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International Journal of Mathematical Archive-6(8), 2015, 12-20

Available online throug

ISSN 2229 – 5046

BASIC PROPERTIES OF TOTAL BLOCK-EDGE TRANSFORMATION GRAPHS

𝑮𝑮

𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂

B. BASAVANAGOUD*, SHREEKANT PATIL

Department of Mathematics, Karnatak University, Dharwad - 580 003, India.

(Received On: 16-07-15; Revised & Accepted On: 12-08-15)

ABSTRACT

I

n this paper, we investigate some basic properties such as connectedness, graph equations and diameters of total block-edge transformation graphs.

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: 05C40,05C12,

Keywords: line graph, block graph, jump graph, qlick graph, total block-edge transformation graphs 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎.

1. INTRODUCTION

Throughout the paper we only consider simple graphs without isolated vertices. We refer to [8] for unexplained terminology and notation. A block of a graph is connected nontrivial graph having no cutvertices. Let 𝐺𝐺 = (𝑉𝑉,𝐸𝐸) be a graph with block set 𝑈𝑈(𝐺𝐺)={𝐵𝐵𝑖𝑖; 𝐵𝐵𝑖𝑖 is a block of 𝐺𝐺}. If a block 𝐵𝐵 ∈ 𝑈𝑈(𝐺𝐺) with the edge set {𝑒𝑒1,𝑒𝑒2, . . . ,𝑒𝑒𝑟𝑟;𝑟𝑟 ≥1}, then we say that an edge 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 and a block 𝐵𝐵 are incident with each other, where 1≤ 𝑖𝑖 ≤ 𝑟𝑟. The line graph 𝐿𝐿(𝐺𝐺) of a graph 𝐺𝐺 is the graph with vertex set as the edge set of 𝐺𝐺 and two vertices of 𝐿𝐿(𝐺𝐺) are adjacent whenever the corresponding edges in 𝐺𝐺 have a vertex in common. The jump graph 𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺) of a graph 𝐺𝐺 is the graph whose the vertex set is the edge set of 𝐺𝐺 and two vertices of 𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺) are adjacent if and only if the corresponding edges in 𝐺𝐺 are not adjacent in 𝐺𝐺. The block graph

𝐵𝐵(𝐺𝐺) of a graph G is the graph whose vertices are the blocks of G and in which two vertices are adjacent whenever the corresponding blocks have a cutvertex in common.

The edges and blocks of 𝐺𝐺 are called members of 𝐺𝐺. The qlick graph 𝑄𝑄(𝐺𝐺) of a graph 𝐺𝐺 is the graph whose set of vertices is the union of the set of edges and blocks of 𝐺𝐺 and in which two vertices are adjacent if and only if the corresponding member of 𝐺𝐺 are adjacent or incident. This concept is introduced by V. R. Kulli [10] and was studied in [4, 5, 12].

In [16], Wu and Meng generalized the concept of total graph and introduced the total transformation graphs and defined as follows:

Definition: Let 𝐺𝐺= (𝑉𝑉,𝐸𝐸) be a graph, and 𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦, 𝑧𝑧 be three variables taking values + or −. The transformation graph 𝐺𝐺𝑥𝑥𝑦𝑦𝑧𝑧 is the graph having 𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺)∪ 𝐸𝐸(𝐺𝐺) as the vertex set, and for 𝛼𝛼, 𝛽𝛽 ∈ 𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺)∪ 𝐸𝐸(𝐺𝐺), 𝛼𝛼 and 𝛽𝛽 are adjacent in

𝐺𝐺𝑥𝑥𝑦𝑦𝑧𝑧 if and only if one of the following holds:

(i) 𝛼𝛼, 𝛽𝛽 ∈ 𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺). 𝛼𝛼 and 𝛽𝛽 are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺 if 𝑥𝑥= + ; 𝛼𝛼 and 𝛽𝛽 are not adjacent in 𝐺𝐺 if 𝑥𝑥=−. (ii) 𝛼𝛼, 𝛽𝛽 ∈ 𝐸𝐸(𝐺𝐺). 𝛼𝛼 and 𝛽𝛽 are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺 if 𝑦𝑦= + ; 𝛼𝛼 and 𝛽𝛽 are not adjacent in 𝐺𝐺 if 𝑦𝑦=−. (iii)𝛼𝛼 ∈ 𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺), 𝛽𝛽 ∈ 𝐸𝐸(𝐺𝐺). 𝛼𝛼 and 𝛽𝛽 are incident in 𝐺𝐺 if 𝑧𝑧= + ; 𝛼𝛼 and 𝛽𝛽 are not incident in 𝐺𝐺 if 𝑧𝑧=−.

In [2], B. Basavanagoud et. al generalized the concept of total block graph and introduced the block-transformation graphs and defined as follows:

Definition: Let 𝐺𝐺= (𝑉𝑉,𝐸𝐸) be a graph with block set 𝑈𝑈(𝐺𝐺), and let 𝛼𝛼, 𝛽𝛽, 𝛾𝛾 be three variables taking values 0 or 1. The block-transformation graph 𝐺𝐺𝛼𝛼𝛽𝛽𝛾𝛾 is the graph having 𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺)∪ 𝑈𝑈(𝐺𝐺) as the vertex set. For any two vertices 𝑥𝑥 and

𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺)∪ 𝑈𝑈(𝐺𝐺) we define 𝛼𝛼, 𝛽𝛽, 𝛾𝛾 as follows:

(i) Suppose 𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦 are in 𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺). 𝛼𝛼=1 if 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺. 𝛼𝛼=0 if 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 are not adjacent in 𝐺𝐺. (ii) Suppose 𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦 are in 𝑈𝑈(𝐺𝐺). 𝛽𝛽=1 if 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺. 𝛽𝛽=0 if 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 are not adjacent in 𝐺𝐺.

(iii)𝑥𝑥 ∈ 𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺) and 𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝑈𝑈(𝐺𝐺). 𝛾𝛾=1 if 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 are incident with each other in 𝐺𝐺. 𝛾𝛾=0 if 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 are not incident with each other in 𝐺𝐺.

(2)

𝑮𝑮

Inspired by the definition of total transformation graphs [16] and block-transformation graphs [2], Basavanagoud [1] generalized the concept of qlick graph and obtained the four pairs of transformation graphs namely total block-edge transformation graphs.

Definition: Let 𝐺𝐺= (𝑉𝑉,𝐸𝐸) be a graph with a block set 𝑈𝑈(𝐺𝐺) and 𝑎𝑎, 𝑎𝑎, 𝑎𝑎 be three variables taking values + or −. The

total block-edge transformation graph 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 is a graph whose vertex set is 𝐸𝐸(𝐺𝐺)∪ 𝑈𝑈(𝐺𝐺), and two vertices 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 of

𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 are joined by an edge if and only if one of the following holds:

(i) 𝑥𝑥,𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐸𝐸(𝐺𝐺). 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺 if 𝑎𝑎= + ; 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 are not adjacent in 𝐺𝐺 if 𝑎𝑎=−. (ii) 𝑥𝑥,𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝑈𝑈(𝐺𝐺). 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺 if 𝑎𝑎= + ; 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 are not adjacent in 𝐺𝐺 if 𝑎𝑎=−.

(iii)𝑥𝑥 ∈ 𝐸𝐸(𝐺𝐺), 𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝑈𝑈(𝐺𝐺). 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 are incident with each other in 𝐺𝐺 if 𝑎𝑎= +; 𝑥𝑥 and 𝑦𝑦 are not incident with each other in 𝐺𝐺 if 𝑎𝑎=−.

Thus, we obtain eight kinds of total block-edge transformation graphs, in which 𝐺𝐺+++ is the qlick graph 𝑄𝑄(𝐺𝐺) of 𝐺𝐺 and

𝐺𝐺−−− is its complement. Also 𝐺𝐺−−+, 𝐺𝐺−+− and 𝐺𝐺−++ are the complements of 𝐺𝐺++−, 𝐺𝐺+−+ and 𝐺𝐺+−− respectively.

Some other graph valued functions were studied in [2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16]. The vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′ (𝐵𝐵𝑖𝑖′) of 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 corresponding to edge 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 (block 𝐵𝐵𝑖𝑖) of G and is referred as edge (block)-vertex.

The following will be useful in the proof of our results.

Remark 1.1: 𝐿𝐿(𝐺𝐺) is an induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺+𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎.

Remark 1.2: 𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺) is an induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺−𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎.

Remark 1.3: 𝐵𝐵(𝐺𝐺) is an induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎+𝑎𝑎.

Remark 1.4: 𝐵𝐵(𝐺𝐺) is an induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎−𝑎𝑎.

Remark 1.5: [7] If a disconnected graph 𝐺𝐺 has no isolated vertices, then 𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺) is connected.

Theorem 1.1: [8] If 𝐺𝐺 is connected, then 𝐿𝐿(𝐺𝐺) is connected.

Theorem 1.2: [8] If 𝐺𝐺 is connected, then 𝐵𝐵(𝐺𝐺) is connected.

Theorem 1.3: [17] Let 𝐺𝐺 be a graph of size 𝑞𝑞 ≥1. Then 𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺) is connected if and only if 𝐺𝐺 contains no edge that is adjacent to every other edge of 𝐺𝐺 unless 𝐺𝐺 =𝐾𝐾4 or 𝐶𝐶4.

In this paper, we investigate some basic properties of these eight kinds of total block-edge transformation graphs.

2. CONNECTEDNESS OF 𝑮𝑮𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂

The first theorem is obvious from the notion of 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎.

Theorem 2.1: For a given graph 𝐺𝐺, 𝐺𝐺+++ is connected if and only if 𝐺𝐺 is connected.

Theorem 2.2: For a given graph 𝐺𝐺, 𝐺𝐺++− is connected if and only if 𝐺𝐺 ≠ 𝐵𝐵𝑖𝑖∪ 𝐵𝐵𝑗𝑗 is not a block, where 𝐵𝐵𝑖𝑖 and 𝐵𝐵𝑗𝑗 are blocks.

Proof: Suppose 𝐺𝐺 ≠ 𝐵𝐵𝑖𝑖∪ 𝐵𝐵𝑗𝑗 is not a block. Then we consider the following cases:

Case-1. Suppose 𝐺𝐺 is connected. Then it has at least two blocks. Hence by Theorem 1.2 and Remark 1.3, 𝐵𝐵(𝐺𝐺) is a connected induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺++−, and also each edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′ in 𝐺𝐺++− is adjacent to at least one block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′, where 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 is not incident with 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 in 𝐺𝐺. Therefore for every pair of vertices in 𝐺𝐺++− are connected. Thus 𝐺𝐺++− is connected.

Case-2. Suppose 𝐺𝐺 is disconnected. Then it has at least three blocks. If 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 and 𝑒𝑒𝑗𝑗 are adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′ and

𝑒𝑒𝑗𝑗′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺++−. If 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 and 𝑒𝑒𝑗𝑗 are not adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′ and 𝑒𝑒𝑗𝑗′ are connected through the

block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′, where 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 is not incident with 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 and 𝑒𝑒𝑗𝑗 in 𝐺𝐺. If 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 and 𝐵𝐵𝑦𝑦 are adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′ and

𝐵𝐵𝑦𝑦′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺++−. If 𝐵𝐵

𝑥𝑥 and 𝐵𝐵𝑦𝑦 are not adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′ and 𝐵𝐵𝑦𝑦′ are connected through the

(3)

𝑮𝑮

Conversely, suppose 𝐺𝐺++− is connected. If 𝐺𝐺 is a block, then 𝐺𝐺++−=𝐿𝐿(𝐺𝐺)∪ 𝐾𝐾1 is disconnected, a contradiction. If

𝐺𝐺 =𝐵𝐵𝑖𝑖∪ 𝐵𝐵𝑗𝑗, then 𝐺𝐺++−=(𝐿𝐿(𝐵𝐵𝑖𝑖) +𝐾𝐾1)∪(𝐿𝐿(𝐵𝐵𝑗𝑗) +𝐾𝐾1) is a disconnected graph, a contradiction.

Theorem 2.3: 𝐺𝐺+−+ is connected for any graph 𝐺𝐺.

Proof: If 𝐺𝐺 is connected, then by Remark 1.1 and Theorem 1.1, 𝐿𝐿(𝐺𝐺) is a connected induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺+−+, and each block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′ in 𝐺𝐺+−+ is adjacent to at least one edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′, where 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 is incident with 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 in 𝐺𝐺. Thus

𝐺𝐺+−+ is connected.

If 𝐺𝐺 is disconnected, then 𝐵𝐵(𝐺𝐺) is a connected induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺+−+, and each edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′ in 𝐺𝐺+−+ is adjacent to exactly one block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′, where 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 is incident with 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 in 𝐺𝐺. Thus 𝐺𝐺+−+ is connected.

Theorem 2.4: For a given graph 𝐺𝐺, 𝐺𝐺+−− is connected if and only if 𝐺𝐺 is not a block.

Proof: If 𝐺𝐺 is a connected graph with at least two blocks, then by Remark 1.1 and Theorem 1.1, 𝐿𝐿(𝐺𝐺) is a connected induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺+−−, and in 𝐺𝐺+−−, each block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′ is adjacent to at least one edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′, where 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 is not incident with 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 in 𝐺𝐺. Thus 𝐺𝐺+−− is connected.

If 𝐺𝐺 is disconnected, then 𝐵𝐵(𝐺𝐺) is a connected induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺+−−, and in 𝐺𝐺+−−, each edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′ is adjacent to at least one block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′, where 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 not is incident with 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 in 𝐺𝐺. Thus 𝐺𝐺+−− is connected.

Conversely, if 𝐺𝐺 is a block, then 𝐺𝐺+−− =𝐿𝐿(𝐺𝐺)∪ 𝐾𝐾1 is disconnected, a contradiction.

Theorem 2.5: 𝐺𝐺−++ is connected for any graph 𝐺𝐺.

Proof: If 𝐺𝐺 is connected, then by Remark 1.3 and Theorem 1.2, 𝐵𝐵(𝐺𝐺) is a connected induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺−++, and each edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′ in 𝐺𝐺−++ is adjacent to exactly one block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′, where 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 is incident with 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 in 𝐺𝐺. Thus

𝐺𝐺−++ is connected.

If 𝐺𝐺 is disconnected, then by Remarks 1.2 and 1.5, 𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺) is a connected induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺−++, and each block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′ in 𝐺𝐺−++ is adjacent to at least one edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′, where 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 is incident with 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 in 𝐺𝐺. Thus 𝐺𝐺−++ is connected.

Theorem 2.6: For a given graph 𝐺𝐺, 𝐺𝐺−+− is connected if and only if 𝐺𝐺 is not a block.

Proof: If 𝐺𝐺 is a connected graph with at least two blocks, then by Remark 1.3 and Theorem 1.2, 𝐵𝐵(𝐺𝐺) is a connected induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺−+−, and in 𝐺𝐺−+−, each edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′ is adjacent to at least one block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′, where 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 is not incident with 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 in 𝐺𝐺. Thus 𝐺𝐺−+− is connected.

If 𝐺𝐺 is disconnected, then by Remarks 1.2 and 1.5, 𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺) is a connected induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺−+−, and in 𝐺𝐺−+−, each block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′ is adjacent to at least one edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′, where 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 is not incident with 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 in 𝐺𝐺. Thus 𝐺𝐺−+− is connected.

Conversely, if 𝐺𝐺 is a block, then 𝐺𝐺−+−=𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺)∪ 𝐾𝐾1 is disconnected, a contradiction.

Theorem 2.7: For a given graph 𝐺𝐺, 𝐺𝐺−−+ is connected if and only if 𝐺𝐺 contains no block 𝐾𝐾2 that is adjacent to every other edge of 𝐺𝐺.

Proof: Suppose a graph 𝐺𝐺 contains no block 𝐾𝐾2 that is adjacent to every other edge of 𝐺𝐺. If 𝐺𝐺 is a block, then

𝐺𝐺−−+=𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺) +𝐾𝐾

1 is connected. If 𝐺𝐺 has more than one block, then we consider the following two cases:

Case-1. Suppose 𝐺𝐺 contains no edge that is adjacent to every other edge of 𝐺𝐺. Then by Remark 1.2 and Theorem 1.3,

𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺) is a connected induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺−−+, and each block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′ is adjacent to at least one edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′ in

𝐺𝐺−−+, where 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 is incident with 𝐵𝐵

𝑥𝑥. Thus 𝐺𝐺−−+ is connected.

Case-2. Suppose 𝐺𝐺 contains an edge 𝑒𝑒 that is adjacent to every other edge of 𝐺𝐺. Then 𝑒𝑒 is incident with a block 𝐵𝐵 of size more than 2 and 𝑒𝑒′ is isolated vertex in 𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺) such that 𝑒𝑒′,𝐵𝐵′,𝑒𝑒′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−−+, where 𝑒𝑒1 is incident with 𝐵𝐵. Therefore every pair of edge-vertices are connected in 𝐺𝐺−−+ and each block-vertices 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′ is adjacent to at least one edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′ in 𝐺𝐺−−+, where 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 is incident with 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 in 𝐺𝐺. Thus 𝐺𝐺−−+ is connected.

Conversely, suppose 𝐺𝐺−−+ is connected. Assume 𝐺𝐺 contains a block 𝐾𝐾2, say 𝑒𝑒, that is adjacent to every other edge of

(4)

𝑮𝑮

Theorem 2.8: For a given graph 𝐺𝐺, 𝐺𝐺−−− is connected if and only if 𝐺𝐺 ≠ 𝑃𝑃3 is not a block.

Proof: Suppose 𝐺𝐺 ≠ 𝑃𝑃3 is not a block. We consider the following two cases:

Case-1. Suppose 𝐺𝐺 contains no edge that is adjacent to every other edge of 𝐺𝐺. Then by Remark 1.2 and Theorem 1.3,

𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺) is a connected induced subgraph of 𝐺𝐺−−−, and each block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′ is adjacent to at least one edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′ in

𝐺𝐺−−−, where 𝑒𝑒

𝑖𝑖 is not incident with 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 in 𝐺𝐺. Thus 𝐺𝐺−−− is connected.

Case-2. Suppose 𝐺𝐺 contains an edge 𝑒𝑒 that is adjacent to all other edge of 𝐺𝐺. Then by definition of 𝐺𝐺−−−, each edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′ is adjacent to edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑘𝑘′ and to at least one block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑗𝑗′, where 𝐵𝐵𝑗𝑗 is not incident with 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖, and

𝑒𝑒𝑘𝑘 is not adjacent to 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 in G. And also each block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥′ is adjacent to block-vertex 𝐵𝐵𝑦𝑦 and to at least one edge-vertex 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖′, where 𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖 is not incident with 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥, and 𝐵𝐵𝑦𝑦 not adjacent to 𝐵𝐵𝑥𝑥 in 𝐺𝐺. Hence there is a path between any two vertices of 𝐺𝐺−−−. Therefore 𝐺𝐺−−− is connected.

Conversely, suppose 𝐺𝐺−−− is connected. If 𝐺𝐺 is a block, then 𝐺𝐺−−−=𝐽𝐽(𝐺𝐺)∪ 𝐾𝐾1 is disconnected, a contradiction. If

𝐺𝐺 =𝑃𝑃3, then 𝐺𝐺−−−= 2𝐾𝐾2 is disconnected, a contradiction.

3. GRAPH EQUATIONS AND ITERATIONS OF 𝑮𝑮𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂

For a given graph operator Φ, which graph is fixed under Φ ?, that is Φ(𝐺𝐺) =𝐺𝐺. It is well known in [15] that for a given graph 𝐺𝐺, the interchange graph 𝐺𝐺′ =𝐺𝐺 if and only if 𝐺𝐺 is a 2-regular graph.

For a given total block-edge transformation graph 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎, we define the iteration of 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 as follows:

(1). 𝐺𝐺(𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎)1 =𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 (2). 𝐺𝐺(𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎)𝑛𝑛 = [𝐺𝐺(𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎)𝑛𝑛−1]𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 for 𝑛𝑛 ≥2.

Theorem 3.1: Let 𝐺𝐺 be a connected graph. The graphs 𝐺𝐺 and 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎+ are isomorphic if and only if 𝐺𝐺=𝐾𝐾2.

Proof: Suppose 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎+=𝐺𝐺. Assume 𝐺𝐺 is a connected graph with 𝑝𝑝 ≥3 vertices. We consider the following two cases:

Case-1. Suppose 𝐺𝐺 is not a tree with 𝑝𝑝 vertices. Then 𝐺𝐺 has at least 𝑝𝑝 edges and at least one block. Thus 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎+ has at least 𝑝𝑝+ 1 vertices. Hence 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎+≠ 𝐺𝐺, a contradiction.

Case-2. Suppose 𝐺𝐺 is a tree with 𝑝𝑝 vertices. Then it has 𝑝𝑝 −1 edges and 𝑝𝑝 −1 blocks. Thus 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎+ has 2𝑝𝑝 −2 vertices. Hence |𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺)| < |𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎+)|. Therefore 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎+≠ 𝐺𝐺, a contradiction.

Conversely, suppose 𝐺𝐺=𝐾𝐾2. Then it is easy to see that 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎+=𝐾𝐾2=𝐺𝐺.

Corollary 3.2: Let 𝐺𝐺 be a connected graph. The graphs 𝐺𝐺 and 𝐺𝐺(𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎+)𝑛𝑛 are isomorphic if and only if 𝐺𝐺=𝐾𝐾2.

Theorem 3.3: The graphs 𝐺𝐺 and 𝐺𝐺++− are isomorphic if and only if 𝐺𝐺= 2𝐾𝐾2.

Proof: Suppose 𝐺𝐺++−=𝐺𝐺. Assume 𝐺𝐺 ≠2𝐾𝐾2. We consider the following two cases:

Case-1. Suppose 𝐺𝐺 is a block. Then clearly 𝐺𝐺++−=𝐿𝐿(𝐺𝐺)∪ 𝐾𝐾1 is disconnected. Thus 𝐺𝐺++−≠ 𝐺𝐺, a contradiction.

Case-2. Suppose 𝐺𝐺 has at least two blocks with 𝑞𝑞 edges. Then 𝐺𝐺++− has at least 2𝑞𝑞 −1 edges. Hence the number of edges in 𝐺𝐺 is less than that in 𝐺𝐺++−. Thus 𝐺𝐺++−≠ 𝐺𝐺, a contradiction.

Conversely, suppose 𝐺𝐺= 2𝐾𝐾2. Then it is easy to see that 𝐺𝐺++−= 2𝐾𝐾2=𝐺𝐺.

Corollary 3.4: The graphs 𝐺𝐺 and 𝐺𝐺(++−)𝑛𝑛 are isomorphic if and only if 𝐺𝐺= 2𝐾𝐾2.

Theorem 3.5: For any graph 𝐺𝐺, 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 −≠ 𝐺𝐺, where 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 −≠ 𝐺𝐺++−.

Proof: If 𝐺𝐺=𝐾𝐾2, then 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 −= 2𝐾𝐾1≠ 𝐺𝐺. We consider the following two cases:

Case-1. Suppose 𝐺𝐺 ≠ 𝐾𝐾2 is a connected graph. By the definitions of 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎+ and 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 −, we have |𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎+)| =

|𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 −)|. By proof of the Theorem 3.1, we have |𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺)|≠|𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎+)|. Hence |𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺)|≠|𝑉𝑉(𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 −)|. Therefore

𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 −≠ 𝐺𝐺.

Case-2. Suppose 𝐺𝐺 is a disconnected graph with 𝑞𝑞 edges. Then 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 − has at least 𝑞𝑞+ 1 edges. Hence

(5)

𝑮𝑮

Corollary 3.6: For any graph 𝐺𝐺, 𝐺𝐺(𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 −)𝑛𝑛 ≠ 𝐺𝐺, where 𝐺𝐺(𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 −)𝑛𝑛 ≠ 𝐺𝐺(++−)𝑛𝑛.

4 DIAMETERS OF 𝑮𝑮𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂𝒂

The distance between two vertices 𝑣𝑣𝑖𝑖 and 𝑣𝑣𝑗𝑗, denoted by 𝑑𝑑(𝑣𝑣𝑖𝑖,𝑣𝑣𝑗𝑗), is the length of the shortest path between the vertices

𝑣𝑣𝑖𝑖 and 𝑣𝑣𝑗𝑗 in 𝐺𝐺. The shortest 𝑣𝑣𝑖𝑖− 𝑣𝑣𝑗𝑗 path is often called geodesic. The diameter of a connected graph 𝐺𝐺, denoted by 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺), is the length of any longest geodesic.

In this section, we consider the diameters of 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎.

Theorem 4.1: If 𝐺𝐺 is a connected graph, then 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺+++)≤ 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺) + 1.

Proof: Let 𝐺𝐺 be a connected graph. We consider the following three cases:

Case-1. Assume 𝐺𝐺 is a tree. Then it is easy to see that 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺+++) =𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺).

Case-2. Assume 𝐺𝐺 is a cycle 𝐶𝐶𝑛𝑛 for 𝑛𝑛 ≥3. Then 𝐺𝐺+++=𝑊𝑊𝑛𝑛+1 and 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺+++) <𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺) + 1.

Case-3. Assume 𝐺𝐺 contains a cycle 𝐶𝐶𝑛𝑛 for 𝑛𝑛 ≥3. Corresponding to cycle 𝐶𝐶𝑛𝑛, 𝑊𝑊𝑛𝑛+1 appears as subgraph in 𝐺𝐺+++. Therefore 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺+++)≤ 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺) + 1.

From all the above three cases, we have 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺+++)≤ 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺) + 1.

Theorem 4.2: If 𝐺𝐺 is neither a block nor a union of two blocks, then 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺++−)≤3.

Proof: Let 𝑒𝑒1′, 𝑒𝑒2′ be the two edge-vertices of 𝐺𝐺++−. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′ and 𝑒𝑒2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺++−. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are not adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then we have following cases:

Case-1. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with same block, then there exists a block 𝐵𝐵 is incident with neither 𝑒𝑒1 nor 𝑒𝑒2 such that 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺++−.

Case-2. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with different blocks 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 in 𝐺𝐺 respectively, then we have the following subcases:

Subcase-2.1. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵2′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length 3 in 𝐺𝐺++−.

Subcase-2.2. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are not adjacent in 𝐺𝐺, then there exists a block 𝐵𝐵3 is incident with neither 𝑒𝑒1 nor 𝑒𝑒2 such that 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵3′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺++−.

Let 𝐵𝐵1′, 𝐵𝐵2′ be the two block-vertices of 𝐺𝐺++−. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are not adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵1′ and 𝐵𝐵2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺++−. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺, then there exists an edge 𝑒𝑒 is incident with neither 𝐵𝐵1 nor 𝐵𝐵2 such that 𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺++− of length 2.

Let 𝑒𝑒′ and 𝐵𝐵′ be the edge-vertex and block-vertex of 𝐺𝐺++− respectively. If 𝑒𝑒 is not incident with 𝐵𝐵 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒′ and

𝐵𝐵′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺++−. If 𝑒𝑒 is incident with 𝐵𝐵 in 𝐺𝐺, then there exists not incident edge 𝑒𝑒

1 and block 𝐵𝐵1 are not

incident with 𝐵𝐵 and 𝑒𝑒 respectively such that 𝑒𝑒′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺++− of length 3. Otherwise, there is a block 𝐵𝐵1 is not incident with 𝑒𝑒, and is adjacent to 𝐵𝐵, such that 𝑒𝑒′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝐵𝐵′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺++− of length 2.

Theorem 4.3: For a given graph 𝐺𝐺,𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺+−+)≤5.

Proof: Let 𝑒𝑒1′, 𝑒𝑒2′ be the two edge-vertices of 𝐺𝐺+−+. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′ and 𝑒𝑒2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺+−+. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are not adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then we have the following cases:

Case-1. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with same block 𝐵𝐵, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺+−+.

Case-2. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with different blocks 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 in 𝐺𝐺 respectively, then we have the following subcases:

Subcase-2.1. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are adjacent, then there exists two adjacent edges 𝑒𝑒3 in 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝑒𝑒4 in 𝐵𝐵2, then

𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒3′,𝑒𝑒4′,𝐵𝐵2′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length at most 5 in 𝐺𝐺+−+.

(6)

𝑮𝑮

Let 𝐵𝐵1′, 𝐵𝐵2′ be the two block-vertices of 𝐺𝐺+−+. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are not adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵1′ and 𝐵𝐵2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺+−+. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺, then there exists two adjacent edges 𝑒𝑒1 in 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝑒𝑒2 in 𝐵𝐵2 such that

𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒1′,𝑒𝑒2′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺+−+ of length 3.

Let 𝑒𝑒1′ and 𝐵𝐵2′ be the edge-vertex and block-vertex of 𝐺𝐺+−+ respectively. If 𝑒𝑒1 is incident with 𝐵𝐵2 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′ and

𝐵𝐵2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺+−+. If 𝑒𝑒1 in 𝐵𝐵1, is not incident with 𝐵𝐵2 in 𝐺𝐺, then we have the following cases:

Case-1. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺, then there exists two adjacent edges 𝑒𝑒 in 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝑒𝑒2 in 𝐵𝐵2 such that

𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒′,𝑒𝑒2′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺+−+ of length at most 4.

Case-2. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are not adjacent in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺+−+ of length 2.

Theorem 4.4: If 𝐺𝐺 is neither a block nor a connected graph with two blocks, then 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺+−−)≤3.

Proof: Let 𝑒𝑒1′, 𝑒𝑒2′ be the two edge-vertices of 𝐺𝐺+−−. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′ and 𝑒𝑒2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺+−−. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are not adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then we have following cases:

Case-1. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with same block, then there exists a block 𝐵𝐵 is incident with neither 𝑒𝑒1 nor 𝑒𝑒2 such that 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺+−−.

Case-2. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with different blocks 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 in 𝐺𝐺 respectively, then we have the following subcases:

Subcase-2.1. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are not adjacent in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵2′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length 3 in 𝐺𝐺+−−.

Subcase-2.2. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺, then there exists a block 𝐵𝐵 is incident with neither 𝑒𝑒1 nor 𝑒𝑒2 such that

𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺+−−.

Let 𝐵𝐵1′, 𝐵𝐵2′ be the two block-vertices of 𝐺𝐺+−−. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are not adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵1′ and 𝐵𝐵2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺+−−. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺, then there exists an edge 𝑒𝑒 is incident with neither 𝐵𝐵1 nor 𝐵𝐵2 such that 𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺+−− of length 2.

Let 𝑒𝑒′ and 𝐵𝐵′ be the edge-vertex and block-vertex of 𝐺𝐺+−− respectively. If 𝑒𝑒 is not incident with 𝐵𝐵 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒′ and

𝐵𝐵′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺+−−. If 𝑒𝑒 is incident with 𝐵𝐵 in 𝐺𝐺, then we have the following cases:

Case-1. If there is a block 𝐵𝐵1 is not adjacent to 𝐵𝐵, and is not incident with 𝑒𝑒, then 𝑒𝑒′,𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺+−− of length

2.

Case-2. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒1 is adjacent to 𝑒𝑒, and is not incident with 𝐵𝐵, then 𝑒𝑒′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝐵𝐵′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺+−− of length 2.

Lemma 4.5: If a connected graph 𝐺𝐺 has two blocks, then 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺+−−)≤5.

Proof: Suppose 𝐺𝐺 is a connected graph with two blocks 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 of size 𝑞𝑞1 and 𝑞𝑞2 respectively. Then 𝐾𝐾1,𝑞𝑞1 and

𝐾𝐾1,𝑞𝑞2 are two edge-disjoint subgraphs of 𝐺𝐺+−−. And there exists at least one edge 𝑒𝑒′ in 𝐺𝐺+−− is incident with exactly

one pendant vertex of 𝐾𝐾1,𝑞𝑞1 and 𝐾𝐾1,𝑞𝑞2. It is easy that see that the diameter of star is at most 2.

Hence 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺+−−) =𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐾𝐾1,𝑞𝑞1) +𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐾𝐾1,𝑞𝑞2) + 1 ≤2 + 2 + 1 = 5.

Theorem 4.6: For a given graph 𝐺𝐺, 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺−++)≤3.

Proof: Let 𝑒𝑒1′, 𝑒𝑒2′ be the two edge-vertices of 𝐺𝐺−++. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are not adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′ and 𝑒𝑒2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺−++. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then we have the following cases:

Case-1. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒 is not adjacent to both 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝑒𝑒′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−++ of length 2.

Case-2. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with same block 𝐵𝐵, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺−++.

Case-3. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with different blocks 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 respectively, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝐵𝐵2′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length 3 in 𝐺𝐺−++.

Let 𝐵𝐵1′, 𝐵𝐵2′ be the two block-vertices of 𝐺𝐺−++. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵1′ and 𝐵𝐵2′ are adjacent in

𝐺𝐺−++. If 𝐵𝐵

(7)

𝑮𝑮

Case-1. If there is a block 𝐵𝐵 is adjacent to both 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵1′,𝐵𝐵′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−++ of length 2.

Case-2. If there are two not adjacent edges 𝑒𝑒1 in 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝑒𝑒2 in 𝐵𝐵2, then 𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒1′,𝑒𝑒2′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−++ of length 3.

Let 𝑒𝑒′ and 𝐵𝐵′ be the edge-vertex and block-vertex of 𝐺𝐺−++ respectively. If 𝑒𝑒 is incident with 𝐵𝐵 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒′ and 𝐵𝐵′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺−++. If 𝑒𝑒 is not incident with 𝐵𝐵 in 𝐺𝐺, then we consider the following two cases:

Case-1. If there is a block 𝐵𝐵1 is incident with 𝑒𝑒, and is adjacent to 𝐵𝐵, then 𝑒𝑒′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝐵𝐵′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−++ of length 2.

Case-2. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒1 is incident with 𝐵𝐵, and is not adjacent to 𝑒𝑒, then 𝑒𝑒′,𝑒𝑒1′,𝑎𝑎′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−++ of length 2.

Theorem 4.7: If a graph 𝐺𝐺 is not a block, then 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺−+−)≤3.

Proof: Let 𝑒𝑒1′, 𝑒𝑒2′ be the two edge-vertices of 𝐺𝐺−+−. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are not adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′ and 𝑒𝑒2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺−+−. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then we have one of the following case:

Case-1. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with same block, then there exists a block 𝐵𝐵 is incident with neither 𝑒𝑒1 nor 𝑒𝑒2 such that 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺−+−.

Case-2. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with different blocks 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 respectively in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵2′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path in

𝐺𝐺−+− of length 3.

Let 𝐵𝐵1′, 𝐵𝐵2′ be two block-vertices of 𝐺𝐺−+−. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵1′ and 𝐵𝐵2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺−+−. If

𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are not adjacent in 𝐺𝐺, then there exists two not adjacent edges 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2

respectively such that 𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒2′,𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path of length 3 in 𝐺𝐺−+−. Otherwise, there is an edge 𝑒𝑒 is incident with neither

𝐵𝐵1 nor 𝐵𝐵2, then 𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺−+−.

Let 𝑒𝑒′ and 𝐵𝐵′ be the edge-vertex and block-vertex of 𝐺𝐺−+− respectively. If 𝑒𝑒 is not incident with 𝐵𝐵 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒′ and

𝐵𝐵′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺−+−. If 𝑒𝑒 is incident with 𝐵𝐵 in 𝐺𝐺, then we have the following cases:

Case-1. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒1 is incident with 𝐵𝐵, and is not adjacent to edge 𝑒𝑒 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒′,𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−+− of length 2.

Case-2. If there is a block 𝐵𝐵1 which is incident with 𝐵𝐵, and is not adjacent to an edge 𝑒𝑒, then 𝑒𝑒′,𝐵𝐵2′,𝐵𝐵′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺−+−.

Theorem 4.8: If a graph 𝐺𝐺 contains no block 𝐾𝐾2 that is adjacent to other edge, then 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺−−+)≤4.

Proof: Let 𝑒𝑒1′, 𝑒𝑒2′ be the two edge-vertices of 𝐺𝐺−−+. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are not adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′ and 𝑒𝑒2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺−−+. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then we have one of the following case:

Case-1. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with same block 𝐵𝐵, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺−−+.

Case-2. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with different blocks 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 respectively, then we have the following subcases:

Subcase-2.1. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒 which is adjacent to neither 𝑒𝑒1 nor 𝑒𝑒2 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝑒𝑒′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−−+ of length 2.

Subcase-2.2. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒 which is incident with 𝐵𝐵2, and is not adjacent to 𝑒𝑒1, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝑒𝑒′,𝐵𝐵2′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path in

𝐺𝐺−−+ of length 3.

Subcase-2.3. If there are two not adjacent edges 𝑒𝑒3 and 𝑒𝑒4, where 𝑒𝑒3 and 𝑒𝑒4 are not adjacent to 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 respectively, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝑒𝑒3′,𝑒𝑒4′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−−+ of length 3.

Let 𝐵𝐵1′, 𝐵𝐵2′ be the two block-vertices of 𝐺𝐺−−+. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are not adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵1′ and 𝐵𝐵2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺−+−. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺 and are incident with 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 respectively,then we have the following cases:

Case-1. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are not adjacent in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒1′,𝑒𝑒2′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path of length 3 in 𝐺𝐺−−+. Otherwise, there is an edge

𝑒𝑒 is not adjacent to 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 such that 𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒1′,𝑒𝑒′,𝑒𝑒2′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path of length 4 in 𝐺𝐺−−+ .

Case-2. If there is a block 𝐵𝐵 is adjacent to neither 𝐵𝐵1 nor 𝐵𝐵2 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵1′,𝐵𝐵′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺−−+. Otherwise, there are two not adjacent blocks 𝐵𝐵3 and 𝐵𝐵4, are not adjacent to 𝐵𝐵2 and 𝐵𝐵1 respectively such that

(8)

𝑮𝑮

Let 𝑒𝑒1′ and 𝐵𝐵2′ be the edge-vertex and block-vertex of 𝐺𝐺−−+ respectively. If 𝑒𝑒1 is incident with 𝐵𝐵2 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′ and

𝐵𝐵2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺−−+. If 𝑒𝑒1 is not incident with 𝐵𝐵2 in 𝐺𝐺, then we have the following cases:

Case-1. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒2 is incident with 𝐵𝐵2, where 𝑒𝑒2 is not adjacent to 𝑒𝑒1 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵2′,𝑒𝑒2′,𝑒𝑒1′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−−+ of length 2.

Case-2. If there are two not adjacent edges 𝑒𝑒2𝑥𝑥 and 𝑒𝑒1𝑥𝑥, where 𝑒𝑒2𝑥𝑥 and 𝑒𝑒1𝑥𝑥 are incident with 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 respectively, and 𝑒𝑒1 is adjacent to 𝑒𝑒2𝑥𝑥 and 𝑒𝑒1𝑥𝑥, then 𝐵𝐵2′,𝑒𝑒2′𝑥𝑥,𝑒𝑒1′𝑥𝑥,𝐵𝐵1,𝑒𝑒1′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−−+ of length 4.

Case-3. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒3 is not adjacent to both 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2, where 𝑒𝑒1 in 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝑒𝑒2 in 𝐵𝐵2, then 𝐵𝐵2′,𝑒𝑒2′,𝑒𝑒3′,𝑒𝑒1′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−−+ of length 3.

Theorem 4.9: If a graph 𝐺𝐺 ≠ 𝑃𝑃3 is not a block, then 𝑑𝑑𝑖𝑖𝑎𝑎𝑑𝑑(𝐺𝐺−−−)≤4.

Proof: Let 𝑒𝑒1′, 𝑒𝑒2′ be the two edge-vertices of 𝐺𝐺−−−. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are not adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′ and 𝑒𝑒2′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺−−−. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are adjacent edges in 𝐺𝐺, then we have one of the following case:

Case-1. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with same block, then there exists a block 𝐵𝐵 is incident with neither 𝑒𝑒1 nor 𝑒𝑒2 such that 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺−−−.

Case-2. If 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with different blocks 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 respectively in 𝐺𝐺, then we have the following subcases:

Subcase-2.1. If there is a block 𝐵𝐵 which is incident with neither 𝑒𝑒1 nor 𝑒𝑒2 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−−− of length 2.

Subcase-2.2. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒 is incident with block 𝐵𝐵2, and is not adjacent to 𝑒𝑒1, then 𝑒𝑒2′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒′,𝑒𝑒1′ is a path in

𝐺𝐺−−− of length 3.

Subcase-2.3. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒3 which is adjacent to neither 𝑒𝑒1 nor 𝑒𝑒2, then 𝑒𝑒1′,𝑒𝑒3′,𝑒𝑒2′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−−− of length 2.

Let 𝐵𝐵1′, 𝐵𝐵2′ be two block-vertices of 𝐺𝐺−−−. If 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are not adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝐵𝐵1′ and 𝐵𝐵2′ are adjacent in

𝐺𝐺−−−. If 𝐵𝐵

1 and 𝐵𝐵2 are adjacent blocks in 𝐺𝐺, then we have the following cases:

Case-1. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒 is incident with neither 𝐵𝐵1 nor 𝐵𝐵2, then 𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path of length 2 in 𝐺𝐺−−−.

Case-2. If there are two not adjacent edges 𝑒𝑒1 and 𝑒𝑒2 are incident with 𝐵𝐵1 and 𝐵𝐵2 respectively, then 𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒2′,𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵2′ is a path of length 3 in 𝐺𝐺−−−.

Let 𝑒𝑒′ and 𝐵𝐵′ be the edge-vertex and block-vertex of 𝐺𝐺−−− respectively. If 𝑒𝑒 is not incident with 𝐵𝐵 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒′ and

𝐵𝐵′ are adjacent in 𝐺𝐺−−−. If 𝑒𝑒 is incident with 𝐵𝐵 in 𝐺𝐺, then we have the following cases:

Case-1. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒1 is not incident with 𝐵𝐵, and is not adjacent to edge 𝑒𝑒 in 𝐺𝐺, then 𝑒𝑒′,𝑒𝑒1′,𝐵𝐵′ is a path in 𝐺𝐺−−− of length 2.

Case-2. If there are not incident edge 𝑒𝑒2 and block 𝐵𝐵3, where 𝑒𝑒2 is not incident with 𝐵𝐵, and 𝐵𝐵3 is not incident to 𝑒𝑒, then 𝑒𝑒′,𝐵𝐵3′,𝑒𝑒2′,𝐵𝐵′ is a path of length 3 in 𝐺𝐺−−−.

Case-3. If there is an edge 𝑒𝑒1 which is incident with 𝐵𝐵1, and is not adjacent to an edge 𝑒𝑒2, where 𝑒𝑒2 is incident with 𝐵𝐵, then 𝐵𝐵′,𝑒𝑒1′,𝑒𝑒2′,𝐵𝐵1′,𝑒𝑒′ is a path of length 4 in 𝐺𝐺−−−.

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

∗This research is supported by UGC-MRP, New Delhi, India: F.No.41-784/2012 dated: 17-07-2012.

1This research is supported by UGC-UPE (Non-NET)-Fellowship, K. U. Dharwad, No. KU/Sch/UGC-UPE/2014-15/

(9)

𝑮𝑮

REFERENCES

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2. B. Basavanagoud, H. P. Patil, Jaishri B. Veeragoudar, On the block-transformation graphs, graph equations and diameters, International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology 2(2)(2011), 62-74.

3. B. Basavanagoud, V. R. Kulli, Hamiltonian and eulerian properties of plick graphs. The Mathematics Student,73(2005), 175-181.

4. B. Basavanagoud, Veena N. Mathad, Graph equations for line graphs, qlick graphs and plick graphs, Proceedings of the National Conference on Graphs, Combinatorics, Algorithms and Applications, Narosa Ps. House, NewDelhi (2005).

5. B. Basavanagoud, Veena N. Mathad, On pathos qlick graph of a tree, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India sect. A, Vol.78, Pt. III, (2008), 219-223.

6. B. Basavanagoud, V. R. Kulli, Plick graphs with crossing number 1. International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics 1(2011), 21-28.

7. B. Basavanagoud, Shreekant Patil, On the block-edge transformation graphs 𝐺𝐺𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎, International Research Journal of Pure Algebra 5(5) (2015), 75-80.

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Source of support: UGC-MRP, New Delhi, India, Conflict of interest: None Declared

[Copy right © 2015. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the International Journal of Mathematical Archive (IJMA), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.]

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Keywords: Subdivision graph, Semitotal-point graph, Semitotal-line graph, General product-connectivity index, Generalized xyz – point-line transformation graphs..

The significant upfield shifts of these resonances are consistent with a structure in which the C==C triple bond of the alkyne binds to titanium, holding the phenyl

The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults--an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review

On the surface, adding water to the roster of internationally recognized human rights, as urged by the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR), seems unobjectionable:

Later in the paper [2], the authors define the zero-divisor graph Γ(R) where the set of vertices is taken to be Z ∗ (R).The zero-divisor graph of a commutative ring has also

Vertex Edge Arc (directed edge) Weight (cost) Graph Weighted Graph Digraph 2 6 1 2... Introduction to

Le syndrome de Klinefelter, l'hypogonadisme d'origine hypophysaire, l'hyperprolactinEmie, les sEquelles d'une orchite (ourlienne), l'Mmochromatose gEnEtique et les trai-

Fraga et al (2005a) found that loss of monoacetylated lysine 16 and trimethylated lysine 20 forms of histone H4 is a global hallmark of human cancers, and in prostate cancer,

Furthermore, the model shows fewer percentage of daily trips by private motorized modes for cities with lower average annual distance travelled per one private passenger vehicle..

One year after Jomtien, in 1991, a further external influence, in the form of the World Bank’s first education sector policy on vocational and technical education and

Through a three-pronged analysis consisting of (i) institutional mapping, (ii) a typology of resistance strategies, and (iii) a review of its role in the Norwegian public debate

Keywords: point-block graph, line graph, middle graph, block graph, block-point tree.. AMS: Subject

The blocktransformation graph of a graph G is the graph, whose vertex set is the union of vertices and blocks of G, in which two vertices are adjacent whenever the

The Plick graph P(G)[11] of a graph G, is obtained from the line graph by adding a new vertex corresponding to each block of the original graph and joining this vertex to