Warm-Up. Clauses: Building and Refining Compound and Complex Sentences. Lesson Question. Lesson Goals. Use various sentence. add variety to writing.

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Lesson Question

Lesson Goals

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Revise sentences to

variety and v

specific meaning.

Use to

convey meaning and add variety to writing.

Correct common

sentence . Use various sentence

to add variety to writing.

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Writing, like photography, can be boring or when jam-packed with and .

K

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a complete thought that joins an independent clause to one or more dependent clauses

a complete thought that combines two independent clauses with one or more dependent clauses

a complete thought that uses a coordinating conjunction to join two independent clauses

a word used to indicate a connection between two independent clauses in one sentence

a word used to join ideas of equal importance

a group of words that includes a noun and a verb but cannot stand alone as a sentence

a group of words that includes a noun and a verb and can stand alone as a sentence

Words to Know

Fill in this table as you work through the lesson. You may also use the glossary to help you.

Adding Variety and Details

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A clause is a of grammar that consists of both a and a verb.

A clause is not always a sentence.

Underline the subject and the verb in the first example.

Clauses

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Clauses

• The trees grow quickly.

• Where the trees grow

Not clauses

• The tall green trees

• Grows wildly

The main types of clauses are independent clauses and

clauses. Each type contains a subject and a . Independent clause

• Expresses a complete

• Can stand as a sentence

• Example: I threw the baseball to my sister.

clause

• Does express a thought

• Cannot stand alone as a sentence

• Example: When I play catch with my brother, I don’t throw the ball as hard.

Identifying Dependent and Independent Clauses

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A noun clause is a type of dependent clause. A dependent clause needs a subject and a .

A noun clause:

• begins with a conjunction.

• functions as a .

• provides specificity.

Underline the simple subject in the first example sentence.

• Example: The lunch was delicious.

• Example: What I had for lunch was delicious.

Noun Clauses

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Relative Clauses

A relative clause is another kind of clause.

A relative clause:

• begins with a pronoun.

• functions as an .

• a noun.

• Example: The man looks suspicious.

• Example: The man who is standing by the door looks suspicious.

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Slide

4 Adverbial Clauses

An clause is another kind of dependent clause.

An adverbial clause:

• a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

• begins with a subordinating .

• functions as an adverb.

• Example: I started my homework.

• Example: my friends left, I started my homework.

A simple sentence is a independent clause that expresses a thought.

Examples:

• The chef cooked.

• The pastry chef baked and frosted the cakes.

• The energetic executive chef planned the menu for the cooking club.

Simple Sentences

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A consists of two independent clauses joined by a , such as for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so.

• Example 1: I cooked a delicious dinner. My entire family came over.

• Example 2: I cooked a delicious dinner, my entire family came over.

Compound sentences can improve writing by adding , providing specificity, and ideas.

Compound Sentences

Compound sentences can be constructed in ways.

conjunction and comma

• To clarify the relationship between the two clauses

• Example: I cooked a delicious dinner, so my entire family came over.

Semicolon

• To add between two independent clauses

• Example: Estella ran a great race; she finished in second place.

Constructing Compound Sentences

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show a connection between two independent clauses.

Conjunctive adverbs:

• include words or such as however, hence, otherwise, consequently, and on the other hand.

• show such as contrast, sequence, and cause and effect.

• can appear at the of a sentence when followed by a .

• can appear in a sentence when preceded by a

.

• Example: I really like spicy food; , my brother prefers milder tastes.

Conjunctive Adverbs

A sentence fragment is an sentence.

Incorrect:

he first tried to learn to play the guitar.

Correct:

When he first tried to learn to play the guitar, he became discouraged.

Underline the independent clause that was added to complete the thought.

When he first tried to learn to play the guitar, he became discouraged.

Correcting Sentence Fragments

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A run-on sentence occurs when two or more clauses are joined improperly.

Incorrect:

Joshua got a guitar it needs an amplifier.

Correct:

Joshua got a guitar it needs an amplifier.

Joshua got a guitar it needs an amplifier.

Joshua got a guitar It needs an amplifier.

Correcting Run-On Sentences

A comma splice is an in which two independent clauses are

with a comma but coordinating conjunction.

Incorrect:

Joshua got a guitar, it needs an amplifier.

Correct

Joshua got a guitar it needs an amplifier.

Joshua got a guitar it needs an amplifier.

Joshua got a guitar It needs an amplifier.

Correcting Comma Splices

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A consists of an independent clause with or more dependent clauses. It usually contains a

conjunction or a pronoun that links the clauses.

• Example: As soon as I wake up in the morning, I have to brush my teeth.

Underline the dependent clause: The teacher who gives the least homework is my favorite.

Underline the independent clause: The teacher who gives the least homework is my favorite.

Complex Sentences

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There are several ways in which dependent clauses to complex sentences.

Adverbial clause

• a verb, an adjective, or an adverb

• Tells when, where, why, or to

• Example: Until it stops raining, we will stay at the museum.

Adjectival clause

• a noun or pronoun

• Tells or what kind

• Example: There is the rock wall that we are going to climb.

Dependent Clauses in Complex Sentences

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Nominal clause

• Can be a subject, , or complement

what

• Example: I believe that everyone should travel.

Dependent Clauses in Complex Sentences

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clauses can be either restrictive or nonrestrictive.

Restrictive clauses

• Are to understand a sentence

• Give essential

• Do require commas

• Example: The travelers who are wearing the red badges are with our group.

Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses

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Nonrestrictive clauses

• Are necessary to understand a sentence

• Give information

• Require commas

• Example: Those girls, who were on the team, are all going on the same voyage.

Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses

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Another way to add variety to writing is to use

. A compound-complex sentence contains:

• two or more clauses.

• one or more clauses.

• Example: Her mother and grandmother went to Spain, where they had dreamed of going, and then they took a train to Italy.

Constructing Compound-Complex Sentences

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Answer

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Slide

2 Review: Key Concepts Lesson

Question

How do clauses and varied sentence structures convey meaning and add variety to writing?

Clauses and varied sentence structures convey meaning by capturing the reader’s attention, adding detail, and combining ideas effectively.

Clauses Sentence structures Sentence errors

clauses

• Dependent clauses

clauses

• Relative clauses

clauses

sentences

• Compound sentences

-complex sentences

• Fragments

• Comma splices

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