Stanley Wolpert is a distinguished professor emeritus of History at the University of California, Los Angeles.

428  Download (0)

Full text

(1)

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F India

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page 1

(2)

Editor in Chief Stanley Wolpert

Stanley Wolpert is a distinguished professor emeritus of History at the University of California, Los Angeles.

His publications include Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India (1962); Morley and India, 1906–1910 (1967); Roots of Confrontation in South Asia (1982); Jinnah of Pakistan (1984); Zulfi Bhutto of Pakistan (1993); Nehru: A Tryst with Destiny (1996);

Gandhi’s Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi (2002); A New History of India (7th edition, 2003); and India (3d edition, 2005) as well as his forthcoming Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India.

Board Members Robert Brown

Robert Brown is a professor in the Department of Art History at the University of California, Los Angeles and

the curator of Southeast Asian Art at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

Deena Khathkate

Deena Khathkate is the former assistant director of the Monetary and Financial Systems Department at the International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C. He is also the former managing editor of World Development, a monthly journal of development studies published by Elsevier. He has authored several articles on economics in academic journals, including Quarterly Journal of Eco- nomics, Review of Economics and Statistics, and Oxford Eco- nomic Papers.

Raju G. C. Thomas

Raju G. C. Thomas is the Allis Chalmers Distinguished Professor of International Affairs, Marquette University.

Among his dozen books, edited and co-edited, are Indian Security Policy (1986); Perspectives on Kashmir (1994); Democracy, Security and Development in India (1996); and India’s Nuclear Security (2001).

editorial board

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page 2

(3)

V O L U M E 1 A – D

S t a n l e y W o l p e r t E d i t o r i n C h i e f

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F India

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page 3

(4)

Encyclopedia of India Stanley Wolpert, Editor in Chief

© 2006 Thomson Gale, a part of The Thomson Corporation.

Thomson and Star Logo are trademarks and Gale and Charles Scribner's Sons are regis- tered trademarks used herein under license.

For more information, contact Thomson Gale

27500 Drake Rd.

Farmington, Hills, MI 48331-3535 Or you can visit our Internet site at http://www.gale.com

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, record- ing, taping, Web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems—without the written permission of the publisher.

For permission to use material from this prod- uct, submit your request via Web at

http://www.gale-edit.com/permissions, or you may download our Permissions Request form and submit your request by fax or mail to:

Permissions Thomson Gale 27500 Drake Rd.

Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Permissions Hotline:

248-699-8006 or 800-877-4253 ext. 8006 Fax: 248-699-8074 or 800-762-4058

Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all copyright notices, the acknowledgments constitute an extension of the copyright notice.

While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Thomson Gale does not guar- antee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Thomson Gale accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorse- ment of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA

Encyclopedia of India / Stanley A. Wolpert, editor in chief.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-684-31349-9 (set hardcover : alk. paper)—ISBN 0-684-31350-2 (v. 1)—ISBN 0-684-31351-0 (v. 2)—ISBN 0-684-31352-9 (v. 3)—ISBN 0-684-31353-7 (v. 4)

1. India—Encyclopedias. I. Wolpert, Stanley A., 1927–

DS405.E556 2005 954'.003—dc22

2005019616

This title is also available as an e-book.

ISBN 0-684-31512-2

Contact your Thomson Gale representative for ordering information.

Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page iv

(5)

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

v

Executive Vice President and Publisher Frank Menchaca

Director, New Product Development Hélène Potter

Project Editors

Andrea Kovacs Henderson Sarah Turner

Contributing Editors Dana Barnes Shawn Corridor Anjanelle Klisz

Editorial Technical Support Mark Springer

Additional Editorial Support Ken Wachsberger

Copyeditor Dorothy Bauhoff

Proofreader Amy Unterburger

Indexers Jennifer Burton Marianna Wackerman

Product Design Jennifer Wahi Imaging Lezlie Light Christine O’Bryan

Graphic Art

GGS Information Services Meridian Mapping

Rights Acquisition and Management Margaret Chamberlain-Gaston Leitha Etheridge-Sims Susan Rudolph

Composition Evi Seoud

Mary Beth Trimper

Manufacturing Wendy Blurton

staff

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page v

(6)

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

vii

Volume 1

List of Maps . . . . ix

Preface . . . . xi

List of Articles . . . . xv

Thematic Outline of Contents . . . . xxiii

Directory of Contributors . . . . xxxiii

Chronologies . . . . xlvii A–D Color Insert: Art, Architecture, and Sculpture Volume 2 List of Maps . . . . vii

List of Articles . . . . ix

E–J Color Insert: Contemporary Life Volume 3 List of Maps . . . . vii

List of Articles . . . . ix

K–R Color Insert: Handicrafts Volume 4 List of Maps . . . . vii

List of Articles . . . . ix

S–Z Color Insert: Physical Environment Primary Source Documents . . . . 261

Glossary . . . . 287

General Bibliography . . . . 295

Index . . . . . . 299

table of contents

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page vii

(7)

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

ix

Volume 1

The Mughal Empire, 1525–1707 . . . . 30 The Empire of Alexander the Great . . . . 35 The Bengal Partition and Related Changes,

1905–1912 . . . . 132 The Revolt of 1857–1859 . . . . 170 The Advance of British Power, 1766–1857 . . . 178

Volume 2

Guptan Empire, c. 300–550 . . . . 163 Invasions from the Northwest, 330–1

B

.

C

. . . . 209 Indus Valley Civilization, c. 2800–1600

B

.

C

. . . . 260

Volume 3

Jammu and Kashmir . . . . 12 The Marathas, 1646–1819 . . . . 95 Mauryan Empire, 321–185

B

.

C

. . . . . . 104 Muslim Expansion, 8th–15th Centuries . . . . 199 Territorial Changes, 1947–1955 . . . . 304 Territorial Changes, 1956–2000 . . . . 305 European Commercial Contacts, 16th–18th

Centuries . . . . 321

list of maps

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page ix

(8)

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xi

India’s strategic power and economic prosperity have grown so swiftly since the 1990s that no one will wonder why the vast country is the subject of this four-volume encyclo- pedia. Countless Americans who have had their computer problems solved by young Indi- ans—at work for General Electric, Microsoft, or Dell, “outsourced” in air-conditioned offices in Bangalore, Pune, Mumbai, and Kolkata—will hardly be surprised to learn of the precocious mathematical brilliance and scientific genius of India’s civilization. So many of us have read books by Salman Rushdie, V. S. Naipaul, Rohinton Mistry, and Arundhati Roy, and delighted in watching the movies of Satyajit Ray, Mira Nair, and Merchant-Ivory, as well as musicals or films about “monsoon weddings” and “Bombay nights,” that none will be amazed to learn that America’s some 2 million Indians are, in fact, the best edu- cated, wealthiest minority in the United States. India has not only erased its former stereo- typical global image as a land of poverty and snake charmers, but has surpassed its old superpower patron, Russia, in gross national product as well as average life expectancy.

India’s nuclear-powered modern army is second in size and might only to those of the United States and China.

As one of the world’s greatest and oldest civilizations, India has also been the source of several major religious systems, giving birth to Buddhism, Jainism, and Hinduism, the multifaceted faith to which some 80 percent of India’s more than 1 billion people adhere today. The Sikh faith, which emerged from northwest India’s Punjab in the sixteenth cen- tury, has also now grown to global dimensions. Yoga and Ved¯anta, two of India’s ancient systems of philosophy, have of late acquired millions of adherents throughout the United States and in Europe as well as in other parts of Asia and Africa. Hinduism’s noblest doc- trine of nonviolence (ahimsa) has—thanks to Mahatma Gandhi, who equated it to

“God”—won respect and admiration for India from countless millions.

All of us who enjoy playing chess or gaming with dice, moreover, are indebted to India’s ancient wit as well as wisdom. There are, indeed, at least as many reasons for wanting to learn more about India as there are articles, nearly 600, and pages, some 1,400, in this new encyclopedia. More tourists fly into New Delhi and Mumbai every year, or sail into one of India’s beautiful ports, from Mumbai to Goa to Trivandrum on the west coast, and from Pondicherry to Chennai to Kolkata on the east coast. More American and multinational corporate businesses have opened offices in hundreds of Indian cities, hiring bright Eng- lish-speaking Indians, and more Indian doctors, nurses, and scientists work as heart and brain surgeons in our best hospitals, and on pure research in university as well as indus- trial laboratories, than any other Asian-born residents. India has thus arrived as our global partner, in so many more ways than the best-publicized “strategic” one, that we might well

preface

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xi

(9)

P R E F A C E

xii E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

ask why it has taken so long for our Encyclopedia of India to be published? I am perhaps most to blame for being so slow to master my computer, without which, however, a project as large as this one might have taken fifty years, rather than five.

I must first of all thank Thomson/Gale executive vice president Frank Menchaca, whose persistence persuaded me five years ago to accept his invitation to tackle this job, after having just refused a similar invitation from another publisher. It was a tempting challenge, for if done properly it could be a most useful educational tool, one I should cer- tainly be proud of helping to produce for the use of students and adults throughout the world interested in learning about India’s remarkable civilization.

Frank persuaded me to fly to New York to meet with him and developmental director Hélène Potter in their Scribners/Macmillan office in 2000, and by the end of our lunch I tentatively said yes. But first I had to put together my editorial team of experts in those fields of Indian scholarship of which I knew much less than I did about Indian history.

Happily, I was able to convince Distinguished Professor Raju (“George”) Thomas to work with me, and he agreed to recruit scholars to write on India’s government, politics, and military strategy. Soon after Raju joined, we were able to get Dr. Deena Khatkhate, who had served on the Board of the Reserve Bank of India and had worked for the World Bank, to cover the important fields of economics and finance. Professor Robert Brown, who teaches Indian art history at the University of California, Los Angeles, and is also a cura- tor of Indian art at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), kindly agreed last year to write several key articles himself and to recruit some of America’s finest Indian art history scholars, such as Professor Walter Spink of the University of Michigan and Dr. Stephen Markel, curator at LACMA, who, despite urgent and pressing prior com- mitments, agreed to help us. Let me thank them, since without their selfless assistance this project could not have been completed.

I must also thank each of the other fine author-scholars, numbering more than 200, who have written the 580 articles published in these four volumes. Organized alphabeti- cally from Abdul Kalam to Zoroastrianism, the topics embrace all of India—not just its history of over 4,000 years, or its geography and ethnography, but its Buddhist art and Deccani painting, the economic burden of its defense and external debt policy, its Hindu Tantric deities, human rights, industrial growth, judicial system, languages and scripts, medical science education, modern and contemporary art, nuclear programs and policies, planning commission, R¯am¯aya ·na, Mah¯abh¯arata, satyagraha, scheduled tribes, secularism, theater, trade liberalization, women’s education, and Yoga. We have tried our best to fill these volumes with the most accurate, comprehensive, readable series of articles on India, each of which is signed by its author and includes a bibliography and cross-references to related pieces for readers eager to delve deeper into any topic, all of which are ultimately related, each but a facet of India’s singularly scintillating, remarkable civilization. More than 300 images illustrate the articles and there are four unique color inserts, one per vol- ume, highlighting Indian art, architecture and sculpture; contemporary life; handicrafts;

and the physical environment. Readers will also find supplementary materials to aid their research: The front matter includes a thematic outline of contents and chronologies detailing India’s long history, and the back matter in volume four includes a selection of primary source documents, a general bibliography, a glossary of terms, and a compre- hensive index.

Not all the scholars with whom we started this educational journey long years ago have remained with us till the end. Several old friends were unable to write the pieces they con- tracted for, and I regret that they could not be with us at the finish line. Dr. Pran Chopra—

who together with his brilliant wife, Dr. Prabha Chopra, kindly agreed to write the important article on Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, whose papers they both so carefully edited—died last year in New Delhi, before he could see a final copy of their biography.

Dr. Prabha Chopra courageously worked on to complete the task they had begun together,

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xii

(10)

P R E F A C E

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xiii

and I thank her for her karma-yogic cooperation, as I regretfully posthumously thank her dear husband, my good friend, Doctor Pran.

I want specially to thank all my former students, now dear colleagues and friends, who so generously gave of their energies and talents in writing many articles for this encyclo- pedia. Some were more prompt than others in completing their pieces, yet all did at last finish, and each article was well done. Our publisher’s first editor, Sarah Turner, was most helpful for two years, when she had to fly home to England. I thank Sarah for her hard work and hope she finds time to read these final versions of articles she helped launch. For the past two years, Andrea K. Henderson, our brilliant and efficient senior editor at Thomson/Gale, who replaced Sarah, has been so diligent, kind, and helpful in every aspect of this arduous, time-consuming job of contracting for and editing 1 million words, that I can hardly thank her enough. I must also thank our meticulous copyeditor, Dorothy Bauhoff, proofreader Amy Unterburger, and senior editors Dana Barnes, Shawn Corridor, and Jan Klisz, who all helped us to finish on schedule.

Hélène Potter has been deeply committed to this Encyclopedia of India from its concep- tion to completion, and her brilliant creative intellect and wealth of practical experience have been invaluable to us at every stage in this process.

Finally, let me thank my dearest wife, Dorothy, without whose confidence, unfailing support, and ever-cheerful love throughout the last five years, I should never have under- taken or been able to complete this most challenging job of my life.

Stanley Wolpert

28 July 2005

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xiii

(11)

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xv

A

Abdul Kalam, Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen (A.P.J.) Advani, Lal Krishna

Aesthetics

Afghani, Jamal-ud-din Afghanistan

Afghanistan, Military Relations with, 1994–2001 Agni

Agra

Agricultural Growth and Diversification since 1991 Agricultural Labor and Wages since 1950

Agricultural Prices and Production, 1757–1947

Agricultural Wages, Labor, and Employment since 1757 Ahmedabad

AIDS/HIV Ajanta Akbar

Akkamah¯ade¯vi

¯Al¯ap

Albuquerque, Afonso de Alexander the Great Allahabad

All-India Muslim League

Ambedkar, B. R., and the Buddhist Dalits Amritsar

Anand, Mulk Raj

¯And¯al

Andhra Pradesh Andrews, C. F.

Andy, S. Pulney

Anglo-Afghan Wars: War One (1838–1842) Anglo-Afghan Wars: War Two (1878–1880)

Anglo-Afghan Wars: War Three (May–August 1919) Armed Forces

Artha Sh¯astra Arunachal Pradesh

¯Aryabhata

¯Aryabhat¯ıya

¯Arya Sam¯aj Asht¯adhy¯ay¯ı Ashvamedha

Asian Development Bank (ADB), Relations with Asiatic Societies of Bengal and Bombay

Assam Astronomy Auckland, Lord Aurangzeb Aurobindo, Sri

Avat¯aras of Vishnu, Images of Ayodhya

¯Ayurveda

Azad, Maulana Abul Kalam Azariah, Vedanayakam Samuel

B Babur Bactria

Bahadur Shah I

Balance of Payments: Exchange Rate Policy Balance of Payments: Foreign Investment and the

Exchange Rate B¯alasarasvati, T.

Ballistic and Cruise Missile Development Ballistic Missile Defenses

Baluchar Sari

Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier

“Bande Mataram”

Bandhani

list of articles

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xv

(12)

L I S T O F A R T I C L E S

xvi E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

Banerjea, Surendranath N.

Bangalore Bangladesh

Bank and Non-Bank Supervision Banking Sector Reform since 1991 Barahmasa

Baroda Bene Israel Bengal

Bentinck, Lord William Bhabha, Homi

Bhagavad G¯ıt¯a Bh¯agavata Pur¯an

˙ a Bhajan

Bhakti Bharat

Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Bhave, Vinoba

Bhopal Bhubaneswar Bh ¯uta

Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali Bihar

Bimbisara

Biotechnology Revolution Bombay

Bonnerji, Womesh C.

Bose, Subhas Chandra Brahmacarya

Br¯ahma ·nas Brahmo Samaj Brazil–India Relations British Crown Raj

British East India Company Raj British Impact

British India Office, The Brocade

Bronzes: Early Images Bronzes: South Indian Buddha, Life of the Buddhism in Ancient India

Buddhist Art in Andhra up to the Fourth Century Burma

C

Cabinet Mission Plan Calcutta

Capital Market Caste and Democracy Caste System

Central Banking, Developmental Aspects of Chaitanya

Chalcolithic (Bronze) Age Chandigarh

Chatterji, Bankim Chandra Chaudhuri, Nirad C.

Chelmsford, Lord Chidambaram China, Relations with Chola Dynasty

Christian Impact on India, History of Cinema

Civil-Military Relations Clive, Robert

Commodity Markets

Common Property Resources, Past and Present Congress Party

Contract Farming Cornwallis, Lord

Cripps, Sir Richard Stafford Curzon, Lord George

D

Dalhousie, Marquis of Dalits

Dance Forms: An Introduction Dance Forms: Bharata Natyam Dance Forms: Kathak

Dance Forms: Kathakali Dance Forms: Koodiyattam Dance Forms: Kuchipudi Dance Forms: Manipuri Dance Forms: Mohini Attam Dance Forms: Odissi Das, Chitta Ranjan Debt Markets Deccani Painting

Demographic Trends since 1757 Demography and Census-taking Desai, Morarji

Development of Commercial Banking 1950–1990 Development Politics

Dev¯ı

Devi, Siddheshvari Dharma Sh¯astra Dhrupad

Diaspora: Economic Impact

Diaspora: History of and Global Distribution D¯ıkshitar, Muttusv¯ami

D¯ıv¯al¯ı

Dravidian Parties Dubois, Jean-Antoine Dufferin, Lord Dundas, Henry

Dupleix, Joseph François

E

Early Maritime Contacts

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xvi

(13)

L I S T O F A R T I C L E S

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xvii

Economic Burden of Defense

Economic Development, Importance of Institutions in and Social Aspects of

Economic Policy and Change, 1800–1947 Economic Policy Under Planning, Aspects of Economic Reforms and Center-State Relations Economic Reforms of 1991

Economy Since the 1991 Economic Reforms

Educational Institutions and Philosophies, Traditional and Modern

Elephanta

Ellenborough, Earl of Ellora (Elura)

Elphinstone, Mountstuart Employment Structure Energy Politics and Policy

Environmental Consciousness since 1800 Ethnic Conflict

Ethnic Peace Accords

European Union, Relations with External Debt Policy, 1952–1990

F

Family Law and Cultural Pluralism Famines

Federalism and Center-State Relations Feminism and Indian Nationalists Feudalism

Filmı¯gı¯t Film Industry Finance Commission

Fiscal System and Policy from 1858 to 1947 Fiscal System and Policy since 1952 Fitch, Ralph

Folk Art Folk Dance Food Security

Foreign Resources Inflow since 1991 Forster, E. M.

French East India Company French Impact

Fundamental Rights

G

Galbraith, John Kenneth Gama, Vasco da

Gandharan Art and Architecture Gandhi, Indira

Gandhi, Mahatma M. K.

Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Sonia Gandhinagar Ga·nesha Gat-Tora

Gender and Human Rights General (National) Elections Geography

Globalization Goa

Goddess Images Gokhale, Gopal Krishna

Government of India Act of 1919 Government of India Act of 1935 Gujarat

Gujral, Inder Kumar Guptan Empire Guptan Period Art Guru Nanak

H

Haq, A. K. Fazlul Harappa

Hardinge, Lord Harsha

Hastings, Warren Health Care

Health Care for Tourists Hindu Ancestor Rituals

Hindu and Buddhist Thought in Western Philosophy Hinduism (Dharma)

Hindu Nationalism Hindu Nationalist Parties Hindu Tantric Deities Hindutva and Politics History and Historiography Human Development Indicators Human Rights

Humayun Hyderabad

I

Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) India Office and India Office Library India’s Impact on Western Civilization Indo–U.S. Relations, Cultural Changes in Indra

Industrial Change since 1956

Industrial Growth and Diversification Industrial Labor and Wages, 1800–1947

Industrial Labor Market, Wages and Employment, since 1950

Industrial Policy since 1956 Indus Valley Civilization Informal Credit Markets

Information and Other Technology Development Infrastructure and Transportation, 1857–1947 Infrastructure Development and Government Policy

since 1950

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xvii

(14)

L I S T O F A R T I C L E S

xviii E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

Insurance Industry Insurgency and Terrorism Intellectual Property Rights

Internal Public Debt, Growth and Composition of International Monetary Fund (IMF), Relations with Iqbal, Muhammad

Irwin, Lord Islam

Islam’s Impact on India Israel, Relations with Ivory Carving

J Jahangir

Jain and Buddhist Manuscript Painting Jainism

Jain Sculpture Jamdani

Jammu and Kashmir Jammu and Ladakh Jamshedpur

Japan, Relations with Jewelry

Jews of India

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali Jodhpur

Judicial System, Modern

K Kabir K¯alid¯asa K¯ama S ¯utra Kanpur Karachi

Karaikk¯al Ammaiy¯ar Kargil Conflict, The Karnataka

Kashmir

Kashmir Painting Kashmir Shawls Kayasths

Kerala, Coalition Politics Kerala, Model of Development Kerkar, Kesarbai

Khajuraho

Khan, Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Ali Akbar Khan, Liaquat Ali Khan, Vilayat Khayal Khusrau, Amir Kipling, Rudyard K¯ırtana

Krishna in Indian Art

Krishnamurti, Jiddu Kriti

L

Land Tenure from 1800 to 1947 Land Tenure since 1950 Languages and Scripts Lansdowne, Lord

Large-scale Industry, 1850–1950 Leaders, Christian

Liberalization, Political Economy of Linlithgow, Lord

Literature: Modern Literature: Tamil Love Stories

M

Macaulay, Thomas Babington M¯adhaviah, A.

Madras Madurai Magadha Mah¯abh¯arata Maharashtra

Maldives and Bhutan, Relations with Mandal Commission Report

Mangeshkar, Lata Manipur

Maritime Commerce, 1750–1947 Mauryan Empire

Media

Medical Science Education Medieval Temple Kingdoms Meghalaya

Menon, V.K. Krishna Metalware

Military Interventions in South Asia Miniatures: Bikaner

Miniatures: Bundi Miniatures: Central India Miniatures: Harem Scenes Miniatures: Kishangarh Miniatures: Kotah

Miniatures: Marwar and Thikanas Minto, Lord

M¯ırabai Mizoram

Modern and Contemporary Art Mohenjo-Daro

Monetary Policy from 1952 to 1991 Monetary Policy since 1991 Money and Credit, 1858–1947

Money and Foreign Exchange Markets Montagu, Edwin S.

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xviii

(15)

L I S T O F A R T I C L E S

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xix

Monuments: Eastern India Monuments: Mughal Monuments: Southern India Monuments: Western India Morley, John

Mountbatten, Lord Mughal Painting Mughal Painting, Later Music: An Introduction Music: Karn¯atak Music: South India

Muslim Law and Judicial Reform Muslims

Mutual Funds, Role of Mysore

N

Nabob Game Nagas and Nagaland Naidu, Sarojini Nainsukh

Naoroji, Dadabhai Narayan, Jaya Prakash Narayan, R. K.

Narayanan, K. R.

National Security Decision-Making N¯atya Sh¯astra

Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Motilal Neolithic Period Nepal

Nepal, Relations with New Delhi

Nightingale, Florence Nizam of Hyderabad Nobili, Robert de

Non-banking Financial Institutions, Growth of Northeast States, The

Nuclear Programs and Policies

Nuclear Weapons Testing and Development Ny¯aya

P Paithani Pakistan

Pakistan and India Palaeolithic Period Pandit, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandita Ramabai P¯anini

Pant, Govind Ballabh Papermaking

Paramilitary Forces and Internal Security Parsis

Patanjali

Patel, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patna

Patola Paul, K. T.

Pension Funds and Social Security Peshwai and Pentarchy

Pillai, Samuel Vedanayakam Pingala

Planning Commission Political System: Cabinet Political System: Constitution Political System: Parliament Political System: President Political System: Prime Minister Population, Gender Ratio of Portuguese in India

Poverty and Inequality Prasad, Rajendra Premchand Presidents of India

Price Movements and Fluctuations since 1860 Prime Ministers of India

Princely States

Private Industrial Sector, Role of Public Debt of States, since 1950 Public Expenditures

Punjab

Q Qaww¯al¯ı

R

Rabban, Joseph

Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli R¯aga

R¯agam¯al¯a

Rahman, Sheikh Mujibur Rajagopalachari, Chakravarti Rajneesh, Osho

Rajput (Western, Central, and Hill) Painting Ramananda

R¯am¯anuja R¯am¯aya ·na

R¯am¯aya ·na and Mah¯abh¯arata Paintings Ranade, Mahadev Govind

Rang¯oli Ray, Satyajit Reading, Lord Reddi, Muthulakshmi

Reserve Bank of India, Evolution of Ripon, Lord

Rishi

Rock Art

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xix

(16)

L I S T O F A R T I C L E S

xx E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

Roy, Ram Mohan

Rural Credit, Evolution of since 1952 Russia, Relations with

S

Sabhas and Samitis Sam · sk ¯ara

S¯ankhya Sarod

Sassoon, David Satyagraha

Saving and Investment Trends since 1950 Sayyid Ahmed Khan and the Aligarh Movement Scheduled Tribes

Science

Scientists of Indian Origin and Their Contributions Sculpture: Buddhist

Sculpture: Kushana

Sculpture: Mauryan and Shungan

Sculpture and Bronze Images from Kashmir Secularism

Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Selected Macroeconomic Models

Shah Bano Case Shah Jahan Shankar, Ravi Shankara

Shiva and Shaivism Shivaji Bhonsle and heirs Shiv Sena

Shore, Sir John Shrauta S ¯utras Shreni

Shulba S ¯utras (Ved¯angas) Shy¯ama Sh¯astri

Sikh Institutions and Parties Sikhism

Simla Sind

Singh, Bhagat

Singh, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Manmohan Singh, Sadhu Sundar Sirohi School Painting Sitar

Size and Capital Intensity of Indian Industry since 1950 Small-Scale and Cottage Industry, 1800–1947

Small-Scale Industry, since 1947 Soma

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

South Asian Economic Cooperation Southeast Asia, Relations with Space Program

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka, Relations with State Finances since 1952 State Formation

State-Level Performance since Reforms of 1991 Step-Wells of India

Stock Exchange Markets Strategic Thought

Subbalakshmi Ammal, R.S.

Subbulakshmi, M. S.

Subsidies in the Federal Budget Sultanate Painting

Sultante-Period Architecture of South Asia

T Tabla

Tagore, Rabindranath T¯ala

Tanchoi Tansen

Tantric Buddhist Images Tapas

Tata, Jamsetji N.

Taxation Policy since 1991 Economic Reforms Technical Change in Agriculture, 1952–2000 Temple Types (Styles) of India

Textiles: Block-Printed

Textiles: Early Painted and Printed Textiles: Karuppur

Theater

Theosophical Society Thumr¯ı

Tibetan Buddhists of India Tilak, Bal Gangadhar

Trade Liberalization since 1991 Trade Policy, 1800–1947 Tribal Peoples of Eastern India Tribal Politics

Tripura Ty¯agar¯aja

U

Underground Economy, Dimensions of United States, Relations with

Upanishadic Philosophy Urbanism

V

Vaisheshika

Vajpayee, Atal Bihari Varanasi

Varu ·na

Ved¯anga Jyotisha

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xx

(17)

L I S T O F A R T I C L E S

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xxi

Vedic Aryan India Vina

Vishnu and Avat¯aras

Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) Vivekananda, Swami

W

Wars, Modern Wavell, Lord

Weapons Production and Procurement Wellesley, Richard Colley

Women and Political Power Women’s Education Women’s Indian Association

World Bank (WB), Relations with

World Trade Organization (WTO), Relations with

X

Xavier, Francis

Y Yajña Y¯ajnavalkya Yajur Veda Yoga

Z

Zoroastrianism

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxi

(18)

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xxiii

ARTS Aesthetics Jewelry Papermaking Subbalakshmi, M.S.

Tanchoi Tansen Theater

Buddhist Buddha, Life of the Buddhism in Ancient India

Buddhist Art in Andhra up to the Fourth Century Sculpture: Buddhist

Tantric Buddhist Images

Caves Ajanta Elephanta Ellora (Elura)

Monuments: Western India Rock Art

Sculpture: Mauryan and Shungan

Dance

Dance Forms: An Introduction Dance Forms: Bharata Natyam Dance Forms: Kathak

Dance Forms: Kathakali Dance Forms: Koodiyattam Dance Forms: Kuchipudi Dance Forms: Manipuri Dance Forms: Mohini Attam Dance Forms: Odissi Folk Dance

N¯atya Sh¯astra Reddi, Muthulakshmi

Fabrics Baluchar Sari Bandhani Barahmasa Brocade Jamdani Kashmir Shawls Paithani Patola

Textiles: Block-Printed

Textiles: Early Painted and Printed Textiles: Karuppur

Literature K¯ama S ¯utra Literature: Modern Literature: Tamil Narayan, R.K.

Tagore, Rabindranath Modern Cinema Cinema

Film Industry Media Ray, Satyajit

Music

¯Al¯ap

Bande Mataram Bhajan

Dhrupad Film¯¯ıg¯¯ıt Gat-Tora

thematic outline of contents

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxiii

(19)

T H E M A T I C O U T L I N E O F C O N T E N T S

xxiv E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

Khayal K¯ırtana Kriti

Music: An Introduction Music: Karn¯atak Music: South India N¯atya Sh¯astra Pingala Qaww¯al¯ı R¯aga Sarod Sitar

Subbalakshmi Ammal, R.S.

Tabla T¯ala Thumr¯ı Vina

Paintings Deccani Painting

Jain and Buddhist Manuscript Painting Kashmir Painting

Miniatures: Bikaner Miniatures: Bundi Miniatures: Central India Miniatures: Harem Scenes Miniatures: Kishangarh Miniatures: Kotah

Miniatures: Marwar and Thikana Modern and Contemporary Art Mughal Painting

Mughal Painting, Later Nainsukh

R¯agam¯al¯a

Rajput (Western, Central, and Hill) Painting Sirohi School Painting

Sultanate Painting

Sultanate-Period Architecture of South Asia Palaces

Monuments: Mughal Monuments: Southern India

Religious

Jain and Buddhist Manuscript Painting Jain Sculpture

Krishna in Indian Art Mangeshkar, Lata

R¯am¯aya ·na and Mah¯abh¯arata Paintings Rang¯oli

Step-Wells of India Sculpture

Bronzes: Early Images Bronzes: South Indian Guptan Period Art

Gandharan Art and Architecture Goddess Images

Ivory Carving Jain Sculpture Metalware

Sculpture: Kushana

Sculpture: Mauryan and Shungan

Sculpture and Bronze Images from Kashmir Temples

Chidambaram Guptan Period Art Khajuraho

Medieval Temple Kingdoms Monuments: Eastern India Monuments: Southern India Monuments: Western India Temple Types (Styles) of India

Tribal Baluchar Sari Folk Art

BIOGRAPHIES Florence Nightingale Ray, Satyajit

Roy, Ram Mohan Shy¯ama Sh¯astri Tata, Jamsetji N.

Authors Anand, Mulk Raj

Chatterji, Bankim Chandra Chaudhuri, Nirad C.

Forster, E.M.

K¯alid¯asa

Kipling, Rudyard Naidu, Sarojini Narayan, R.K.

Nehru, Jawaharlal Premchand

Tagore, Rabindranath British Cabinet Ministers Montagu, Edwin S.

Morley, John

Governors-General

Auckland, Lord

Bentinck, Lord William

Chelmsford, Lord

Cornwallis, Lord

Curzon, Lord George

Dalhousie, Marquis of

Dufferin, Lord

Ellenborough, Earl of

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxiv

(20)

T H E M A T I C O U T L I N E O F C O N T E N T S

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xxv

Hardinge, Lord Hastings, Warren Irwin, Lord Lansdowne, Lord Linlithgow, Lord Minto, Lord Mountbatten, Lord Reading, Lord Ripon, Lord Shore, Sir John Wavell, Lord

Wellesley, Richard Colley Great Mughal Emperors Akbar

Aurangzeb Babur

Bahadur Shah I Kings Bimbisara Harsha Humayun Khusrau, Amir Nizam of Hyderabad Shah Jahan

Singh, Maharaja Ranjit Martial Heroes Albuquerque, Afonso de Alexander the Great Clive, Robert

Dupleix, Joseph François Elphinstone, Mountstuart Fitch, Ralph

Gama, Vasco da Jahangir

Nizam of Hyderabad Musicians

Akkamah¯ad¯evi B¯alasarasvati, T.

Devi, Siddheshvari Khan, Ali Akbar Khan, Vilayat Shankar, Ravi Philosophers

Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli Vivekananda, Swami

Politicians

Abdul Kalam, Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen (A.P.J.) Advani, Lal Krishna

Ambedkar, B. R., and the Buddhist Dalits Azad, Maulana Abul Kalam

Banerjea, Surendranath N.

Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali Bonnerji, Womesh C.

Bose, Subhas Chandra Das, Chitta Ranjan Desai Morarji

D¯ıkshitar, Muttusv¯ami Galbraith, John Kenneth Gandhi, Indira

Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Sonia

Gokhale, Gopal Krishna Gujral, Inder Kumar Haq, A.K. Fazlul Jinnah, Mohammad Ali Khan, Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Liaquat Ali

Macaulay, Thomas Babington Menon, V.K. Krishna

Montagu, Edwin S.

Morley, John Naidu, Sarojini Naoroji, Dadabhai Narayan, Jaya Prakash Narayanan, K.R.

Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Motilal Pandit, Vijaya Lakshmi Pant, Govind Ballabh Patel, Sardar Vallabhbhai Prasad, Rajendra

Presidents of India Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli Rahman, Sheikh Mujibur Rajagopalachari, Chakravarti Ranade, Mahadev Govind

Sayyid Ahmed Khan and the Aligarh Movement Shivaji Bhonsle and heirs

Singh, Bhagat Singh, Manmohan Tilak, Bal Gangadhar Vajpayee, Atal Bihari

Religious Figures Afghani, Jamal-ud-din Andrews, C. F.

Andy, S. Pulney Aurobindo, Sri

Azariah, Vedanayakam Samuel Bhave, Vinoba

Dubois, Jean-Antoine Gandhi, Mahatma M.K.

Indra

Iqbal, Muhammad Kabir

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxv

(21)

T H E M A T I C O U T L I N E O F C O N T E N T S

xxvi E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

Karaikk¯al Ammaiy¯ar Kerkar, Kesarbai Krishnamurti, Jiddu M¯adhaviah, A.

M¯ırabai

Nobili, Robert de Pandita, Ramabai Paul, K.T.

Pillai, Samuel Vedanayakam Rabban, Joseph

Rajneesh, Osho Sassoon, David Singh, Sadhu Sundar Vivekananda, Swami Xavier, Francis

Scientists

¯Aryabhata Bhabha, Homi Chaitanya Guru Nanak P¯anini Patanjali

BRITISH RAJ Company Era

British East India Company Raj Cripps, Sir Richard Stafford Dundas, Henry

Imperial Crown British Crown Raj British India Office, The Cabinet Mission Plan

India Office and India Office Library Princely States

Roy, Ram Mohan Wellesley, Richard Colley

DEMOGRAPHY

Demographic Trends since 1757 Demography and Census-taking Population, Gender Ratio of

ECONOMY

Agricultural Growth and Diversification since 1991 Agricultural Labor and Wages since 1950

Agricultural Prices and Production, 1757–1947

Agricultural Wages, Labor, and Employment since 1757 Common Property Resources, Past and Present

Contract Farming

Diaspora: Economic Impact

Economic Development, Importance of Institutions in and Social Aspects of

Economic Policy and Change, 1800–1947

Economic Policy Under Planning, Aspects of Economic Reforms of 1991

Economy Since the 1991 Economic Reforms Energy Politics and Policy

Famines Food Security Globalization

Industrial Change since 1956

Industrial Growth and Diversification Industrial Labor and Wages, 1800–1947 Industrial Policy since 1956

Information and Other Technology Development Infrastructure and Transportation, 1857–1947 Infrastructure Development and Government Policy

since 1950

Intellectual Property Rights Jamshedpur

Kerala Model of Development Land Tenure from 1800 to 1947 Land Tenure since 1950

Large-scale Industry, 1850–1950 Liberalization, Political Economy of Maritime Commerce, 1750–1947 Planning Commission

Poverty and Inequality

Price Movements and Fluctuations since 1860 Private Industrial Sector, Role of

Public Expenditures

Rural Credit, Evolution of since 1952

Size and Capital Intensity of Indian Industry since 1950 Small-Scale and Cottage Industry, 1800–1947

State Finances since 1952

State-Level Performance since Reforms of 1991 Subsidies in the Federal Budget

Technical Change in Agriculture, 1952–2000 Trade Liberalization since 1991

Underground Economy, Dimensions of

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Educational Institutions and Philosophies, Traditional and Modern

Indian Institutes of Technology (ITTs)

Information and Other Technology Development Medical Science Education

Women’s Education

FEUDALISM Feudalism

FINANCES AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

Asian Development Bank (ADB), Relations with Balance of Payments: Exchange Rate Policy Balance of Payments: Foreign Investment and the

Exchange Rate

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxvi

(22)

T H E M A T I C O U T L I N E O F C O N T E N T S

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xxvii

Bank and Non-Bank Supervision Banking Sector Reform since 1991 Capital Market

Central Banking, Developmental Aspects of Commodity Markets

Debt Markets

Development of Commercial Banking 1950–1990 Employment Structure

External Debt Policy, 1952–1990 Finance Commission

Fiscal System and Policy from 1858 to 1947 Fiscal System and Policy since 1952 Foreign Resources Inflow since 1991 Globalization

Industrial Change since 1956

Industrial Growth and Diversification Industrial Labor and Wages, 1800–1947

Industrial Labor Market, Wages and Employment, since 1950

Industrial Policy since 1956 Informal Credit Markets

Infrastructure Development and Government Policy since 1950

Insurance Industry

Internal Public Debt, Growth and Composition of International Monetary Fund (IMF), Relations with Monetary Policy from 1952 to 1991

Monetary Policy since 1991 Money and Credit, 1858–1947

Money and Foreign Exchange Markets Mutual Funds, Role of

Non-banking Financial Institutions, Growth of Pension Funds and Social Security

Price Movements and Fluctuations since 1860 Private Industrial Sector, Role of

Public Debt of States, since 1950 Public Expenditures

Reserve Bank of India, Evolution of Rural Credit, Evolution of since 1952 Saving and Investment Trends since 1950 Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Selected Macroeconomic Models

Size and Capital Intensity of Indian Industry since 1950 Small-Scale and Cottage Industry, 1800–1947

Small-Scale Industry, since 1947 State Finances since 1952 Stock Exchange Markets Subsidies in the Federal Budget

Taxation Policy since 1991 Economic Reforms Technical Change in Agriculture, 1952–2000 Trade Liberalization since 1991

Trade Policy, 1800–1947

Underground Economy, Dimensions of World Bank (WB), Relations with

World Trade Organization (WTO), Relations with

GEOGRAPHY Geography

Countries Afghanistan Bangladesh Bharat Burma Nepal

Provinces or States Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam

Bactria

Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Baroda

Bengal Bihar

Chola Dynasty Goa

Hyderabad

Jammu and Kashmir Jammu and Ladakh Jodhpur

Karnataka Kashmir

Kerala, Coalition Politics Kerala, Model of Development Madurai

Magadha Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Mysore

Nagas and Nagaland Northeast States, The Patna

Princely States Punjab Sind

State Formation

Tribal Peoples of Eastern India Tripura

Urban Cities Agra

Ahmedabad

Allahabad

Amritsar

Ayodhya

Bangalore

Bhopal

Bhubaneswar

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxvii

(23)

T H E M A T I C O U T L I N E O F C O N T E N T S

xxviii E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

Bombay Calcutta Chandigarh Gandhinagar Gujarat Jamshedpur Kanpur Karachi Madras New Delhi Simla Urbanism Varanasi

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

Abdul Kalam, Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen (A.P.J.) Civil-Military Relations

Federalism and Center-State Relations Government of India Act of 1919 Government of India Act of 1935 National Security Decision-Making Nuclear Programs and Policies

Nuclear Weapons Testing and Development Paramilitary Forces and Internal Security Pension Funds and Social Security Planning Commission

Political System: Cabinet Political System: Constitution Political System: Parliament Political System: President Political System: Prime Minister Presidents of India

Prime Ministers of India Secularism

Singh, Manmohan

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

South Asian Economic Cooperation Sri Lanka, Relations with

State Formation

Tribal Peoples of Eastern India United States, Relations with Wars, Modern

Weapons Production and Procurement

HISTORY Chidambaram Guptan Empire

History and Historiography Magadha

Maharashtra Mauryan Empire

Medieval Temple Kingdoms Nabob Game

Neolithic Period Paleolithic Period Peshwai and Pentarchy Portuguese in India

Sayyid Ahmed Khan and the Aligarh Movement Sculpture: Mauryan and Shungan

Shivaji Bhonsle and heirs Vedic Aryan India

HEALTH AND MEDICINE AIDS/HIV

¯Ayurveda Health Care

Health Care for Tourists Medical Science Education

INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Chalcolithic (Bronze) Age

Harappa

Indus Valley Civilization Mohenjo-Daro

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Afghanistan

Asiatic Societies of Bengal and Bombay Brazil–India Relations

British Impact China, Relations with

Diaspora: History of and Global Distribution Early Maritime Contacts

European Union, Relations with French East India Company French Impact

Hindu and Buddhist Thought in Western Philosophy India’s Impact on Western Civilization

Indo–U.S. Relations, Cultural Changes in Israel, Relations with

Japan, Relations with

Maldives and Bhutan, Relations with Maritime Commerce, 1750–1947 Money and Foreign Exchange Markets Nepal

Nepal, Relations with Pakistan

Pakistan and India Russia, Relations with

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

South Asian Economic Cooperation Southeast Asia, Relations with Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka, Relations with

Trade Liberalization since 1991

Trade Policy, 1800–1947

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxviii

(24)

T H E M A T I C O U T L I N E O F C O N T E N T S

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xxix

United States, Relations with Wars, Modern

World Bank (WB), Relations with

World Trade Organization (WTO), Relations with

LANGUAGES Languages and Scripts Literature: Tamil P¯anini

Patanjali Premchand

MILITARY AND WARFARE

Afghanistan, Military Relations with, 1994–2001 Anglo-Afghan Wars: War One (1838–1842) Anglo-Afghan Wars: War Two (1878–1880)

Anglo-Afghan Wars: War Three (May–August 1919) Armed Forces

Ballistic and Cruise Missile Development Ballistic Missile Defenses

Economic Burden of Defense Insurgency and Terrorism Jammu and Kashmir Kargil Conflict, The Kashmir

Military Interventions in South Asia National Security Decision-Making Nuclear Programs and Policies

Nuclear Weapons Testing and Development Paramilitary Forces and Internal Security Space Program

Strategic Thought Wars, Modern

NATIONALIST MOVEMENT Aurobindo, Sri

Azad, Maulana Abul Kalam Bande Mataram

Banerjea, Surendranath N.

Bhave, Vinoba Bonnerji, Womesh C.

Bose, Subhas Chandra Chatterji, Bankim Chandra Congress Party

Desai Morarji

Gandhi, Mahatma M.K.

Gokhale, Gopal Krishna Gujral, Inder Kumar Hindu Nationalism Hindu Nationalist Parties Jinnah, Mohammad Ali Menon, V.K. Krishna Naidu, Sarojini Naoroji, Dadabhai

Narayan, Jaya Prakash Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Motilal

Patel, Sardar Vallabhbhai Prasad, Rajendra

Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli Rajagopalachari, Chakravarti Ranade, Mahadev Govind Satyagraha

Secularism Singh, Bhagat Tilak, Bal Gangadhar

PARTIES AND POLITICS All-India Muslim League Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Congress Party

Development Politics Dravidian Parties Hindu Nationalism Hindu Nationalist Parties Hinduvta and Politics Kerala, Coalition Politics

Liberalization, Political Economy of Political System: Cabinet

Political System: Parliament Political System: Prime Minister Shiv Sena

Sikh Institutions and Parties Tribal Politics

Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) Women and Political Power

RELIGION Bene Israel Bhakti

Buddhist Ajanta Ellora (Elura)

Tantric Buddhist Images Tibetan Buddhists of India

Christian Andrews, C. F.

Andy, S. Pulney

Christian Impact on India, History of Leaders, Christian

Nobili, Robert de Paul, K.T.

Pillai, Samuel Vedanayakam Singh, Sadhu Sundar Xavier, Francis

Hindu

¯And¯al

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxix

(25)

T H E M A T I C O U T L I N E O F C O N T E N T S

xxx E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

Ashvamedha

Avat¯aras of Vishnu, Images of Bhuta

Chidambaram

Hindu Ancestor Rituals Hinduism (Dharma) Hindu Nationalism Hindu Nationalist Parties Hindu Tantric Deities Khajuraho

Love stories Rishi Sam · sk¯ara Shankara Shiva

Step-Wells of India Ty¯agar¯aja

Upanishadic Philosophy Vaisheshika

Varanasi

Ved¯anga Jyotisha Vedic Aryan India Yajur Veda Yajña Y¯ajnavalkya Yoga

Ashramas Brahmacarya

Gods Agni

¯Arya Sam¯aj Dev¯ı Ga ·nesha Shiva Soma Varu ·na

Vishnu and Avat¯aras Holidays D¯ıv¯al¯ı

Societies

¯Arya Sam¯aj Brahmo Samaj Sabhas and Samitis Shiv Sena

Shreni

Theophysical Society

Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) Texts

Artha Sh¯astra Bhagavad G¯ıt¯a Bh¯agavata Pur¯a ·na Br¯ahma ·nas

Dharma Sh¯astra K¯ama S ¯utra Mah¯abh¯arata N¯atya Sh¯astra R¯am¯aya ·na Shrauta Sutras

Shulba S ¯utras (Ved¯angas) Islamic

Islam

Islam’s Impact on India

Muslim Law and Judicial Reform Muslims

Sayyid Ahmed Khan and the Aligarh Movement Shah Bano Case

Jain Ajanta Ellora (Elura)

Jain and Buddhist Manuscript Painting Jainism

Jewish Jews of India Sassoon, David

Parsi Parsis

Zoroastrianism Sikh

Sikh Institutions and Parties Sikhism

Singh, Maharaja Ranjit

PHILOSOPHY Ny¯aya

Ramananda R¯am¯anuja S¯ankhya Shankara Tapas

Upanishadic Philosophy Vaisheshika

Y¯ajnavalkya Yoga

SCIENCE

¯Aryabhat¯ıya Asht¯adhy¯ay¯ı Astronomy

Biotechnology Revolution

Indian Institutes of Technology (ITTs)

Information and Other Technology Development Patanjali

Science

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxx

(26)

T H E M A T I C O U T L I N E O F C O N T E N T S

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xxxi

Scientists of Indian Origin and Their Contributions Ved¯anga Jyotisha

SOCIAL RELATIONS

Environmental Consciousness since 1800 Fundamental Rights

Human Development Indicators Human Rights

Intellectual Property Rights Kayasths

Poverty and Inequality Caste System Caste and Democracy Caste System

Dalits

Ambedkar, B. R., and the Buddhist Dalits Dalits

Mandal Commission Report Scheduled Tribes

Ethnic Conflict Ethnic Conflict

Ethnic Peace Accords Kashmir

Family Law

Muslim Law and Judicial Reform Family Law and Cultural Pluralism

Judicial System Judicial System, Modern

WOMEN

Feminism and Indian Nationalists Gender and Human Rights Goddess Images

M¯ırabai Naidu, Sarojini Pandit, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandita, Ramabai

Population, Gender Ratio of

Women and Political Power

Women’s Education

Women’s Indian Association

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxxi

(27)

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xxxiii

Amitav Acharya

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Professor, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies

Southeast Asia, Relations with Shankar Acharya

Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations

Member, Board of Governors and honorary professor Economy Since the 1991 Economic Reforms Yashodhara Agarwal

Banaras Hindu University,Varanasi,India

Assistant curator, textile and decorative arts, Bharat Kala Bhavan

Brocade Isher Ahluwalia

Director, Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, New Delhi, India

Industrial Policy since 1956 Montek Ahluwalia

Government of India

Deputy chairman, Planning Commission Banking Sector Reform since 1991

State-Level Performance since Reforms of 1991 Akbar Ahmed

The American Univeristy, Washington, D.C.

Ibn Khaldun Chair of Islamic Studies, School of International Service

Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier Islam’s Impact on India

Rajeev Ahuja

Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations

Senior research fellow Insurance Industry Daud Ali

University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies Senior lecturer in Indian history, Department of History

Feudalism Guptan Empire Harsha

K¯ama S ¯utra Literature: Tamil Mauryan Empire

Medieval Temple Kingdoms Pravin Anand

Anand and Anand Law Firm, New Delhi, India Intellectual Property Rights

Walter Andersen

Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies

Associate director, Department of South Asia Studies Hindu Nationalism

Shridhar Andhare

Honorary director, Lalbhai Dalpatbhai Museum Barahmasa

Miniatures: Bundi Miniatures: Kotah Sirohi School Painting Prema-chandra Athukorala Australian National University

Professor of Economics, Division of Economics and Australia South Asia Research Centre

Saving and Investment Trends since 1950

directory of contributors

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxxiii

(28)

D I R E C T O R Y O F C O N T R I B U T O R S

xxxiv E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

Amaresh Bagchi

National Institute of Finance and Public Policy, New Delhi Emeritus professor

Finance Commission

Fiscal System and Policy since 1952 Gopalan Balachandran

Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva Professor, Department of International History and Politics

Maritime Commerce, 1750–1947 Dipankar Banerjee

Retired major general of the Indian army Former specialist of the U.S. Institute of Peace

Civil-Military Relations Insurgency and Terrorism Debashish Banerji Culver City, California Independent scholar

Modern and Contemporary Art Poonam Sethi Barua

Director, Public Affairs Management, New Delhi South Asian Economic Cooperation Dilip Basu

University of California, Santa Cruz

Director, Satyajit Ray Film and Study Collection Aurobindo, Sri

Banerjea, Surendranath N.

Chaudhuri, Nirad C.

Das, Chitta Ranjan Haq, A. K. Fazlul Rahman, Sheikh Mujibur Ray, Satyajit

Tagore, Rabindranath Kaushik Basu

Cornell University

Professor, Department of Economics

Economic Development, Importance of Institutions in and Social Aspects of

Chandi Batliwalla Reserve Bank of India

Consultant to Reserve Bank of India History Project International Monetary Fund (IMF), Relations with Kurt Behrendt

Temple University Department of Art History

Gandharan Art and Architecture Douglas L. Berger

Oakton College, Des Plaines, Illinois

Assistant professor, Department of Humanities and Philosophy

Hindu and Buddhist Thought in Western Philosophy

Surjit Bhalla

Oxus Research and Investments, New Delhi, India Poverty and Inequality

Vinayak Bhatt Bethesda, Maryland

Economic Policy and Change, 1800–1947 Gouriswar Bhattacharya

Free University Berlin

Institute of Indian Philology and Art History Tantric Buddhist Images

Pia Brancaccio

Drexel University, Philadelphia

Assistant professor, Department of Visual Studies Elephanta

Ellora (Elura) Robert L. Brown

University of California, Los Angeles Professor, Department of Art History

Buddha, Life of the Guptan Period Art Rani Day Burra Mumbai, India

Freelance film magazine editor and animation filmmaker Cinema

Gerald Carney Hampden-Sydney College Professor of religion

Chaitanya Maya Chadda

William Paterson University of New Jersey Professor, Department of Political Science

Ethnic Conflict R. Champakalakshmi

Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India Former professor of history

Monuments: Southern India Rupa Chanda

Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore

Professor, Department of Economics and Social Sciences World Trade Organization (WTO), Relations with Anand Chandavarkar

Washington, D.C.

Independent scholar

Money and Credit, 1858–1947 Padmanabha R. Chari

Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, New Delhi Research professor

Economic Burden of Defense

Weapons Production and Procurement

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxxiv

(29)

D I R E C T O R Y O F C O N T R I B U T O R S

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

India

xxxv

Saumen Chattopadhyay Jawaharlal Nehru University

Associate professor, School of Social Sciences Underground Economy, Dimensions of Raja J. Chelliah

Chairman, Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India Economic Reforms and Center-State Relations Prabha Chopra

New Delhi, India

Patel, Sardar Vallabhbhai Pran Chopra

deceased

Patel, Sardar Vallabhbhai Stephen P. Cohen

The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C.

Senior fellow, Foreign Policy Studies Program Pakistan and India

Daniel Consolatore

Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies

Research assistant, South Asia studies Hindu Nationalism

Rosemary Crill

Victoria & Albert Museum, London

Senior curator, South Asia, Asian Department Miniatures: Marwar and Thikanas Vasudha Dalmia

University of California, Berkeley

Professor, Department of South and Southeast Asian Studies Premchand

D. R. Das

Dt. Hooghly, West Bengal, India Monuments: Eastern India Pramoda N. Das

Patna University

Associate professor, Department of History Judicial System, Modern

Sunil Dasgupta Georgetown University

Visiting assistant professor, Security Studies Program, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service Paramilitary Forces and Internal Security Jayati Datta Mitra

Bethesda, Maryland Independent scholar

Population, Gender Ratio of

Bibek Debroy

Director, Rajiv Gandhi Institute for Contemporary Studies Human Development Indicators

Private Industrial Sector, Role of Robert DeCaroli

George Mason University Professor, history and art history

Sculpture: Buddhist Ashok V. Desai

Business World, New Delhi Consultant editor

Information and Other Technology Development Devangana Desai

Journal editor, The Asiatic Society of Mumbai Khajuraho

Kalpana S. Desai

Director, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly Prince of Wales Museum of Western India, Mumbai)

Baluchar Sari Love stories

Miniatures: Harem Scenes R¯agam¯al¯a

Tanchoi Tansen Mahendra Dev

Director, Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad, India

Agricultural Labor and Wages since 1950 Contract Farming

Jasleen Dhamija New Delhi, India Independent scholar

Bandhani Folk Art Paithani Patola

Textiles: Early Painted and Printed Amarendra Dhaneshwar

Mumbai, India Devi, Siddheshvari Kerkar, Kesarbai Mangeshkar, Lata Subbulakshmi, M. S.

Joseph Elder

University of Wisconsin—Madison

Professor, Sociology/Languages and Cultures of Asia Caste System

Dalits

Mandal Commission Report

73269_FM_Vol1_i-lxxxv_GGS 10/12/05 9:36 AM Page xxxv

Figure

Updating...

References

Updating...

Related subjects :