INSTRUCTIONAL GENRE (School Genres) Dr. Rudi Hartono, S.S., M.Pd.

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INSTRUCTIONAL GENRE (School Genres)

Dr. Rudi Hartono, S.S., M.Pd.

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS SEMARANG STATE UNIVERSITY

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Dr. Rudi Hartono, S.S., M.Pd.

Tasikmalaya, September 7, 1969

S-1 (English Linguistics-UNPAD Bandung)

S-2 (English Education-UPI Bandung)

S-3 (Translation Studies of UNS Surakarta)

Mobile Phone: 082137054727

E-mail: thehartonos@gmail.com

Office: State University of Semarang

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What is meant by the term

‘genre’?

Genre is a style, especially in the

arts, that involves a particular set of characteristics. (CALD, 2008)

Genres are goal-oriented social

processes that have evolved over time in our culture to enable us to achieve our purposes.

(Derewianka, 2012)

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Genre-Based Writing

Genres of Writing

Functions of Text

Schematic

Structures of Text

Linguistic Features of Text

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Genres of Writing

Spoofs

Anecdotes

Recounts

Narratives

Reports

Descriptive

Procedures

Explanations

News Items

Analytical Expositions

Hortatory Expositions

Discussions

Reviews

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Functions of Texts

Texts Functions

Spoofs To retell a humorous twist

Recounts To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining

Reports To classify and describe the phenomena of our world.

Analytical Expositions

To persuade the reader or listener that something is in the case

News Items

To inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important

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Functions of Texts

Texts Functions

Anecdotes To share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident

Narratives

To amuse, entertain and to deal with

actual experience in different ways, I.e. to gain and hold the reader’s interest in a story.

Procedures

To describe how something is

accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps

Descriptions To describe a particular person, place or thing

Hortatory Expositions

To persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case

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Functions of Texts

Texts Functions

Explanations

To explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of

natural or socio-cultural phenomena

Discussions To present (at least) two points of view about an issue

Reviews To critique an art work or event for a public audience

Commentary

To explain the processes involved in the formation (evolution) of a socio-cultural phenomenon, as though a natural phenomenon

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Schematic Structures of Recounts

Orientation

Event 1

Event 2

Event 3

Re-orientation

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Linguistic Features of a Recount Text

Focus on specific participant

Use of material processes

Circumstances of time and place

Use of past tense

Focus on temporal sequences

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Schematic Structures of Reports

General Classification: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is.

Description: tells what the

phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of parts (and their

functions), qualities, habits or behaviors, if living; uses, if

non-natural

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Linguistic Features of a Report Text

Focus on Generic Participants

Use Relational Processes

Use of simple present tense

No temporal sequence

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Schematic Structures of Narratives

Orientation Evaluation

Complication Resolution

Re-orientation

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Linguistic Features of a Narrative Text

Focus on specific and usually individualized participants

Use of material processes

Use of relational processes

Use of temporal conjunction

Use of past tense

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Schematic Structures of Procedures

1) Goal

2) Materials 3) Step 1

4) Step 2 5) Step 3 6) Step 4 7) Step 5

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Linguistic Features of an Procedure Text

Focus on generalized human agents

Use of simple present tense, often imperative

Use mainly of temporal

conjunction (or numbering to indicate sequence

Use mainly of material processes

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Schematic Structures of Descriptions

Identification:

Identifies

phenomenon to be described

Description:

describes parts, qualities,

characteristics

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Linguistic Features of a Description Text

Focus on specific participants

Use of attributive and identifying processes

Frequent use of epithets and classifiers in nominal groups

Use of simple present tense

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Schematic Structures of News Item

Newsworthy

Event(s): recounts the event in

summary form

Background Events:

elaborate what

happened, to whom, in what

circumstances

Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and

authorities expert on the event.

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Linguistic Features of a News Item

Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline

Use of Material processes to retell the event

Use of projecting verbal processes in sources stage

Focus on circumstances

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Schematic Structures of Anecdote

1) Abstract: signals the retelling of an usual incident

2) Orientation: sets the scene

3) Crisis: provides details of the unusual incident

4) Reaction: reaction to crisis

5) Coda: Optional—reflection on or evaluation of the incident

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Linguistic Features of an Anecdote

Use of exclamations, rhetorical

questions and intensifiers (really, very, quite, etc.) to point up the

significance of the events

Use of materials processes to tell what happened

Use temporal conjunctions

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Schematic Structures of Analytical Exposition

Thesis

Position: introduces topic and indicates writer’s

position

Preview: outlines the main

Arguments

Point: restates main argument outlined in preview

Elaboration: develops and supports each

point/argument

Reiteration: restates writer’s position

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Linguistic Features of a Analytical Exposition

Focus on generic human and non- human participants

Use of simple present tense

Use of relational processes

Use of internal conjunction to stage argument

Reasoning through causal

conjunction or nominalization

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Schematic Structures of Hortatory Exposition

Thesis:

announcement of issue of concern

Arguments: reasons for concern, leading to recommendation

Recommendation:

statement of what

ought or ought not to happen

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Linguistic Features of a Hortatory Exposition

Focus on generic human and non- human participants

Use of simple present tense

Use of mental processes: to state what writer thinks or feels about issue e.g. realize, feel, appreciate.

Use of material processes: to state what happens e.g. drive, travel, spend, etc.

Use of relational processes: to state what is or should be e.g. doesn’t seem, is, are, etc.

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Schematic Structures of Explanation

A general

statement to position the reader

A sequenced explanation of why or how

something occurs

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Linguistic Features of a Explanation Text

Focus on generic, non-human participants

Use mainly of material and relational processes

Use mainly of temporal and causal circumstances and conjunctions

Use of simple present tense

Some use of passive voice to get theme right

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Schematic Structures of Discussion

Issue:

- Statement - Preview

Arguments for and

against or statements of differing points of view:

- Point

- Elaboration

Conclusion or

recommendations

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Linguistic Features of a Discussion

Focus on generic human and generic non-human participants

Use of mental processes: to state what writer thinks or feels about issue e.g.

realize, feel, appreciate, etc.

Use of material processes: to state what happens e.g. has produced, have

developed, to feed, etc.

Use of relational processes: to state what is or should be e.g. is, could have, cause, are.

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Schematic Structures of Reviews

1) Orientation

2) Interpretative recount

3) Evaluation 4) Evaluative

summation

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Linguistic Features of an Review Text

Focus on particular participants (on movies, TV shows, plays, operas,

recordings, exhibitions, concerts and ballets

Direct expression of opinions through use of attitudinal lexis

Use of elaborating and extending clause and group complexes to package information

Use metaphorical language

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Academic Genres

Academic genres or university genres are types of academic writing products introduced to university students to

learn and to practice for their academic purposes, such as different types of

texts: textbooks, reference books, scholarly and popular articles and

essays, as well as conference papers, official reports and theses.

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Some academic genres

Textbook. The aim of a textbook is to communicate established

knowledge.

Scholarly article. The purpose of a scholarly article is to present new knowledge or to provide new

perspectives on an academic or scientific problem or object.

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Thesis. A thesis is a major piece of scholarly work.

Popular (non-scholarly) work. Popular

texts, in the form of either books or articles, aim to communicate established knowledge to the “general reader”.

Encyclopedia article. The purpose of an encyclopedia article is to present

established knowledge neutrally, concisely and clearly.

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What genres do:

texts in different genres do:

communicate, explain, present, argue, inform, describe, narrate etc.

four “modes of discourse”: Exposition, Description, Narration, Argumentation ( EDNA); explain, describe, narrate,

argue (debate, discuss)

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Other terms of text types

In some cases, the term genre

coincides with the term text type.

However, the former could be seen as a kind of umbrella term for a

communicative event, for which one or several more specific text types can be employed as the preferred vehicle of

communication.

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Research Articles (RAs)

Textbooks

Abstracts

Reviews (review articles and book reviews)

Undergraduate text types

PhD Theses

Popular science writing

Posters

Grant proposals

The essay format

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Research Articles (RAs)

Swales (1990) introduces the genre called research article or research paper. The research article is a written text reporting on an investigation made by a researcher.

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Textbooks

"Textbooks [...] disseminate

discipline-based knowledge and, at the same time, display a somewhat unequal writer-reader relationship, with the writer as the specialist and the reader as the non-initiated

apprentice in the discipline, or the writer as the transmitter and the

reader as the recipient of established knowledge." (Bhatia, 2004: 33)

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Abstracts

Many research publications require an abstract, which is a brief synopsis of the text outlining its major points.

As Samuel Johnson (1755) defined the term, an abstract is "a smaller quantity containing the virtue or

power of a greater" (quoted in Oxford English Dictionary).

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Reviews (book reviews)

A book review is a research genre where scholars evaluate other

scholars' published work. As such, it is an editorially commissioned, public evaluation, which is

commonly published in journals in most disciplines (Hyland 2009).

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Reviews (review articles)

The review article can be seen as a special case of the research article.

Its purpose can vary and its format is generally less rigid than the proper research article. Furthermore, it is not uncommon to find alternative genre names used, such as review, review essay, report article, survey article and state-of-the-art survey.

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Undergraduate text types

specific text types for different

kinds of assignments commonly employed in a university setting, such as

1. Research Articles (RA)

2. The essay format

3. Reviews

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PhD Thesis/PhD dissertation

It has a special function in the academic community. This written piece of text,

typically amounting to 150-300 pages

(Swales 2004, p. 102), functions as a kind of scholarly qualifying piece of work,

through which the author is admitted into the society of academics seen as sharing some sort of common ground in terms of expert knowledge, skills, critical thinking, rigor, and scientific values.

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Popular science writing

As an academic, there will be times when you need to explain your subject matter to a non-specialist audience. If you are

working in industry, you may have to keep the company board and the investors

informed about your research results.

Working in the public sector means that you are likely to communicate to the

general public. And, as a scientist, you are sometimes expected to write about your research in the lay press.

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Posters

One kind of academic writing that involves far more visual consideration than traditional articles is the poster display.

Along with the orally delivered conference paper, the poster display is a common way of

presenting research results at conferences.

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Grant proposals

Grant proposals, i.e. texts written by researchers requesting

funding for research projects, can be seen as a genre of its own.

The prototypical parts of a grant proposal (Swales, 1990: 186):

1. Front Matter

a) Title or cover page b) Abstract

c) Table of contents

2. Introduction

3. Background (typically a literature survey)

4. Description of proposed research (including methods, approaches, and evaluation instruments)

5. Back Matter

a) Description of relevant institutional resources b) References

c) Personnel d) Budget

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The essay format

The term 'essay' is used in a wide sense and can

refer to anything from a brief paper to a long degree essay.

The structure of an essay usually consists of three elements: Introduction – Body – Conclusion.

In the Introduction, the reader is introduced to the topic that will be discussed and to the argument that will be presented.

After the Introduction comes the main part of the text, the Body, where the discussion is carried out and the results are presented. In the last part of the essay, the Conclusion, the argument will be

summed up and conclusions will be drawn from what has been discussed.

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