f. have stink glands – to repel predators and curl into a tight

ball

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Phylum Chordata

A. Overview

1. dorsal notochord

a. rod of tough, flexible tissue running the length of the animal’s

body for support

b. may remain throughout adult life, or become replaced by

vertebrae

1. all vertebrae together make up the vertebral column or backbone

2. dorsal tubular nerve cord

a. 1 end is the brain, the other ends at the anterior end of the

cord

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Phylum Chordata

3. pharyngeal pouches

a. folds of skin along the neck

b. in aquatic species, opening develop here, where gills develop

c. in non-aquatic species, openings never develop

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Phylum Chordata

B. Chordata Classification 1. 3 subphyla:

a. Cephalochordata – aquatic

1. retain their notochords throughout their entire lives 2. example – amphioxus, lancet

b. Urochordata – aquatic

1. have notochords in larval stage 2. example – sea squirts, tunicates

c. Vertebrata – makes up 95% of Chordates 1. animals with backbones

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Phylum Chordata

2. 2 groups:

a. ectothermic – cold blooded

1. does not have the ability to generate its own body heat

2. cannot maintain a consistent body temperature warmer

than

its environment

3. usually sluggish when too cold

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Phylum Chordata

b. endothermic – warm blooded

1. have the ability to generate their own body heat

2. can be active regardless of temperature

3. comes at a cost, though – they burn 30 times as much

energy

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3. 7 Classes of Vertebrates:

Class Approx # Examples Characteristics

Endo/Ectothermic

of species

Agnatha 80 lamprey, hagfish jawless fish, lack bone

Ectothermic

and paired fins

Chondrichthyes 800 sharks, rays, skates cartilaginous skeleton,

Ectothermic

paired fins

Osteichthyes 20,000 perch, bass, salmon bony skeleton Ectothermic

Amphibia 4,500 frogs, toads lay eggs in water, Ectothermic

aquatic larval stage

Reptilia 6,900 turtles, snakes, alligators dry scaly skin, amniotic

Ectothermic

egg, internal fertilization

Aves 9,300 birds hollow bones, fly, feathers

Endothermic

Mammalia 4,400 dogs, lion, humans hair, produce millk

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Phylum Chordata

C. Vertebrate Form and Function

1. vertebrates are supported by an internal endoskeleton

2. vertebrates have a closed circulatory system

a. 3 types of blood vessels:

1. arteries – carry blood away from the heart to body tissues

2. capillaries – terminal branches of the arteries, supplies

tissues

w/ nutrients & oxygen, removes wastes & carbon dioxide

from

the same tissues.

3. veins – begin in capillaries and carry blood from body

tissues

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Phylum Chordata

b. most vertebrates have red blood

1. contains hemoglobin – red, oxygen carrying pigment

2. blood passed thru kidneys – wastes are filtered out

3. Nutrition: esophagus

stomach

intestines

a. carnivores, herbivores, omnivores

4. reproduction:

a. external fertilization – takes place in the water, no shell on

the

egg

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Phylum Chordata

5. nervous system:

a. brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, sensory

organs

b. 5 major brain lobes primary functions:

1. olfactory lobes – receive impulses from smell receptors of

the

nostrils

2. cerebrum – controls voluntary muscle activity

3. optic lobes – receive impulses from the eyes

4. cerebellum – coordinates muscle activity

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The Fish

A. Class Octeichthyes – “The Bony Fish”

1. have bony skeletons, calcified bone

a. vertebral column and skull of bones

2. fish moves by whipping motion of body

a. muscular band found in the trunk and tail

3. air bladder (swim bladder)

a. thin-walled sac in the body cavity

b. enables fish to control its depth and maintain that depth even

w/out swimming

c. gases move in and out – more gas, the fish will float; less gas-

the

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The Fish

4. fins

a. 2 sets of paired fins:

1. pectoral fins – close to the head

2. pelvic fins – below and slightly behind pectoral fins

b. unpaired fins:

1. anterior dorsal fin – back of the fish, often w/ short spines for protection

2. posterior dorsal fin – smaller, softer, keeps fish upright when swimming

3. anal fin – ventral surface behind anal opening

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The Fish

5. body covering

a. scales – the # of scales does not change, but as the fish grow,

they grow.

1. if you count the # of rings to approximate the age of the

fish

2. not all fish have scale rings though

b. mucus – glands beneath the scales secrete a mucus to cover

the fish

1. protects fish from parasites

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The Fish

c. countershading

1. form of camouflage

2. upper ½ of fish is dark so when viewed from above, it

blends

with the bottom of the water

3. lower ½ of fish is light so when viewed from below, it

blends

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The Fish

6. Digestion

a. eat plankton, worms, insects, plants, other fish, mammals

b. mouth

pharynx

esophagus

stomach (storage)

short intestine

anus

7. respiration

a. operculum – plate behind the eye on each side of the head

b. gills – beneath the operculum

1. filled with many blood vessels

2. as water passes over the gills, O

2

diffuses into the tiny

blood

vessels, while CO

2

diffuses out

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The Fish

8. circulatory system

a. 2 –chambered heart

1. atrium – chamber designed to receive blood from body

tissues

2. ventricle – atrium dumps blood into here

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The Fish

9. nervous system

a. brain and spinal cord

1. 10 pairs of cranial nerves branch off from the brain

b. olfactory sacs

1. excellent sense of smell

c. no external ears, but can detect sound vibrations through

their

skulls

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The Fish

10. reproduction

a. most follow oviparous reproductive plan

1. eggs are laid (spawning)

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The Fish

B. Class Agnatha – “The Jawless Fish”

1. lamprey, hagfish

2. lack of scales

3. eel-like shape

4. unpaired fins

5. skeleton of cartilage

6. jawless, sucking mouth

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The Fish

C. Class Chondrichthyes – “The Cartilaginous Fish”

1. sharks, rays, skates

2. an elaborate skeleton of strong, yet flexible cartilage

3. have jaws

4. have paired fins

5. rays vs. skates

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The Fish

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Amphibians

A. Overview

1. amphibian – means “double life”

a. undergo metamorphosis – drastic changes in habits and body

structures

b. life cycle:

1. female lays eggs in water

2. male fertilizes eggs by discharging milt over the eggs

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Amphibians

2. skin

a. scale-less skin richly supplied w/ blood vessels

b. some secrete poisons over their skin to deter predators

3. respiratory system

a. respiration through gills, lungs, lining in mouth and throat,

and

through skin

4. circulatory system

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Amphibians

5. ectothermic – their body temps. and activity level depend on

surrounding temperatures

a. hibernation – animal becomes inert, heartbeat and circulation

nearly stops in cold temps.

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Amphibians

B. Classification of Amphibians

1. 3 orders based upon body shape and types of limbs:

a. Order Apoda

1. ~ 160 species of caecilians

2. resemble giant earthworms

3. lack limbs

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Amphibians

b. Order Caudata

1. ~ 400 species of salamanders

2. slender body, definite head, trunk, and tail

c. Order Anura

1. ~3900 species of frogs and toads

2. lack of a tail

3. uniquely designed limbs

a. front limbs – small and function for sitting

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Reptiles

A. Overview

1. skin

a. cool, dry, leathery outer layer

b. scales – composed of keratin, a durable and waterproof

protein

1. non-living and don’t grow as the reptile grows

2. so, periodically, they must molt to make room for their

growing bodies

c. unlike amphibian skin that is thin and moist to permit

respiration,

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Reptiles

2. amniotic egg

a. must be fertilized within the body of the female

b. egg then passed from the female’s body

c. shell is porous for gas exchange

amnion – grows around embryo, protection yolk sac – surrounds yolk

yolk – contains nutrients for digestion

chorion – membrane that lines inner layer of shell

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Reptiles

d. independent, self-sustaining unit w/ a protective home, moist

environment, and food supply

e. reptiles provide little to no care for offspring beyond laying

them

in a good place

3. respiration

a. don’t use gills, use lungs

b. alveoli – tiny air-filled sacs for gas exchange

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Reptiles

4. circulation

a. 3-chambered heart (like amphibians)

1. difference – ventricle is partially divided by a septum wall that keeps the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood somewhat separate

b. crocodiles, alligators – have 4-chambered heart 5. nervous system

a. their brains actually make up less than 1% of their total body mass!

b. Jacobson’s organs – pits in the roof of their mouths w/ nerve endings

that are sensitive to chemicals captured from the air by animal’s tongue

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Reptiles and Amphibians

Reptiles and Amphibians Documentary part 1 -

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K-I34T3fGdY

Reptiles and Amphibians Documentary part 2 -

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SCWGqeHDbBk

Reptiles and Amphibians Documentary part 3 -

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZdUOMK3vKnU

Reptiles and Amphibians Documentary part 4 -

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Aves

A. Overview

1. ability to fly

a. covered by feathers

b. bones are thin-walled and hollow

1. air-filled cavities within the bones ~ lightness

2. body usually spindle shaped, with four divisions:

a. head, neck, trunk, and tail

b. neck disproportionately long for balancing and food gathering

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Aves

3. limbs paired

a. forelimbs usually modified for flying

b. posterior pair variously adapted for perching, walking, and

swimming

c. foot with four toes (two or three toes in some)

4. no teeth

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Aves

6. epidermal covering of feathers and leg scales

a. shaped to reduce drag and make the bird aerodynamic

b. help retain heat

c. help serve as a cushion – protecting their fragile skeleton

d. oil gland at base of their tail to prevent feathers from

becoming

too brittle

1. use their bill to apply the oil

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Aves

e. types of feathers:

1. down - not orderly in shape, “feather duster” – like

2. contour – large flight feathers

f. they do molt their feathers, but in a systematic way or else they

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Aves

7. nervous system well developed

a. with 12 pairs of cranial nerves and brain with large

cerebellum

and optic lobes 

8. circulatory system consists of four-chambered heart with two atria

and two ventricles

a. high heartbeats b/c of high metabolism – 135 to 570 bpm

b. chickadee – 1,000 bpm!

c. can often lead to their demise b/c heart has to work so hard

9. respiration by slightly expansible lungs

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Aves

10. must have great eyesight to spot their prey or obstacles in their

way

11. great hearing – birdcalls (syrinx)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VjE0Kdfos4Y https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W7QZnwKqopo

12. migration – nearly ½ the bird species in the Northern Hemisphere

travel south in the winter

a. enables birds to live year-round in warm climates w/ abundant

food supply

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Mammals

• *Possess hair which is made of keratin. Hair provides insulation .

• *Endothermic. The majority of the heat energy is used to maintain their high

body temperature.

• *4 chambered heart.

*Mammary glands are used to produce milk to nourish their young. Female

glands are the only functional glands.

• *The diaphragm is a muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the

abdominal cavity.

• 7 cervical vertebrae (neck bones) are present in most mammals.

Most are viviparous though some are oviparous. An extended gestation period

(uterine development) is common in most placental mammals.

• Teeth are imbedded in the jaw bone and come in a variety of forms.

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Mammals

A. Characteristics of Mammals

1. Hair of mammals

a. all mammals have hair

b. hair is a collection of nonliving cells filled with filaments of

keratin

c. 2 types of hair:

1. underhair – soft, insulating fur layer next to animal’s skin

2. guard hair – coarser, longer, found over the underhair.

gives

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Mammals

d. functions:

1. insulation

2. camouflage

3. whiskers have sensory nerves

4. protection from predators

2. Limbs of mammals

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Mammals

3. Digestion of mammals

a. 3 basic types of mammalian teeth:

1. incisors – flat, thin teeth in the front of the mouth, used for

gnawing or biting

2. canines – rounded, pointed teeth toward the front of the

mouth, used for tearing

3. molars – thick, squat teeth in the back of the mouth, used

for

grinding and chewing

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Mammals

4. Respiration and circulation of mammals a. lungs – major organ

b. diaphragm – separates lungs from the abdominal organs c. larynx – voice box

5. Reproduction of mammals

a. placental mammals – interface between the mother and embryo through which gases, nutrients, and and wastes are exchanged

1. umbilical cord – blood vessels and membranes that connect the

embryo with the mother

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Mammals

b. marsupials – pouched mammals

1. kangaroos, koala bears

2. produce young without a placenta

3. after a short time, the yolk sac becomes depleted and the

embryo leaves the uterus, and climbs onto the mother’s

fur

and instinctively climbs up into her pouch.

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Mammals

c. monotremes – egg laying mammals

1. single perforation or hole for the digestive, excretory, and

reproductive systems.

2. only mammals to lay their eggs and incubate them like

birds

3. once hatched, they feed on mother’s milk – young lap milk

off mother’s skin, no nipples

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Chart of Placental Mammals

Order Characteristics Examples

Carnivora Meat-eating mammals, all teeth are pointed cats and dogs , seals, walrus, weasels, and martins

Chiroptera Flying mammals – 900 species, wings used for flight, diet includes insects and vegetation bats

Primates Erect mammals – 235 species, opposable thumb, free moving arms and legs, nails, social, usually one offspring at birth.

man , apes, monkeys, tarsiers, and lemurs

Edentata Toothless mammals – 29 species, lacking teeth, large claws for digging sloths, armadillos, South American anteater

Rodentia Gnawing mammals – 1800 species, large chisel-like incisors in both upper and lower jaw rats, mice, squirrels, beavers, gophers, and capybara Lagomorpha 4 incisor teeth, canine teeth lacking, short stubby tails rabbits, hares, pikas

Cetacea Aquatic mammals – 90 species, flippers, opening on top of head called its blowhole dolphins, whales, porpoises

Proboscidea Trunked mammals – 2 species, great size, nose and upper lip form proboscis, upper incisors are tusks, thick skin, scant

hair elephant

Sirenia Sea Cows – 4 species, herbivorous, aquatic, no external ears, flippers, no hind appendages Manatees and dugongs

Perissodactyla Odd-toed mammals- hoofed forms, gall bladder lacking, herbivorous horses, donkeys, zebras, tapirs, rhinocerous

Artiodactyla Even-toed mammals – 210 species, hoofed forms, herbivorous, true horns or antlers present Cattle, pigs, camels, deer, hippopotami, giraffe, cow, buffalo, sheep, goata

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Major Groups of Mammals:

 Monotremes. Characterized by the duckbilled platypus and the spiny anteaters, lay eggs and maintain some reptilian characteristics. They do not contain true mammary glands, but produce a fatty sweat (milk) from glands in the skin. The milk collects and drips down tufts of hair into the offspring's mouth. They are found in Australia and New Guinea.

 Marsupials. These mammals contain a pouch (marsupium).

Opossums,koalas,kangaroos, and other examples live in Australia as a result of the break up of the super continent Pangea. The young are born during the early stages of development. The new born crawls up to the mother's pouch, where it clings on to a nipple and hangs there until it fully develops.

 Placental Mammals. These mammals are the most abundant and diverse of the class. The placenta, a reproductive structure, is housed in the uterus of the female. Here the offspring receives all that it needs to develop into a fully developed organism. This

period of development (gestation) varies with the species of mammal. Whales gestate for 2 years, while a mouse develops in 21 days.

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Fun Mammal Facts:

 Fastest mammal (also the fastest land animal): the cheetah (60-70 mph = 97-110 kph)

 Slowest mammal - the sloth (less than 1 mph, or 2 kph)

 Biggest mammal, biggest animal that ever lived on Earth - the blue whale

 Biggest land mammal- the African Elephant

 Tallest mammal - the giraffe

 Smallest mammals - the pygmy shrew (weighing 1.2-2.7 gm) and the bumblebee bat

(weighing about 2 gm)

 Loudest mammal - the Blue Whale. The second loudest is the Howler Monkey.

 Smallest newborns - marsupials (pouched mammals, like the kangaroo)

 Smelliest mammal - the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis)

 The only venomous mammals - duckbilled platypus (males only), several species of shrews, and the Solenodon

 Fat - The blue whale has the thickest layer of blubber, but ringed seal pups have the

Figure

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