Text Book: Peter Norton (2011), Introduction to Computers , 7 /e, McGraw-Hill Reference Book: Gary B (2012), Discovering Computers , 1/e, South Western Deborah (2013), Understanding Computers , 14/e, Cengage Learning June P & Dan O (2014), New Perspective

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Text Book:

Peter Norton (2011), Introduction to Computers, 7 /e, McGraw-Hill

Reference Book:

Gary B (2012), Discovering Computers, 1/e, South Western

Deborah (2013), Understanding Computers, 14/e, Cengage Learning




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Master of Engineering(ME) in Information Technology

Assistant Professor.

Computer Science Department.


Presented by: Engr. Asma Khan





◻ Computer Defined

◻ The History Of Computers

◻ Types Of Computer

◻ Computers For Individual Users

◻ Computers For Organizations

◻ Computers In Society

◻ Impact Of Computers On Society

◻ Evaluations Of The Impact Of Computer Technology

◻ Prohibiting Bad Technologies


What Is A Computer…

An Electronic device

Converts data into information

Modern computers are digital

Two digits combine to make data

Older computers were analog

A range of values made data


13 Advantages







Violation of Privacy

Impact on Labor



History of Computers

(A detail resource to read is provided)

The Mechanical Era (1623 – 1900)

*1. Ref Introduction to Computers by Peter Norton

Machine / Device Year Info

Abacus 3000 BC *1

Napier’s Bones 17th Century

Pascaline 17th Century

Difference & Analytical Engine 1823 – 1833

Punched Cards


History of Computers

First Generation Electronic Computers (1937 – 1953)

Vaccume tube

*1. Ref Introduction to Computers by Peter Norton

Machine / Device Year Info

Atanasoff-Berry Comp. 1942 *1

Havard Mark-I 1944

ENIAC 1946

EDVAC 1949


History of Computers

Second Generation Computers (1954 – 1962)


*1. Ref Introduction to Computers by Peter Norton

Machine / Device Year Info

TRADIC 1955 *1

IBM 704 1954

LARC 1960

IBM 7030 1961


History of Computers

Third Generation Computers (1963 – 1971)

Integrated Circuits

*1. Ref Introduction to Computers by Peter Norton

Machine / Device Year Info

System/360 1964 *1

PDP-8 1965

CDC 7600 1969

Intel 4004 1971

Intel 8008 1972


History of Computers

Fourth Generation Computers (1972 – 1984)


*1. Ref Introduction to Computers by Peter Norton

Machine / Device Year Info

ALTO 1974 *1

APPLE I 1976

IBM PC 1981

LISA 1983



History of Computers

Fifth Generation Computers (1983 – 1990) Artificial Intelligence (AI)

*1. Ref Introduction to Computers by Peter Norton

Machine / Device Year Info

IBM PC-AT 1984 *1

PC/RT 1986

PS/2 1987

Intel 80486 1989

Video Toaster 1990


History of Computers

Sixth Generation Computers (1990 – Till Date)

*1. Ref Introduction to Computers by Peter Norton

Machine / Device Year Info

Poser Book 1991 *1

Pentium Microprocessor 1993

Sun Ultra Workstation 1996

iMac 1998

Apple iMac Pedestal 2002

Power Mac G5 2003


Types Based On Principal Of Operation

There are three different types of computers according to the principles of operation. Those three types of computers are

Analog Computers

Analog Computer is a computing device that works on continuous range of values.

Digital Computers

Digital computer operates on binary number system in which there are only two digits 0 and 1. Each one is called a bit.

Hybrid Computers

A hybrid computer combines the desirable features of analog and digital computers.


Digital Computers Can Be Classified As

General Purpose Computers

General purpose computers are used for any type of application. Most of the computers that we see today, are general purpose computers.

Special Purpose Computers

Special purpose computer is one that is built for a specific application.


Types Based On Configuration

There are four different types of computers when we classify them based on their performance and capacity

Super Computers

Mainframe Computers

Mini Computers

Micro Computers


Types Based On Configuration

Super Computers

The best in terms of processing capacity and also the most expensive ones. These computers can process billions of instructions per second. Used for applications which require intensive numerical computations such as stock analysis, weather forecasting etc.

Ex: China's Tianhe-2, Blue Gene

Mainframe Computers

Mainframe computers can also process data at very high speeds i.e.,

hundreds of million instructions per second and they are also quite expensive. Normally, they are used in banking, airlines and railways etc

Ex: IBM System z9


Types Based On Configuration

Mini Computers

Mini computers are lower to mainframe computers in terms of speed and storage capacity. They are also less expensive than mainframe computers. Some of the features of mainframes will not be available in mini computers.

Micro Computers

The invention of microprocessor (single chip CPU) gave birth to the much cheaper micro computers i.e.

▪ Desktop

▪ Workstations

▪ Laptop/Notebook

▪ Hand Held (PDA’s) etc


Computers For Individual Use

◻ Desktop computers

The most common type of computer Sits on the desk or floor

Performs a variety of tasks

◻ Workstations

Specialized computers


Computers For Individual Use

Notebook computers

Small portable computers

Weighs between 3 and 8 pounds About 8 ½ by 11 inches

Typically as powerful as a desktop Can include a docking station


Computers For Individual Use

Tablet computers

Newest development in portable computers

Input is through a pen

Run specialized versions of office products


Computers For Individual Use

◻ Handheld computers

Very small computers

Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) Note taking or contact management Data can synchronize with a


◻ Smart phones


Computers For Organizations

Network servers

Centralized computer

All other computers connect

Provides access to network resources Multiple servers are called server farms Often simply a powerful desktop


Computers For Organizations


Used in large organizations Handle thousands

of users

Users access through a terminal


Computers For Organizations


Called midrange computers

Power between mainframe and desktop Handle hundreds of users

Used in smaller organizations Users access through a terminal


Computers For Organizations


The most powerful computers made Handle large and complex calculations Process trillions of operations per second Found in research



Computers In Society

◻ More impact than any other invention

Changed work and leisure activities

Used by all demographic groups

◻ Computers are important because:

Provide information to users


Computers In Society

◻ Computers at home

Many homes have multiple computers Most urban homes have Internet

Computers are used for

■ Business

■ Entertainment

■ Communication

■ Education

■ Finance Management


Computers In Society

Computers in education

Online education across the borders

Computer literacy required at all levels


Computers In Society


Computers in small business

Makes businesses more profitable Allows owners to manage at ease


Computers In Society

◻ Computers in industry

Computers are used to design products Assembly lines are automated

Management of shipping, freight

◻ Computers in government

Necessary to track data for population

■ Police officers

■ Tax calculation and collection

■ Military use, weapon systems etc

Governments were the first computer users


Computers In Society

Computers in health care

Revolutionized health care New treatments possible Scheduling of patients has improved

Delivery of medicine is safer


Computers In Society

Computerized Banking

Banker’s Automated Clearing Services (BACS) Online Banking

■ A great facility for off-time banking

Automated Teller machines


Computers In Society

Computer as an entertainment

Used as gaming station

Music/Movie player , editor Social Networking, chat etc Communication tool

Some serious consequences


Impact of Computers on Society


Digital Divide

the gulf between those who have ready access to computers and the Internet, and those who do not.

"there is a ‘digital divide’ between rich and poor, black and white, in terms of computer use“

Important Factors

- Individual Wealth - Age - Gender


Loss of Skills and Judgment

◻ Abdicating Responsibility

People may rely too much on computers for decisions about:

■ Approval of loans or insurance coverage.

■ Assessment of student, teacher, and school administrator


■ The arrest of certain individuals.

■ How to make a particular business decision.

■ The treatment of a disease with a particular medicine.


Evaluations of the Impact of Computer


◻ The Neo-Luddite View

Criticisms of Computer Technology:

■ Causes massive unemployment and deskilling of jobs.

■ We use them because they are there.

■ Causes social inequality.

■ Source of social disintegration; they are dehumanizing.

■ Separates humans from nature and destroys the environment.

■ Benefits big business and big government.

■ Prevent development of social skills in children.

■ Solves no real human problems.


Evaluations of the Impact of Computer


◻ Accomplishments of Technology

Some Benefits:

■ Raw materials are more ample and prices of natural resources have


■ Wages and salaries have risen in both rich and poor countries.

■ New substitutes for natural resources have been created.

■ New forms of crop management.

■ Improved transportation of food from field to table.

■ More diseases now treatable or eradicated.

■ Improved, safety-minded products for home, school, and work.


Prohibiting Bad Technologies

◻ Choice of Values

Technology Advocates

■ People can choose to use a technology for good or ill.

■ Influenced by society, technology does more than it was designed to do.

■ People adopt technologies that give us more choices for action and


Technology Critics

■ Technology is not “neutral”

■ Big business and governments make decisions about technology.

■ Once created, technology drives its self.


Prohibiting Bad Technologies

The Difficulty of Prediction

Guessing the Consequences of Technology

■ How will people use the new technology?

■ How will people benefit from the new technology?

■ Will people like the new technology?

■ How much will people pay for the new technology?

■ What problems will the technology cause?


Prohibiting Bad Technologies

The Difficulty of Prediction (cont’d)

The Decision-Making Process About Introducing New Technologies Should:

■ Be decentralized and non coercive.

■ Produce what people want.

■ Should Work well.

■ Respect the diversity of personal opinions.

■ Be relatively free of political manipulation.


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