Fairy Lamps E l e g a n c e i n C a n d l e L i g h t i n g w w w. f a i r y l a m p c l u b. c o m

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F F a a i i r r y y L L a a m m p p s s

E l e g a n c e i n C a n d l e L i g h t i n g w w w . f a i r y l a m p c l u b . c o m






SSUE Club News

Fairy Lamp Club Meeting ...1

Off Topic News...2

Fairy Tales Colorado Air is Good for Fairy Lamps ...2

From Our Members "Unusualer" Nailsea ...3

Cased Nailsea...3

Fostoria Glass Company Fairy Lamps ...4

Cricklite and Fostoria Shade Comparison 5 Unusual Clarke Burmese Logos...6

Murano Fairy Lamps...7

More Murano Fairy Lamps ...10

Classified Ads ...11

Reference Guidelines ...12

Membership Information ...12

Undocumented Page ... 62 & 63 Current Membership ...138 Membership Dues ...$20 US - $25 Foreign












EETING by Connie and Kathy

We are planning the first ever Fairy Lamp Club Convention to be held the weekend of May 20 - 22, 2005 in New Bedford, Massa- chusetts.

New Bedford is located in Southeastern Massachusetts. It is along the water and was a Whaling town long ago. It is approxi- mately 50 minutes south of Boston, MA; 30

minutes east of Providence, RI which has the Green Airport right off Route I-95; and 30 minutes southwest of Sandwich, MA on Cape Cod which is the home of the Sand- wich Glass Museum1. You can also easily get to Newport, RI and Mystic, CT.

The Mount Washington Glass Company and the Pairpoint Glass Company2 both had their home in New Bedford. The Whaling Mu- seum3 has displays of Mount Washington and Pairpoint glass. This old town has typi- cal narrow streets and older buildings, plus two churches with Tiffany Windows within walking distance of the Warmsutta Club.

The Comfort Inn4, which we have reserved rooms for our use, is 10 minutes west of New Bedford. We are planning a banquet at the Warmsutta Club in New Bedford, thanks to Louis St. Aubin who is a member of the Club, plus a member of our Fairy Lamp Club, and an Art Glass expert and author.

Since this is our first meeting, we would ap- preciate a rough head count to help us with the planning. Please contact Kathy Gresko at teddy3@comcast.net or Connie Scott at connie7@aol.com by September 30, 2004.

If you do not have email, please use the ad- dress or telephone number in the Fairy Lamp Club directory. Your "yes" or "no" will not be carved in stone, but we need some idea of the attendance in order to arrange for rooms and food. Please plan to join us for a week- end of meeting new friends, talking fairy

1 www.sandwichglassmuseum.org

2 www.pairpoint.com/history.html

3 www.whalingmuseum.org

4 www/comfortinndartmouth.com


lamps, antiquing, seeing the sights, and just having fun.

From Jim,

This Club meeting is long over due and it is only through the hard work and dedication of Connie and Kathy that it is finally coming to fruition. They have made excellent tenta- tive plans but need your support in order to continue the planning. I would encourage everyone to consider attending this first meeting of the Fairy Lamp Club.






EWS by Jim

As many of you know, Patsy and I have abandoned our home of 34 years in Virginia for the cool dry air of the beautiful Colorado mountains. We are renting a small house near Bailey, Colorado while our permanent home is under construction. The construc- tion is well underway and we expect to be able to move in by spring of next year.

Needless to say, we are like children in an- ticipation of Christmas. ☺

I will not bore you with details but this sin- gle photo may give you some indication of why we are so excited.

This photo was taken shortly after breaking ground in early July. The view known as

"Lion's Head" is just across the valley from us and will eventually fill our windows with its beauty.

Today, the foundation walls are in, the first load of building materials (including the logs) have been delivered, and framing has

begun. We visit the site at least once a day watching the construction while trying to visualize what is to come. When we are not there, we spend our days making countless decisions on all the things that go into build- ing a house. Needless to say, "busy" does not begin to express our level of activity.

But, we are still smiling in anticipation of what is to be our new home. ☺

Now, back to "fairy lamp business."














AMPSby Jim

Colorado mountain air is cool and dry. The sun is bright and has a clarity rarely

experienced in the East. It is one of the reasons (we have many good reasons) we made the decision to move to Colorado.

While appreciating these qualities, we did not realize the impact it would have on our fairy lamp collection.

Shortly after unpacking our collection and getting everything back in place, we noticed a dramatic change in the colors of the glass.

The colors are much more vivid and we see details in the glass that we have never noticed before. The change, of course, is due to the abundance of indirect sun light and the clear, dry air.

In consideration of seemingly endless views, many Colorado mountain homes have large

— often floor to ceiling — windows to capture the views and let in the sunlight.

Such is the case in our temporary home and will certainly be the case in our new home.

Added to that is the lack of humidity in the air and, to some extent, the 8,500 foot elevation which is above many man-made pollutants. All of these factors contribute to a renewed appreciation of our fairy lamp collection. The lights in our display cases are rarely on during the day as they were in


Virginia. Instead, they are lit with indirect natural sun light which is far superior to incandesant lights.

I wish I could show you the effect in a photo but I doubt that any photo could capture the full effect the sun has on the glass. You will just have to drop by to see it for yourself. ☺









" N

AILSEAby Lloyd and Nan

In FL-XIII-6 Jim showed a blue Nailsea5 dome having 4-fold symmetry rather than the usual 6-fold symmetry.

We recently purchased this blue Nailsea fairy lamp with a dome that also has 4-fold symmetry. It has a slightly larger diameter than Jim's6 at 3 1/8" but also sits well on the lower step of a two-step lamp cup. The "un- usualer" feature is that it has a reverse drape pattern.

5 "Nailsea" or "Nailsea-like" are common terms used in reference Clarke's Verre Moiré pattern or the "Ve- netian Thread" pattern name used by the Phoenix Glass Company.

6 Jim's dome is 3.0" in diameter and has a ground bot- tom rim instead of the more common fire-polished rim.

It sits on a ruffled base that also has a re- verse drape pattern and 6-fold symmetry the same as the citron one we already had.

The citron example appears to be the Clarke model 94 fairy lamp (Ruf, Appendix I, p.236) but the blue version does not appear in any of the references.

A similar lamp is shown as R-587 (Clarke cranberry Model 93) but it has the more usual hanging drape pattern on both the dome and the base. Other style bases do have the reverse drape pattern (R-566, -575, -585, -596, -606, -610 etc.) and in fact seem to have been made regularly both ways. Not so, apparently, for the domes.

We repeat Jim's plea for further information about and/or examples of these Nailsea variations.





As follow-on to Lloyd and Nan's article, I thought this would be a good time to bring up another unusual Nailsea fairy lamp.

This Nailsea pattern is the typical 6-fold de-


sign and has all the classic features of the

"pulled thread" process. However, the "un- usualer" feature is that it is cased with a layer of white on the inside of the dome. To the best my knowledge, this is the only ex- ample of a cased Nailsea fairy lamp. If you know anything about this fairy lamp or have other examples of cased Nailsea, I am sure everyone would love to hear from you.










AMPS by Gary

The Fostoria Glass Company was founded in 1887 in Fostoria, Ohio. They closed their doors almost 100 years later while located in Moundsville, West Virginia. Fostoria made several lamps and candle holders including full-size and miniature lamps, saucer can- dles, and finger candles. I am aware of only one fairy lamp that Fostoria actually called fairy and that is the Victoria pattern number 183, which Fostoria patented around 1888.7 It was called a Fairy Light and not fairy lamp. (Figure 1)

Figure 1 Fairy Light, Victoria Pattern Number 183.

Only two colors of this lamp have been documented, R-151 in an opaque pink and a red with a satin finish.

Each of these examples has a frosted clear lamp cup with six air holes around the rim. 4.375" h. x 3.675"


After the turn of the century, approximately 1909, Fostoria produced several lines of short candlesticks to which they added a

7 1888 catalog page shows R-151 as #183 Cascade Pattern Fairy Light - in crystal (plain or etched) or rose dome on crystal base. 1904 catalog shows #183 as Victoria Pattern Fairy Light with same options.

chimney and a lamp base and called them Candle Lamps. (Figure 2)

Figure 2 Fostoria catalog showing Candle Lamp with optional pegged or flat lamp base, shade, and candle lamp pot.

The lamp base was available with or without a peg bottom. Without the peg, the lamp base was simply the complete lamp. The lamp base with a peg, when inserted into a candlestick, the candlestick served as the bottom of the lamp. The completed lamp, regardless of style, also came with the can- dle lamp pot.

Figure 3 Fostoria's pattern number 2545 – Flame.

Complete lamp is shown with 2-inch number 2545 candlestick, Number 26 Candle Lamp Chimney and lamp base, and Candle Lamp Pot.

The line number for Fostoria’s version of the Cricklite is 26. The line number of 2545 was given to the pattern of the candlestick shown in Figure 3 and it is called Flame.

The Flame line was produced c1938-1950's8

8 The No. 26 and No. 26-1 with Flame candlestick base was illustrated in 1910 Fostoria catalog.


Fostoria even offered ornate pierced silver shades – some with fringe – for them and advertised them as "very safe and tip-over proof" on a 2-3" candlestick. (Figure 4)

Figure 4 left to right - Number 1639 Candle lamp with spearhead prisms, shade, and candle $2 each,

$3.75 pair. Number 1490 Candle lamp with fringed shade and candle $1.50 each, $2.75 pair. Actual example on unidentified candlestick. Each 13 ½" tall.

Figure 5 left to right. Number 26 Candle Lamp on American pattern number 2056 candlestick. Number 26 Candle Lamp in Colonial Design with Carving Number 5 with number 2545 2-inch "Flame" Candle- stick.

The Number 26 lamp base and chimney was used on a few other lines, e.g., the American and the Colony Lines. Actually, the peg on the lamp base fits all of the 3-inch candle- sticks in every line. (Figure 5) The candle lamp pot — very similar to Clarke's smooth

candle cup but unmarked — is often difficult to find.

All graphic illustrations are from original Fostoria catalogs. Lloyd, Nan, Bob, and Pat contributed photographic examples. A follow-on to this article, including addi- tional catalog references will be provided in the November issue of the newsletter. Jim.









It is not surprising that Fostoria attempted to capitalize on Clarke's market share of Crick- lites. Fostoria's entry into the market was just about the same time Clarke was produc- ing Cricklites in order to compete with gas lamps and salvage his waning fairy lamp and fairy light (candles) business. Cricklites, es- pecially in candelabra form, were very popu- lar among those who wished to have an ele- gant table setting. They provided sufficient light and dominated the table setting with their elegance.

Fostoria Candle Lamp shades are very simi- lar in size and shape to Clarke's Cricklite de- sign. There are, however, significant differ- ences.

Clarke, seemingly paranoid about his patents and trademarks, marked all his Cricklite shades with a brass ring around the base rim.

These rings, embossed with "Clarke's Trade Mark Cricklite," provided a means for Clarke to protect his patent and trademark name. The ring also afforded some protec-


tion to the rim of the shade. The rings, how- ever, are often lost and the unmarked shade is very similar to the Fostoria version except for the "dimpled shoulder."

The dimpled shoulder is a very prominent feature that distinguishes the Fostoria shade from Clarke's Cricklite shade. Apparently, the dimple was incorporated into the Fos- toria design to accommodate the pierced sil- ver shades shown in Gary's article. Clarke also used shades on his Cricklites but the shades had a wire frame that fit quite nicely around the top chimney portion of the shade and a "dimple" to hold it in place was not necessary.

It is important to be able to recognize the differences as many Fostoria shades find their way onto Clarke's Cricklite candela- bras. If you are paying a premium price for a Clarke Cricklite candelabra, it would be helpful for you to be able to recognize au- thentic Cricklite shades from the Fostoria version. There is certainly no need to pay a premium price for a "marriage."








OGOS by Lloyd & Nan

Jim previously described the appearance of Clarke and Webb "reverse acid marks" on Burmese fairy lamp bases and on fairy-size domes (FL-XXV-5). They were produced by masking an area before acid etching to leave a shiny round logo on bases and a thin line of lettering around the bottom rim of fairy-size domes. A similar line of lettering on pyramid-size domes was made by apply- ing a brown dye after acid etching


Another type of logo using dye as the me- dium has recently been seen on the base of the fairy lamp shown here.

On the inside yellow bottom of the Burmese base is printed in red in a 1" diameter circle

"S. CLARKE PATENT" around the top of the circle and "TRADE FAIRY MARK"

around the bottom.

Original Image Enhanced Image

Original and digitally enhanced photos of the mark are oriented so the clearest part,

"TRADE," is at the bottom. To the left "S.

CLA…. is also clear, as are enough other parts to define the entire mark. As we were warned before, this type of dye mark may wash off so be very careful if you see it on one of your lamps.

Commentary from Jim

Clarke had a passion for making sure all his fairy lamps, including even the smallest part, were marked with his name. Yet, many parts are found with no markings at all. Certainly, the use of paper labels is an explanation but Lloyd's discovery of this method of marking adds further insight into why some pieces are unmarked. So, before washing your newly purchased lamp….check it carefully!







AMPS by Lloyd & Nan

Recent purchases from a long-time collector who is getting out of the collecting madness include contemporary Fairy Lamps imported from Murano, Italy by Koscherak Bros. that we had not seen before. We would like to take this opportunity to describe their differ- ences from those seen previously and to re- view the several types that have been re- ported before, some of which might be mis- taken for being older.

Figure 1 Examples of Millefiori-type Fairy Lamps made in Murano, Italy.

The four examples of millefiori fairy lamps obtained recently are shown in Figure 1.

They are about 5" tall and are very heavy with a thin layer of colored glass over a 1/4"

thick inner layer which is clear for the one on the upper left and frosted inside and out for the other three. About 1/4" of the bottom rims of the domes are folded back inside leaving a rather sharp edge at the top of the fold and then the bottom rim ground flat as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Close-up of the folded edge and other fea- tures of one of the lamps in Figure 1.

The saucer-like bases are also quite thick, apparently cast in a mold, and ground flat on the bottom over an area that varies from about 1 5/8" to 2 1/4" among the four exam- ples.

The outer colored layer resembles the older

"Millefiori" patterns that were made by care- fully placing individual slices of glass

"canes" in a pattern and fusing them to- gether. However, the current ones have a very thin colored layer that can be seen to fold over the edge of the saucer rim (Figure 2) almost as if the layer had been applied by a transfer print and then fired on. It does have a finite thickness, though, which pro- duces a surface texture that can be felt to de- fine individual cane boundaries. They are attractive when illuminated internally as can be seen from Figure 3a & b.

Figure 3 Appearance when illuminated internally.


Three of the four had one or more of the pa- per stickers attached that are shown in Fig- ure 4.

Figure 4 Paper stickers identifying Koscherak Brothers as importers from Murano.

By way of contrast "Millefiori" Fairy Lamps seen previously were made much more deli- cately. Figure 5 shows two examples of a previous era, the one on the right and R-175 on the left, alongside one from Figure 1 in the center.

R-175 Murano previous era Figure 5 Side-by-side comparison of Millefiori lamps from different eras. Center example is con- temporary Murano illustrated in Figure 1.

The wall thickness of both the dome and base in the previous era lamps are about 1/16"

and the bases have pontil scars that appear to be partially ground indicating it was blown, not molded. The bottom rim of the dome is smooth but irregular as if it had been

trimmed and flame polished, not ground flat.

The colored canes are thin but noticeably thicker than the ones in Figure 1 and appear to have been individually placed in a pattern

on a thin clear glass substrate and then frosted. The canes are larger, better defined and have a rougher surface texture as well.

Figure 6 Other Millefiori lamp shapes: Left - from Hammond's book; Right - from recent eBay auction.

Other examples of "Millefiori" Fairy Lamps are shown in Figure 6. The one on the left is from Dorothy Hammond, Confusing Col- lectibles, Wallace-Homestead, 1969 (2nd printing 1972), p.36, where it is described as being recently imported from Murano, Italy.

It is described by the following: "The mod- ern Millefiori being produced in Italy is thick and heavier than earlier examples. The design is not sharp or distinct. The coloring is poor and frequently runs together produc- ing a blurred effect because the canes have not been cut smoothly." The left example is from a recent eBay auction. Without seeing the lamps in Figure 6 up close and handling them it is impossible to say with certainty which of the lamps in Figure 5 they more closely resemble.

Figure 7 Similar lamps having a "Crazy Quilt" pat- tern. (Examples not to scale.)


Other lamps seen on eBay recently with similar shapes but with more of a "Crazy Quilt" pattern are shown in Figure 7. It was claimed that the lamp on the left was im- ported from Murano in the 1950s but we have no way of verifying that. It has the same shape as the one in Figure 5 that also seems to be an earlier vintage. The one on the right is more like R-175 illustrated on the left in Figure 5.

Another type of art glass made into Fairy Lamps in Murano, according to Hammond, is Mother-of-Pearl or Satin Glass and there are several examples shown in various forms in her book but none of fairy lamps. The examples she shows were produced in the early 1960s and are described as being heav- ier with a "chalky white" lining. That very accurately describes the fairy lamps we pic- tured in FL-XVII-8 and here again in Figure 8.

Figure 8 Three Mother-of-Pearl Fairy Lamps made in Murano. (Examples not to scale.)

Note the similarity in shape to the one in Figure 6. The dome in R-78, U-44 and U- 214 (also see Figure 11 shape) are also probably from Murano.

Other recent examples seen on eBay are shown in Figure 9. Although there is no pa- per sticker to identify the lamp in the center, it has characteristics similar to the others and we believe it to be from the same source.

Again, handling would make identification more positive.

Figure 9 Three more MOP lamps seen recently on eBay. (Examples not to scale.)

Much more can be read about the character- istics of this glass in an article in Antique and Collectors Reproduction News, Novem- ber 1992.

Also in this same article Italian Burmese glass is discussed. Burmese pieces are al- ways blown and therefore have a pontil.

Quoting the article: "New Burmese almost always has a rough, broken pontil" - and most – "also show pink mixed in with the pontil mark." This is illustrated in Figure 10.9

Figure 10 Pink color in the broken pontil of a Mu- rano Burmese lamp illustrated.

This same lamp is also shown in ACRN, September 1998 along with another shape as shown in Figure 11 and described as circa 1970-1980 Italian reproductions.

9 A "triple cased" variant of this lamp is described in FL-XI-2 article "Light your Lamps."


Figure 11 Pictures from ACRN of two shapes of Murano Burmese lamps.

Similar examples are shown in R-796 and R-797. Note the similarity between R-796 and the MOP lamps in Figure 8. Hammond, on p. 16, also describes Italian Burmese -

"Fairy Lamps, in various sizes, some with Clarke (sic) bases." – but gives no illustra- tions. (She does, however, show the lamp of Figure 10 and Figure 11 (left) on p. 32 that she states is a reproduction of a Mt. Wash- ington Peachblow Fairy Lamp, which we know is incorrect since Mt. Washington

"never made a fairy lamp."

Figure 12 Italian "peachblow" simulating Wheeling Peachblow.

There is, however, an Italian Peachblow fairy lamp illustrated in ACRN, August 1993, p.10. It was made to simulate

"Wheeling Peachblow" which was made in many forms by Hobbs, Brockunier & Co. in the 1880s but never as a Fairy Lamp. The

color is shown in Figure 12. The item is striking in color and workmanship and one could easily believe the glassworkers in Wheeling, West Virginia made it 120 years ago. The wholesale price in 1970 was $45 according to the article in ACRN.

Figure 13 Six examples of the "Coca Cola" type lamps seen recently on eBay.

The final type of modern Italian Fairy Lamp we will present is the "Coca Cola" type of R-799. Further examples taken from eBay are shown in Figure 13.

As far as we know Koscherak Bros. was the exclusive importer of Italian Fairy Lamps during the ca. 1960-1990 time period. That seems strange but we are not aware of any other source. Further input, of course, would be most welcome.

That same question remains as to the rela- tionship between AA Imports and Central European sources of Fairy Lamps. Any vol- unteers to tackle that one?








AMPS by Jim

As many you know, I maintain an extensive collection of fairy lamp photographs. Many excellent images are provided by our mem- bers in support of this newsletter. Other im- ages are obtained from auctions including a large inventory of photographs from eBay auctions. These images, categorized by type andmanufacturers, are an invaluable re- source for this newsletter and me.


As follow-on to Lloyd and Nan's article, I have put together a few additional Murano fairy lamps that show the diversity of colors in the types they described in their article.

As you can see, the range of glass types and colors is quite large and I am sure there are many more examples yet to be documented.

If you have examples to share, send them along and I will attempt to develop a sepa- rate Murano fairy lamp webpage for every- one's benefit.






AMPS Included with this issue are two new pages of undocumented fairy lamps. We now have identified over 240 fairy lamps that were previously undocumented. If you have any additional information on these fairy lamps, drop me a note and I will include it in the next issue of the newsletter.







For members of our Fairy Lamp Club, I will list your Victorian-era fairy lamps on eBay on-line auctions for a very nominal fee.

If you prefer to sell your Victorian-era fairy lamps direct, I will post your advertisement on the "Fairy Lamps for Sale"10 webpage at no cost. All you have to do is send me a photograph, brief description, and price. I will take care of the rest.

10 www.fairy-lamp.com/Fairylamp/ForSale.html

If you have not visited the "Fairy Lamps for Sale" webpage lately, please do so. Several of our members have been very successful selling their fairy lamps and the new owners are very pleased with their purchases.

Contact me for details.

Jim Sapp, P.O. Box 438, Pine, CO 80470 Phone: (303) 816-2613

eMail: jimsapp@wispertel.net





Fairy Lamp Club Newsletters A complete set of all the back issues (since November 1996) of the Fairy Lamp Club Newsletters in two three-ring binders with a colorful cover insert and spine label. These are unique documents not available anywhere except through the Fairy Lamp Club. The Newsletter volumes include a complete index of articles and numbered tab pages. This two- volume set is only $85 including shipping to anywhere in the US.

Undocumented Fairy Lamp Photo Album This photo album of previously undocumented Victorian-era fairy lamps was developed from contributions of members of the Fairy Lamp Club over a eight-year period. It is a unique document not available anywhere except through the Fairy Lamp Club. The photo al- bum currently contains over 60 pages of pho- tographs. Each page contains four color im- ages with a description and unique identifier.

The collection is bound in a three-ring binder with an attractive cover insert and spine label.

This single volume is only $25 including ship- ping to anywhere in the US.

You may send payment to:

Jim Sapp, P.O. Box 438, Pine, CO 80470 Phone: (303) 816-2613

eMail: jimsapp@wispertel.net





UIDELINES This newsletter makes extensive use of FAIRY LAMPS - Elegance in Candle Lighting, by Bob & Pat Ruf, Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., 1996, in identifying fairy lamps. While this is the most complete reference book, there are others that you may also use. For consis- tency, we will use the following key to ref- erence illustrations of fairy lamps. The first letter will identify the reference book fol- lowed by a plate or figure number.

For example:

A-P3-4 Refers to T. Robert Anthony's book 19th Century Fairy Lamps, plate 3, number 4.

C-227 Refers to a fairy lamp number in Clarke's 1888 catalog, reprint by T. Robert Anthony catalog number 227.

FL-XV-2 Refers to the Fairy Lamp Club Newsletter, Issue XV (15), page 2.

H-P117-2218 Refers to the Hosch catalog, Plate 117, item 2218. In the case where the Hosch catalog plate number is unknown, the plate number will simply be "Unknown."

R-167 Refers to Bob & Pat Ruf's book FAIRY LAMPS-Elegance in Candle Lighting, figure 167.

T-PV-8 Refers to Dorothy Tibbetts' book Clarke's Fairy-Lamps, plate V, number 8.

U-10 Refers to photographic examples of fairy lamps that are not shown in any of ref- erence books. They have been assigned an undocumented reference number in the Un- documented Fairy Lamps section of the newsletter. In this example Undocumented fairy lamp number 10.

Let me know if other reference materials need to be added to the code list.




NFORMATION The Fairy Lamp Club is a non-profit club for collectors of Victorian and contemporary fairy lamps. The club's quarterly newsletter is published in the months of February, May, August, and November. The purpose of the newsletter is to provide a forum for mem- bers to share information about fairy lamps with others and is greatly dependent upon the contributions of our members for its con- tent.

To join the Fairy Lamp Club and receive the Fairy Lamp Newsletter for one year, please send $20.00 to:


PINE,CO 80470-0438

E-mail:...jimsapp@wispertel.net Telephone:...(303) 816-2613 -or, if you prefer:



E-mail:...bpr@powernet.net Telephone & Fax: ...(775) 747-2675 Back issues of the Fairy Lamp Newsletter are available for $4.00 per issue plus post- age.

Foreign membership dues are $25.00 per year.


Thanks to everyone that contributed to this issue of the newsletter. The success and continued growth of this newsletter is di- rectly attributed to your participation and support.





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