an anthology of chinese literature-stephen owen-1996.pdf


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An Anthology of Chinese Literature


An Anthology of

Chinese Literature

B E G I N N I N G S TO 191 1

Edited and Translated by

Stephen Owen

W . W . N O R T O N & C O M P A N Y

N E W Y O R K • L O N D O N

PRO PER 丁丫 9「叫 丁 QFRSUNIV: D A l l l D P E L C n h 丨… G A Z J V


Development of the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China

jacket art: "The Nymph of the Lo River" by Wei Chiu-ting is reproduced with the permission of the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all the copyright notices, pages 1165-66 constitute an extension of the copyright page.

The text of this book is composed in Sabon with the display set in Optima

Composition by Com Com

Manufacturing by Haddon Craftsmen Book design by Joan Greenfield

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

An anthology of Chinese literature : beginnings to 1911 / edited and translated by Stephen Owen,

p. cm.

Translations from Chinese.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-393-03823-8

1. Chinese literature~Translations into English. I. Owen, Stephen.

P12658.E1A814 1996

895.V08—dc20 95-11409

All rights reserved

Printed in the United States of America

f L .

First Edition

W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10110



Timeline xxxv

Introduction * , xxxix

A Note on Translation z ^ xliii

Early China


The Classic o f Poetry: Beginnings 10

Classic of Poetry C C L X X n “We Have in H and” 10 Classic of Poetry CC XC “Mowing Grasses55 , 11

The Zhou Founding " n

Classic of Poetry CCXLV “She Bore the Folk” 12 Historical Records, “Chronicles of Z hou” 14

Classic of Poetry CCL “Liu the Duke” 15

Classic of Poetry C C X X X V II “Spreading” 16

The Zhuang-ziy “Renouncing Kingship” 18 Classic of Poetry C C X X X V I “The Greater Brightness” 18

Classic of Poetry CCLV “Overbearing” 20

Classic of Poetry CCLXII “Yangzi and H an” 22 Classic of Poetry CLXVIII “Bringing Forth the Chariots” 23 Classic of Poetry C LX X V II “Sixth M onth” 24

Human Sacrifice: Making Exchanges 26

Classic of Poetry C X X X I “Yellow Bird” 26

The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 6th year of Duke Wen

(620 B.C.) 27

The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 19th year of Duke X i

(640 B.C.) 27

from Mencius I A, 7 28

The Classic o f Poetry: "Airs" 30

Classic of Poetry I “Fishhawk” 30

Classic of Poetry IX “The Han So Wide” 31


Other Voices in the Tradition

Ruan Ji (a.d. 210-263), Songs of My Cares II

Meng Hao-ran (ca. 690-ca. 740), Written at Wan Mountain Pool \


Classic of Poetry VI “Peach Tree Soft and Tender” Classic of Poetry X “Bluffs of the R u ”

Classic of Poetry X L I “North W ind” Classic of Poetry X II “Magpie’s Nest” Classic of Poetry X X “P!ums Are Falling” Classic of Poetry X X III “Dead Roe Deer”

Classic of Poetry X X X “First the Winds” ,

Classic of Poetry X X X V “Valley Winds” Classic of Poetry X C “W ind and Rain”

Classic of Poetry XLVI “Thorr^Vine on the W all” Classic of Poetry LI “Rainbow”

Classic of Poetry L X III “Fox”

Classic of Poetry X C IV “ Creepers on the Moorland” Classic of Poetry CXL “Willows by the Eastern Gate” Classic of Poetry C L X X X IV tc Crane Cries O ut” Classic of Poetry V <6Grasshoppers5 Wings55 Classic of Poetry C L X V IItc Gather the Fiddleheads” Classic of Poetry IV “Trees with Bending Boughs” Classic of Poetry VII “Rabbit Snare”

Classic of Poetry LIX “Bamboo Pole”

Understanding and Misunderstanding: The Need to Explain Classic of Poetry X L II “Gentle Girl”

Classic of Poetry LX I “The River Is Broad” Classic of Poetry LX IV “Quince”

Classic of Poetry LX V “Millet Lush” Classic of Poetry LX X V I “Zhong-zi,Please”

Classic of Poetry X X V I “Boat of Cypress” Classic of Poetry X LV “Boat of Cypress” Other Poems

Classic of Poetry X C V “Zhen and W ei”

Classic of Poetry C X X X V II MEastern Gate’s White Elms” Classic of Poetry C X I “W ithin Ten Acres”

Classic of Poetry X V II “Dew on the W ay”

Classic of Poetry X X X IV “Dry Leaves on the Gourd” Classic of Poetry LVI KWe Had Our Delight”

Classic of Poetry L X X X I “I Went Along the Broad Road” Classic of Poetry L X X X II “Rooster Crows”

Classic of Poetry C X X X III “No Clothes” Classic of Poetry C X III “Huge R at” Classic of Poetry CVII “Sandals of Straw”


Courtship, Marriage, and Love 53 Classic of Poetry C X X X V III “Barred Gate” 53 Classic of Poetry X X IV “Ah,How Splendid” 54 Classic of Poetry CLVIII “Cutting the H aft” 54 Classic of Poetry X X II “The River Has Its Forkings15 54 Classic of Poetry XLV III “In the Mulberries” 55

Classic of Poetry LXVI “M y Prince Has Taken the Field” 55 Classic of Poetry L X X III H Great Cart” 56 Classic of Poetry L X X V II “Shu Is on a Field H unt” 56 Classic of Poetry L X X X V II “Lift Your Kilts” 57

Using the Poems and Early Interpretation 58

Analects XVII.9 58

Analects II.2 58

Analects 1.15 59

The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 31st year of Duke Xiang

(542 B.C.) 59

The Zhuang-ziy “Outer Things” 60

Mencius II A, 2.xi, xvii 61

Mencius V A, 4.ii 61

Mencius V B,8.ii 62

Classic of Documents (Shu jing),“Canon of Shun” - 63 The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 25th Year of Duke Xiang

(548 B.C.) 63

Classic of Changes,“Appended Discourses” 63 Wang Bi,“Elucidation of the Images” (Classic of Changes) 63

from the Zhuang-zi, “The Way of Heaven” 64

The “Great Preface” to the Classic o f Poetry 64 Selections from the “Record of Music” (Yue ji) (3 sections) 67

Other Voices in the Tradition 71

Tang Xian-zu, Peony Pavilion (1598) 71

from Scene VII: The Schoolroom for Women 71

from Scene IX: Getting the Garden in Order 74

Early Narrative n

Two Sad Stories of Good Behavior 77

The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 12th year of Duke Xuan

(597 B.C.) 78

The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 22nd year of Duke X i

(638 B.C.) 78

An Exegetical Literature 79

Analects 11.10 79

The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 14th year of Duke


The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 3rd year of Duke Ding

(507 B.C.) 80

The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 3rd year of Duke Xuan

(606 B.C.) 80

Heroes of the W ill 81

from the Schemes of the Warring States'(Zban-guo ce) 82 Swindles and Bad Exchanges: The Problems Surrounding Bian

He's Jade 83

“He’s Jade,” (or uBian H e,s Jade55) from the H an Fei-zi 84 Historical Records (Shi-ji),from the “Biographies of Lian Bo

and Lin Xiang-ru” 84

The Story of W u Zi-xu 87

Historical Records, “Biography of W u Zi-xu” 88 The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 20th year of Duke Zhao

(522 b.c.) 97

The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 4th year of Duke Ding

(506 B.C.) 98

The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 11th year of Duke Ai

(484 B.C.) 99

Other Voices in the Tradition 99

Yuan Zhen (779-831), A Winter wWhite Linen Song” 100 Wu Wen-ying (ca. 1200-1260),to “Eight-Note Gan-zhou,” Visiting

the Magic Cliff with Various Gentlemen of the Transport Office 101 Early Literary Prose: The Delight of W ords 102

The Wind (Western Han?) 102

“O f Swords” (Zhuang-zi) 104

from the Zhuang-zi, “Heaven’s Motions” (Tian-yun) 108 Jia Y i,The Poetic Exposition on the Owl 110

The Zhuang-zi 113

“Discourse on Thinking of Things as Being on the Same Level”

(Qi-wu lun) 113

Coda 122

Li Bo (701-762),The Old Airs IX 122

Early Political O rato ry 124

Classic of Documents, “T ing’s VowM 124

The Zuo Tradition, an entry for the 26th year of Duke Zhao

(516 B.C.) 125

from the Schemes of the Warring States 128 Mei Sheng (d. 140 B.C.),Letter of Protest to the Prince of W u 130

from the Zhuang-zi, “Attaining Life” (Da-sbeng) 133 viii


Si-ma Q ia n (ca, 145-ca. 85 bx.) 135

Letter in Reply to Ren An 136

The Biography of Bo Yi and Shu Q i 142

The Prince of Wei 145

from “Biographies of the Assassins”: Nie Zheng 152



"Lyrics of Chu155

"The Nine Songs" 156

The Sovereign of the East: The One (Dong-huang Tai-yi) 156 Lord in the Clouds (Yun-zhong jun) ^ 156

The Lady of the Xiang River (Xiang jun) 157 The Senior Master of Lifespans (Da si-ming) 158 The Junior Master of Lifespans (Shao-si-ming),“Lord Iris” 158

The Lord of the East (Dong-jun) 159

The Yellow River’s Earl (He-bo) 160

The H ill Wraith (Shan gui) 160

The Kingdom's Dead (Guo-shang) 161

Rites for Souls (Li bun) 162

The Li Sao 162

The C/)u-c/Tradition 176

Journeys Heavenly and Earthly 176

Far Roaming 176

Si-ma Xiang-ru (179-117 B.C.), The Great One 182 Ruan Ji (a.d. 210-263),Songs of M y Cares LXVIII 184 Sun Chuo (314-371),Wandering to the Tian-tai Mountains 185

The Encounter with the Goddess 189

Song Yu (attributed), The Poetic Exposition on

Gao-tang (opening) 189

The Goddess 190

Cao Zhi (192-232), The Goddess of the Luo 194

Other Voices in the Tradition 198 Pei Xing (825-880), “Accounts of Marvels” (Chuan-qi): Xiao Kuang

(opening section) 198

Wang Wei (ca. 699-761), Songs for the Goddess’ Shrine on

Fish Mountain 199

Song Welcoming the Goddess 199

Song Sending the Goddess on Her Way 199 Li He (790-816),String Music for the Gods 199 Wen Ting-yun (d. 866),Written on the Temple of Mount Xiao 200 Guan-xiu (832-912), Shrine by the River 200


Calling Back the Soul 204

“Calling Back the Soul” (Zhao hun) 204

“Calling Back the Recluse” (Zhao yin-shi) 211

Other Voices in the Tradition 212

Ruan Yu (d. 212),Seven Sorrows 212

Tao Qian (365-427), Pall Bearer’s Song II 212

Li Bo (701-762), Hard Ways to Shu 213

Interlude Between the "Lyrics of C hu " and Yue-fu: "The

Biography o f Lady Li〃 215

Ban Gu (a.d. 32-92),The Han History, from “The Biographies

of the Imperial In-Laws55 215

The Chinese "Middle Ages"


Yue-fu 227

Heaven Above (Western Han yue-fu) i l l

The One I Love (Western Han yue-fu) 227 South of the Walls We Fought (Western Han yue-fu) 228

East of Ping-ling (Eastern Han?) 229

Prelude: White Swans in Pairs (Eastern Han?) 230

Cocks Crow (Eastern Han?) 230

Meeting (Eastern Han?) 231

Chang-an Has Narrow Alleys (Eastern Han?) 232

Other Voices in the Tradition 243 Shen Yue (441-513), The Sensual Charms of the Three Wives 233

Song of White Hair (Eastern Han?) 233

Mulberries by the Path (Eastern Han?) 234 X in Yan-nian, Officer of the Guard (Eastern Han) 235 Chen Lin (d. 217),I Watered M y Horse at a Spring by the Wall 236

Yue-fu of the South 237

Zi-ye Songs 238 I一II 238 X II 238 X V I 238 X IX - X X 238 X X III-X X IV 238 X X X III 239 X X X V I 239


Spring Songs 239

VI 239

IX-X 239

Winter Songs 239

X III ,239

Little Su, “I Ride the Coach with Polished Sides” 240

Yang Pan-er (also Du-qu Song) 240

Yue-fu of the Northern Dynasties ■240 Qi-yu Songs (Northern Dynasties yue-fu), I,IV 240 Song of the Prince of Lang-ya (Northern Dynasties yue-fu) 241 The Ballad of Mu-lan (Northern Dynasties* yue-fu3

4th-6th century) 241

Breaking the Branches of Willows (Northern Dynasties

yue-fu), I-III 243

Other Voices in the Tradition: The Later Lineages of Yue-fu 243

Li Bo, South of the Walls We Fought 244

Wang Shi-zhen (1526-1590), South of the Wall We Fought 245 Li Ye-si (1622-1680), South of the Walls We Fought 246

Li Bo, Yang Pan-er 247

Anonymous song lyric to “Boddhisattva Barbarian”

(9th-10th century) 247

The Beginnings of Classical Poetry (Shi) 249

Parting and Going Off 250

East Gate (Eastern Han? yue-^u) 250

Anonymous Old Poem (attributed to Su Wu) 251 Anonymous O ld Poem (attributed to Su Wu) 251

Wang Can (177-217),Seven Sorrows I 252

Ruan Ji (210-263),Songs of My Cares III 253

Longing on the Road 253

Nineteen Old Poems I - 253

Q in Jia (2nd century), To His Wife (first of

three) (attributed) 254

Conning to the City 255

Nineteen Old Poems III 255

Nineteen Old Poems IV 255

Alone at Night 256

Nineteen Old Poems X IX 256

Wang Can, Seven Sorrows II 256

Ruan Ji, Songs of M y Cares I 256

Nineteen Old Poems X 257


The Message and Gift 258 Watering M y Horse by the Great Wall (Eastern Han?

yue-fu) 258

Nineteen Old Poems IX 258

The Stranger and the W om an 258

Prelude (Eastern Han? yue-fu) 259

Nineteen Old Poems II 259

Nineteen Old Poems V v 259

Impermanence and Disillusion 260

Nineteen Old Poems X III 260

Nineteen Old Poems X IV 260

Nineteen Old Poems X V 261

The Return ' 261

Anonymous Old Poem 261

Cao Z hi (192-232), Sending O ff Mr. Ying (first of two) 262

Coda: Reencounter 262

Old Poem 262

The Poets 262

Cao Cao (155-220),The Bitter Cold 263

Wang Can (177-217),W ith the Army V 264 Liu Zhen (d. 217), Unclassified Poem 265

Cao Zhi, Unclassified Poem I 265

X u Gan (171-218),Chamber Thoughts III 266 Yan Shi-bo (5th century), Wang Rong (467-493), and

Chen Shu-bao (553-604), Three versions of “Since You

Have Gone Away” 266

Cao Zhi (192-232) 267

Presented to Cao Biao, Prince of Bai-ma 267 Song of a Brown Wren in W ild Fields (yue-fu) 270

Unclassified Poem II 270

Ruan Ji (210-263) 270

Songs of M y Cares X V I 271

Songs of M y Cares VI 271

Songs of M y Cares X X X III 271

Turning Away 272

Lu Ji (261-303),Calling to the Recluse 272 Zuo Si (ca. 253-ca. 307),Calling to the Recluse I 273

Feast 274

Classic of Poetry CX V “Hawthorn on the M ountain” 274


Classic of Poetry C LX I “Deer Cry” 275

from “Calling Back the Soul” 276

Song of the Autumn W ind i l l

Chen Lin (d. 217),[no title] 278

Dew on the Onion Grass (Han funeral song) 278

The Graveyard (Han funeral song) 278

West Gate (anonymous yue-fu, Eastern Han?) 279 Grand (anonymous yue-fu, Eastern Han?) 279

Cao Cao (155-220),Short Song 280

Cao Pi (187-226),Grand (yue-fu) 281

Cao Zhi (192-232), Public Banquet 282

Wang Xi-zhi (321-379),Preface to the ecOrchid

Pavilion Poems ’’ 283

Li Bo, Bring In the Wine 284

Du Fu (712-770), Having Fallen O ff M y Horse Drunk,

Various Gentlemen Come to Visit Me Bringing Wine 285 H an Y u (768-824), Drunk, to Zhang Shu of the

Imperial Library 287

Meng Jiao (751-814), Inviting Writers to Drink 288

Li He (790-816), Bring In the Wine 289

Bo Ju-yi (772-846),An Invitation for Mr. Liu 289 Feng Yan-si (903-960), to “The Pleasures of Kicking

the Football,, 290

Yan Shu (991-1055), to “Washing Creek Sands” (Huan

xi sha) 290

to “Reaching Golden Gates” (Ye jin-men) 290

Zhou Bang-yan (1056-1121),to “Fragrance Fills the Yard”

(Man ting fang). Written on a summer day at Wu-xiang

Mountain in Li-shui 291

Su Shi (1037-1101),The Poetic Exposition on Red Cliff 292

A n ecd otes, Parables, and Profound Jokes 295

from the Zhuang-zi 295

from the H an Fei-zi (3rd century B.C.) 299

from Discourses of the Domains (Guo-yu) (3rd century B.C.) 300

from the Huai-nan-zi (2nd century B.C.) 301

from The Park of Stories (Shuo-yuan) (1st century B.C.) 301

from the Lie-zi (?-a.d. 300) 302

from The Forest of Jokes (Xiao-lin) (3rd century a.d.) 305

from The Forest of Tales (Yi-lin) (362) 305

from Sundry Accounts of the Western Capital (Xi-jing za-ji)

(3rd century) 306

Liu Yi-qing (403-444), from New Stories and Tales of the

Times (Shi-shuo xin-yu) 307

Tao Qian (365-427), An Account of Peach Blossom Spring 309 xiii


The Poetry o f the Southern D ynasties 3 11

Tao Qian (Tao Yuan-ming, 365-427) 312

Confucius, Analects XI.26 312

Seasons Shift 313

Biography of Master Five Willows 314

Dwelling in Peace on the Double Ninth 315

Drinking Wine V 316

Returning to Dwell in Gardens and Fields I 316

Moving My Dwelling I 317

The Sixth M onth of 408: We Had a Fire 317

Begging 318

Reading the Classic o f Mountains and Seas I -318

Xie Ling-yun (385 433) ' 319

Fu-chun Isle 319

Written on the Lake, Returning from the Chapel at Stone Cliff 320

Climbing an Upper Story by the Pool 321

Visiting the Southern Pavilion 322

Bao Zhao (ca. 414-466) 323

Hard Traveling IV 323

Hard Traveling II 323

Hard Traveling VI 324

Song of the Bright M oon 324

The Southern Courts 325

He X un (d. ca. 518),Performers on the Terrace of the

Bronze Sparrow 326

Xie Tiao (464-499), A Companion Piece for Xie Jin g ,s

“Terrace of the Bronze Sparrow55 326

Xiao Gang (503-551), Song of Yong-zhou: II North Isle 327

Source of Pain II 327

Song: Every Night 327

Roaming in the North Park by Night 327 Sending a Palace Lady Back by Night to the Rear Boat 327

O n a Lone Duck 327

New Swallows 328

The Reflection of a High Building in the Water 328 Liu Yan (Emperor W u of the Liang, 464-549), Zi-ye Song 328 Shen Yue (441-513),Going Out Early and Meeting an Old

Love, I Give This to Her in Her Carriage 328 Madam Shen (early 6th century). Song on Reflections in Water 328 W u Jun (469-520), Quatrains on Various Topics I 328 Wang Seng-ru (465-522),Spring Longings 329 Liu Xiao-chuo (481-539), O n a W oman Unwilling to


Y u X in (513-581),Respectfully Answering “Drifting on

the River” 329

Study in the Hills 330

A Companion Piece for Grand Master Yan’s “Newly

Cleared Skies’, 330

The Image of the Southern Dynasties 330

Zhang Ji (ca. 767-ca. 830),A Ballad of the Yong-jia 331 Wen Ting-yun (ca. 812-866), A Song of Lord X ie ,s Villa 332 Song for the Bank Where the Cock Crowed 333 Qian Qian-yi (1582-1664), In Jin-ling: A Second Series on

Watching a Chess Game (one of six) (1647) 334

Traditional Literary Th eo ry 335

Lu Ji (261-303),The Poetic Exposition on Literature (Wen fu) 336 Liu Xie (ca. 465-522), Weti-xin diao-long (“The Literary

M ind Carves Dragons”) 343

Its Source in the Way: Chapter 1 344

Spirit Thought: Chapter 26 346

Nature and Form: Chapter 27 349

Continuity and Variation: Chapter 29 351 Determination of Momentum: Chapter 30 (selection) 353 Hidden and Out-standing: Chapter 40 354 The Sensuous Colors of Physical Things: Chapter 46 355

The One W ho Knows the Tone: Chapter 48 (selection) 358 Cao Pi (187-226), A Discourse on Literature (Lun-wen) 359

The Tang Dynasty


Tang Poetry: General Introduction 371

Occasions: "Sorry to Have Missed You" 371 Wang Wei (ca. 699-761), Answering the Poem Left by Mr. Su,

Nominally of the Bureau of Forestry, When He Stopped by

M y Villa at Lan-tian 371

Wei Ying-wu (737-ca. 792),Going to Visit Censor Wang on

M y Day O ff and N ot Finding H im Home 372 Qiu Wei (fl. 743) Walking in the Hills and Looking for the

Recluse, But Finding Him Not In 372

Jia Dao (779-845),Looking for the Recluse and N ot Finding

H im Home 373

Meng Hao-ran (ca. 689-740), Spending the Night in Reverend Ye’s Mountain Chamber. I was expecting the senior Mr.


Pei Di (fl. 720-750), I Chanced on Rain at Wang-kou and Recalled M ount Zhong-nan: Thus I Offered the

Following Quatrain 374

Wang Wei, Answering Pei Di 374

Parting 374

Wang Wei, Sending M r. Yuan on His Way on a Mission

to An-xi 375

Parting 375

Meng Hao-ran, Parting from Mr. Xue at Guang-ling 375 Li Bo (701-762),Sending a Friend on His Way 376

A Song of Ming-gao: Sending Off Mr. Cen, a Gentleman in

Retirement W ho Was Summoned to Court 376

Other Poem Types 378

Geng Wei (latter part of 8th century), O n the Set Topic: “W ild

Goose on the Sands” 、 379

Du Fu (712-770), Lone W ild Goose 379

D u M u (803-852), Early Migrating Geese 380

Character Types and Vignettes 380

Wang Jian (751-ca. 830),Palace Lyrics X C V 381 Y u H u (early 9th century), Song of the Southland 381

Li Bo, Lotus-Picking Song 381

Lyrics for the Girls of Yue I-V 382

Bo Ju-yi (772-846), Lotus-Picking Song 383

An Example of Verse Form 383

Wang Wei, Stopping by the Temple of Incense Massed 384

High Tang Poetry 385

W ang Wei (ca. 699-761) 385

PERSPECTIVE, M O TIO N , A N D ATTENTION 386 Written Crossing the Yellow River to Qing-he 386

Watching a Hunt 386

Sight-Seeing in the Moors Outside of Liang-zhou 387


Farming Homes by Wei River 387

Other Voices in the Tradition 388 Classic of Poetry XXXVI “Hard Straits” 388 Tao Qian, Returning to Dwell in Gardens and Fields III 388 Meng Hao-ran, Stopping by the Manor of an Old Friend 389 Gazing into the Wilds Under Newly Cleared Skies 389


THE QUIET LIFE 390 When Living Quietly at Wang-chuan I Gave This to Pei Di 390

Villa on Zhong-nan Mountain 390

Answering Magistrate Zhang 390

Other Voices in the Tradition 391 The Fisherman (Chu-ci, author unknown, 3rd century B.C.?) 391 THE "W A N G STREAM CO LLECTIO N " 392

The Hollow by M eng,s Walls 392

Hua-zi H ill 392

Fine-Grained Apricot Wood Lodge 392

Jin Bamboo Ridge # 393

Deer Fence 393

Magnolia Fence 393

Dogwood Strand 393

The Lane of Palace Ash Trees 393

Pavilion Overlooking the Lake 393

South Cottage 394

Lake Q i 394

Willow Waves 394

Rapids by the Luan Trees ' 394

Gold Dust Spring 394

White Stone Rapids 394

North Cottage 395

Lodge in the Bamboo 395

Magnolia Dell 395

Lacquer Tree Garden 395

Pepper Tree Garden 395

Meng Hao-ran (ca- 689-740) 395

Going from Luo-yang to Yue 396

Gazing from a Boat in the Early Morning 396

Early Cold on the River: Something on M y M ind 396

Other Voices in the Tradition . 397

Confucius, Analects XVIII.6 397

Li Bo (701-762) 397


Parted by Great Distances 398

The Crows Cry by Night 399

Other Voices in the Tradition 399 Anonymous, “Songs of the West,” The Crows Cry by Night IV 400

Reproach ' 400



The Old Airs V 400

The Old Airs VII 401

A Song on Visiting Heaven’s Crone Mountain in a Dream:

O n Parting 401

Dialogue in the Mountains 403


Drinking Alone by Moonlight 403

Summer Day in the Mountains 404

Rising Drunk on a Spring Day, Telling M y Intent 404

Getting O ut What I Feel 404

A Lament for Old Mr. Ji, the Finest Brewer in Xuan-cheng 404

Han-shan: The Master of Cold Mountain 404

III ' 405

X V I 405

X X X II 405

C C X X X II 406

C C X X X III 406

The High Tang Quatrain 406

Zhang Xu, Peach Blossom Creek 406

Wang Han, Song of Liang-zhou 407

Wang Zhi-huan (688-742),Song of Liang-zhou 407

Parting 408

Climbing Stork Tower 408

Other Voices in the Tradition 408

Zhang Rong (444-497), Parting 408

Cui Guo-fu, Song of Xiang-yang 408

Midcurrent Song 409

A Little Chang-gan Song 409

Wang Chang-ling (ca. 690-ca. 756), Army Song 409

Song of the Spring Palace 409

Reproach in the Women’s Chambers 410

Chu Guang-xi (707-760), The Roads of Luo-yang: Presented

to the Director Lu Xiang (one of five) 410 Song of the Southland (one of four) 410 Jing-yun (monk), Painting of a Pine 410

Cen Shen (715-770),O n the Terrace of Cang Jie’s Invention of

Characters at the San-hui Temple 411


Li Bo, Accompanied by My Kinsman Li Ye, Formerly Vice Director of the Ministry of Justice, and by Jia Zhi, Formerly Drafter in the Secretariat, I Go on an Excursion on Lake


Jia Zhi (718-772),O n First Arriving in Ba-ling,Joining Li Bo and Pei, We Go Boating on Lake Dong-ting (two of three)

Du Fu (





Early Du Fu

Another Poem on M r. Zheng’s Eastern Pavilion A Mei-pi Lake Song

Boating on the Reservoir West of the City Giving Account of Oneself

A Song of M y Cares When Going from the Capital to Feng-xian

The Poetry of the Rebellion c# The View in Spring -

Lament for Chen-tao Lament for Greenslope Lament by the River Jiang Village (two of three) Bending River (first of two) The Officer at Tong Pass

Qin-zhou and Cheng-du ‘

Taking Down a Trellis '

I Stand Alone The River Flooded River Village

Enjoying Rain on a Spring Night O n Painting

Painted Hawk

Ballad of the Painted Eagle Song of a Painting

Kui-zhou and Du FiTs Final Years The Diagram of Eight Formations Ballad of an Old Cypress

Autumn Stirrings (eight poems). Quatrain

Where Yangzi Meets the Han

End of Spring: O n M y Newly Rented Thatched Cottage at Rang-xi III

Night’s Midpoint Sunlight Cast Back

Interlude: Xuan-zong and Yan g the Prized Consort

Bo Ju-yi (772—846),Song of Lasting Pain

Chen Hong (early 9th.century). An Account to Go with the “Song of Lasting Pain”

412 413 413 414 414 416 416 417 420 420 421 421 422 423 424 425 425 426 426 427 427 427 428 428 428 429 431 432 432 434 439 439 439 439 440 441 442 448


Du M u (803-852), O n Passing by Hua-qing Palace

(three quatrains) 452

Wang Jian (ca. 767-ca. 830),Gazing on Hua-qing Palace

at Daybreak 453

Li Shang-yin (ca. 813-ca. 858), Dragon Pool 454

Stirred by Something at M ount Li 454

Wang Jian (ca. 767-ca. 830),Ballad of the Former Palace 454

Passing by Lace-Crest Palace 455

Addendum: "The W hirl" 455

Yuan Zhen (779-831),The Girl W ho Danced the Whirl 455 Bo Ju-yi, The Girl W ho Danced the Whirl 457

Tang Literature o f the Frontier 459

Zhang Zheng-jian (mid-6th century), Crossing the

Barrier Mountains 460

Yu Shi-nan (early 7th century), I Watered M y Horse at a

Spring by the Wall: Imitating the Old Ballad 460 Lu Zhao-lin (ca. 635-689), Falling Snow: A Song 461 Luo Bin-wang (b. ca. 640), W ith the Army: A Ballad 461

The High Tang Frontier Poem 462

Wang Chang-ling (ca. 690-ca. 756),Out the Passes 462

Wang Wei, W ith the Army: A Ballad 462

Long-xi: A Ballad 463

Li Bo (701-762), The Old Airs X IV 463

M oon Over the Mountain Passes 464

The Turks Are Gone! 、 465

Wang Chang-ling, Variation on “Hard Traveling” 465 By the Passes: A Song (second of a set) ^ 466

Cen Shen (ca. 715-770),Song of White Snow: Sending Off

Assistant W u on His Return to the Capital 466 The Ballad of Running Horse River: Sending O ff the Army

on a Western Campaign 467

D u Fu, The Army Wagons: A Ballad 468

Mid- and Late Tang Frontier Poetry 469

Lu Lun (ca. 748-ca. 798), By the Passes 470 Wang Jian (ca. 767-ca. 830),W ith the Army: A Ballad 470

Zhang Ji (776-ca. 829),Long-tou Ballad 470

Li He (790-816),Song for the Governor of W ild Goose Barrier 471

By the Passes: A Song 471

Guan Xiu (late 9th-early 10th century), By the Passes: Songs

(second of four) 472

Du Fu: The Formation of a Soldier 472


Aftermath 475 Li Hua (ca. 715-ca. 774),A Lamentation at an

Ancient Battlefield 475

Coda 477

Lu Lun, Encountering a Wounded Soldier 477

M id- and Late Tang Poetry 478

Meng Jiao (751-814) 478

Tormented 479

Lying Sick 479

W hat Was in M y Heart on a Spring Day 480

Informal Composition 480

W hat Came to Me in a Mood 480

Plagiarizing Poems 481

Old M an’s Bitterness r 481

Something Touched Me One Night and I Try to Get It Out 481

Autumn Cares II 482

A Visit to the South Mountains 482

A Ballad of M ount Jing 482

Seeing O ff Reverend Dan X II 482

Answering a Friend’s Gift of Charcoal 483 I tried to climb Zhao-cheng tower . . . 483

Han Yu (768-824) 484

Autumn Thoughts (eighth of eleven) 484

Visiting the Temple of M ount Heng,Then Spending the Night at the Buddhist Monastery: I Wrote This on the Gate Tower 485

Written Playfully to Zhang Ji 487

Mountain Stones 488

Li He (791-817) 489

Song of an Arrowhead from the Battlefield of Chang-ping 489

Little Su,s Tomb 490

Dream of Heaven 491

Song of a Young Nobleman at the End of Night 491 Release from Melancholy: Song (written under the flowers) 491

Other Voices in the Tradition 492

from History of the Eastern Han 492

Long Songs Following Short Songs 493

The King of Q in Drinking 493

Don’t Go O ut the Gate! 495

Don’t Plant Trees 496

Bo Ju-yi (772-846) 496

O n M y Portrait 496

What Came to M ind When Chanting M y Poems 497 xxi


Reciting Aloud, Alone in the Mountains 498

O n M y Laziness 498

Choosing a Dwelling Place in Luo-yang 499

Eating Bamboo Shoots 500

Winter Night 500

Salt Merchant’s Wife (in hatred of profiteers) 501

Du Mu (803-852) 502

Pouring Wine Alone 503

Written on the Kai-yuan Temple at Xuan-zhou 503

I Wrote This on the Tower . . . 504

Spring in the Southland 504

Three Poems Thinking on Past Travels 505

Other Voices in the Tradition 505 Liu Yu-xi, Quitting My Post at He-zhou and Visiting Jian-kang 505

Going Out on the Le-you Plain 506

Late Autumn in the Qi-an District 506

A Quatrain on the Pool Behind the District Office in Qi-an 507

Egrets 507

At the Yangzi and Han 507

Sent to Judge Han Chuo in Yang-zhou 507

The Yellow River at Bian-zhou Blocked by Ice 508

A Quatrain Written on the Road 508

Other Voices in the Tradition 508 Si-kong Tu, The Pavilion of Revising History 508

Yu Xuan-ji (mid-9th century) 509

Selling Tattered Peonies 509

Visiting the Southern Tower of Chong-zhen Temple: Seeing Where the Recent Graduates of the Examination Have

Written Their Names 510

O n Yin-wu Pavilion 510

Li Shang-yin (813-858) 510

Left Untitled (second of two) 511

Left Untitled (one of four) 511

Again Passing the Shrine of the Goddess 512 Citadel of Sapphire Walls (first of three) 513

Midnight 514

Sunbeams Shoot 514

Frost and Moon 514

Chang E 515

Written During the Rain One Night and Sent Back North 515


Tang Tales (chuan-qi) 518

Two Tales of Keeping Faith 518

Shen Ji-ji (fl. ca. 800),“Ren,s Story” 518

Li Jing-liang (fl. 794), “Li Zhang-wu,s Story55 526

Two Tales of Faith Broken 531

Jiang Fang (fl. early 9th century), “Huo Xiao-yu,s Story” 531 Yuan Zhen (779-831),“Ying-ying’s Story” 540

The Song Dynasty


Traditions of Song Lyric (Tang and Song Dynasties) 559

Bowing to the New M oon (late 8th century, attributed to Li

Duan or Geng Wei) 560

Anonymous (Dun-huang), to “Bowing to the New M oon”

(Bai xin yue) (before 850) 560 Anonymous (Dun-huang), to “The Magpie Steps on the

Branch55 (Que ta zhi) > 561

Anonymous (Dun-huang), to “Washing Creek Sands”

(Huan xi sha) 562

Treatment of a Motif: The Drunken Husband's Return 562 Anonymous (8th century?), to “The Drunken Lord55 (Zui

gong-zi) 562

Anonymous (Dun-huang), to “Fisherman’s Lyrics” (Yu ge ci) 563 Wei Zhuang (834P-910), to “Immortal in Heaven” (Tian xian zi) 563

Xue Zhao-yun (early 10th century), to “The Drunken Lord”

(Zui gong-zi) 563

Yin E (early 10th century), to “The Drunken Lord”

(Zui gong-zi) 564

Anonymous (collected early 17th century), “Hanging

Branch Song,’ 564

Tang and Five Dynasties Lyrics 565

Huang-fu Song (early 9th century), to “Dream of the

Southland M (Meng Jiang-nan) 565

Wen Ting-yun (d. 870), to “Boddhisattva Barbarian”

(Pu-sa man) 565

He Ning (898-955), to “Mountain Flower” (Shan-hua-zi) 566

Wei Zhuang (ca. 836-910), to “Boddhisattva Barbarian”

(Pu-sa man) 566

Ou-yang Jiong (896-971), to “The South Country”

(Nan xiang zi) 567


Li Yu (937-978), to “Boddhisattva Barbarian” (Pu-sa man) 568 to “Pleasure in the Lovely W om an,’ (Yu mei-ren) 568 (attributed), to “The Pleasures of Meeting”

(Xiang-jicin huan) 569

The Party Songs of the Eleventh Century 569

Yan Shu (991-1055), to “Breaking Through the Ranks”

(Po zhen-zi) 569

to “Washing Creek Sands” (Huan xi sha) 570 Ou-yang X iu (1007-1072) (or Feng Yan-si), to “Butterflies

Love Flowers” (Die lian hua) 570

to KImmortal by the River,,(Lin-jiang xian) 570

The Songs of Romance 571

Yan Ji-dao (mid-llth-early 12th century), to “Butterflies

Love FlowersM (Die lian hua) 572

to “Partridge Weather” (Zhe-gu tian) (2 versions) 572 to “The Springtime of Marble Halls” (Yu-lou chun) 573 to “Young Ruan Returns” (Ruan lang gui) 573 Liu Yong (987-1053), to “Turning Back After Seeing the

Flowers” (Kan-hua hui) 574

to “Joy at Midnight” (Ye-ban le) 575

Zhou Bang-yan (1056-1121),to “Gallant” (Feng-liu-zi) 576

to ccSpring in the Mansion of Jade55 (Yu-lou chun) 577

Su Shi (1037-1101) 577

to “Song for the River Tune” (Shui-diao ge-fou) Sf7

to “Immortal by the River” (Lin-jiang xian) 578 to “Settling W ind and Waves” (Ding feng-bo) 578 to “The Charms of Nian-nuM (Nian-nii jiao): Meditation on

the Past at Red Cliff 579

Li Qing-zhao(1084-ca. 1151) / 580

Like a Dream (Ru meng ling) 580

to “Note After Note” (Sheng-sheng man) 581

to “Southern Song” (Nan-ge-zi) 581

to “Free-Spirited Fisherman” (Yu-jia ao) 582

The Early Southern Song 583

Lu You (1125-1210),to MPartridge Weather” (Zhe-gu tian) 583 X in Qi-ji (1140-1207),to “Clear and Even Music” (Qing-ping

yue). An account on the Censer Mountain Road 584 to KWest River M o o n ” (X i jiang yue). Expressing what was

on my mind 584

to “Ugly Slavew (Chou nu-er) 584

The Master Craftsmen 585

Jiang Kui (ca. 1155-1221), to “Red Filling the River,,

(Man jiang hong) 585


Shi Da-zu (fl. 1200), to “Scent of Lace” (Ji luo xiang). On

spring rain 587

W u Wen-ying (ca. 1200-ca. 1260), to “W ind Enters Pines”

(Feng ru song) 588

to “Night-Closing Flowers” (Ye he hua). Going along the

Crane River on my way to the capital, I moored at Feng

Gate and was moved to write this 589

to “Treading the Sedge” (Ta suo xing) 589 Interlude: Li Qing-zhaors Epilogue to Records on Metal

and Stone 591

C lassical Prose 597

Memorial 597

Han Yu (768-824),Memorial Discussing the Buddha’s Bone 598

Essay - 601

Liu Zong-yuan (773-819),A Theory of Heaven 601

Letters 603

Bo Ju-yi (772-846),Letter to Yuan Zhen (Yuan Wei-zhi) 603

Prefaces 605

Anonymous (member of Hui-yuan’s circle),A Preface for the

Poems Written on an Excursion to Stonegate 605 Han Yu, A Preface on Sending Li Yuan Back to

Winding Valley 607

Ou-yang X iu (1007-1072),Preface on Sending X u Wu-tang

O ff on His Way Home South 609

Accounts of Visits (you-ji) 610

Liu Zong-yuan, An Account of the Small Hill West of Gu-mu Pond {from the “Eight Accounts of Yong-zhou,’)

An Account of Little Rock Rampart Mountain (from the

“Eight Accounts of Yong-zhou”)

Ou-yang Xiu, An Account of the Pavilion of the Drunken Old M an

Funerary Genres

Cao Zhi (192-232), A Lament for Golden Gourd, Jin-hu Tao Qian, A Sacrificial Prayer for the t)ead on M y Own Behalf Parables

Liu Zong-yuan, “Three Cautionary Tales”: The Fawn of Lin-jiang

The Story of the Fuban, or Pack Beetle Informal Prose

Su Shi (1037-1101), Written 'After Seeing the Paintings of W u Dao-zi


Fu Shan (1609-1684), Colophon on the “Account of the Scarlet

Maple Tower’, 619

Place 620

The Master of Cold Mountain (Tang) 620

Su Shi, Account of a Visit to Lu Mountain (from The Forest

o f Records) 621

Account of Stone Bell Mountain 622

Thrills 624

Chao Bu-zhi (1053-1110), An Account of a Visit to North

Mountain at Xin-cheng 624

Cheng Min-zheng (ca. 1446-ca. 1500),Night Passage Over

Two Passes 625

People and Places 627

Wen Zheng-ming (1470-1559), Preface to the “Joint Collection of Poems on Seeking Plums on

Xuan-mu M ountain” 627

Ou-yang X iu (1007-1072),An Account of the Pavilion on

M ount Xian 629

A City: Yang-zhou 630

Du M u, Getting Something O ff M y M ind 631

Presented to Someone on Parting 631

Yang-zhou (first of three) 631

Written on Chan-zhi Temple in Yang-zhou 632 Zhang H u (9th century), Roaming Free in Huai-nan 632 Jiang Kui (1155-1221), to “Yang-zhou Andante” 632 Su Shi, to “M oon Over West River”: on Level Mountain Hall 633

Wei X i (1624-1680),An Account of the Reconstruction of

Level Mountain Hall 634

The Ornam ents of "Literati" Culture 637

Connoisseurship 637

Ou-yang X iu3 Seal Script in Stone (1045) 638 Su Shi, Shi Cang-shu’s “Hall of Drunken Ink” (1068) 640

O n the Paintings of Bamboo by Wen Tong in the

Collection of Chao Bu-zhi (first of three) 642 from “An Account of Wen Tong’s Paintings of the Slanted

Bamboo of Yun-dang Valley” 642

O n the Painting of Tiered Bluffs and the Misty River in the Collection of Wang Ding-guo (1088) 643 Wang An-shi (1021-1086),M y Brother Wang Chun-fu Brings Out a

Painting by the M onk Hui-chong and Engages Me to


from Ou-yang Xiu, Remarks on Poetry (Shi-hua) 646

Su Shi, “Some Time Ago in Chen Han-qing,s House

in Chang-an. ■ _ 647

Ordinary Things 649

Mei Yao-chen (1002-1060),A Companion Piece to Xie Jing-chu’s “Spending the Night in M y "Wife’s Study,

Hearing Mice, and Being Greatly Troubled” 649 In the Rain, Spending the Night in the Library of Messrs.

Xie, Xu, and Pei 650

At a Party Given by Fan Zhong-yan the Guests Spoke of

Eating “River-Hog,” or the Blowfish 650 Yang Wan-li (1127-1206),A Child Playing with Ice 651

Watching Ants 651

Su Shi, Thirteen Companion Pieces for Wen Tong’s “Garden

Pool in Yang-zhou55: Bridge Over the Lake 652

Yang Wan-li, June 10,1177, Traveling by Boat to Take Up

M y Post at Pi-ling . . . 652

Su Shi, East Slope 652

.Lu You (1125-1210),Snowy Night 653

Drawing Water from the Well and Making Tea 653 Zhou M i (1232-1298),“Sunning Oneself” (from ,

Qi-dong ye-yu) 654

Chao Duan-you (11th century), Spending the Night at an Inn

Outside the West Gate of Ji-zhou 656

Huang Ting-jian (1045-1105),August 17,Sleeping in Daytime 656

Pastoral Scenes 656

He Z hu (1063—1120),A W alk in the Wilds 657 Kong Ping-zhong (d. after 1101),The Grain Is Ripe 657

Ou-yang Xiu, Ox 657

Fan Cheng-da (1126-1191),A Description of Walking in the

Meadows on Cold Food Festival (first of two) 657 Lu You, Visiting West-of-the-Mountain Village 658

Walking in the Wilds 658

Fan Cheng-da, Various Occasions of Interest in the Fields and

Gardens Through the Four Seasons 659

X V 659 X X X I 659 X X X III 659 X L 659 X LIV 659 T.TT 660 W it 660

Yang Wan-li, Strolling Along a Juniper Path in the Morning

(second of two) 660


Lu You, O n the Three Peaks of Magic Stone Mountain 660

Plum Blossoms III (1202) 661

Yang Wan-li, For Play 661

Coda: Self-Consciousness 661

Lu You, Meeting a Gentle Rain on the Sword-Gate Pass

Road (1172) 661

In Moonlight 662

Su Shi (1037-1101) — 663

Account of the Hall of Precious Artworks 663

to “Fragrance Fills the Yard” (Man-ting fang) 665

Account of the Terrace “Passing Beyond” 665

Getting Up at Night in a Boat (1079) 667 Visiting White Waters. Written for my son Su Mai (from The

Forest o f Notes) 668

Account of a Visit One Night to Cheng-tian Temple (from The

Forest o f Notes) 668

O n the Winter Festival I Visited Lone Mountain and the Two

Monks Hui-jin and Hui-si (1071) 669

Account of a Visit to Pine River (from The Forest o f Notes) 670

The Ocean Mirage at Deng-zhou (1085) 672 Companion Pieces to Chen Xiang’s “Peonies on a Winter Day”

(1073) (first of four) 673

from “Eight Poems on Eastern Slope” (1081) 674 The Second Poetic Exposition on Red Cliff 675 to “Down and O ut D runk” (Zui luo-po), Written on Leaving

Jing-kou 676

Tong-chao Tower at Zheng-mai Station (1100) 677

Crossing the Sea, June 20,1100 677

Relationships 678

A Companion Piece to Su Che’s teThoughts of Former Times at

Mian-chi” 678

[Ou-yang Xiu], O n the Carved Stone Screen of W u Kui,the

Han-lin Academician (1056) 679

Ou-yang Xiu Asks Me to Write a Poem on a Stone Screen That

He Owns (1071) 680

An Account of the Pavilion for Setting the Cranes Free 681

Song Classical Poetry 684

Ou-yang Xiu (1007-1072) 684

O n the Pavilion of the Drunken O ld M an in Chu-zhou 685 A Companion Piece to Liu Chang,s “Clear Heart Paper” 686 Boating on West Lake: to Zhang Shan, Academician and Fiscal

Commissioner 687

White Egret 688


Mei Yao-chen (1002-1060) 688 A Lone Hawk Over the Buddha Tower of the Monastery of

Universal Purity 688

Writing of M y Sorrow 690

Listening to a Neighbor Singing at Night 690

O n March 26,1048,I Had a Dream 690

Crescent M oon 691

W ang An-shi (1021-1086) 691

The Temple of Shooting Stars 691

Meditation on the Past at Jin-ling III 692

Climbing Bao-gong Pagoda 692

Wu-zhen Monastery 693

One Day Coming Home: Ballad (on the death of his wife) 693

Huang Ting-jian (1045-1105) 693

Following the Rhymes of Huang Da-lin’s “Sent to Su Che” 694

To Huang Ji-fu 694

Asking for a Cat 695

Lu You (1125-12 1 0) . 695

Small Garden J 695

Gazing in the Evening North of M y Cottage 696

End of Spring (1197) 696

Lonely Cloud 697

Song of Draft Cursive 697

For M y Sons ' 698

Yang Wan-li (1127,-1206) 698

Yan Ji-sheng, Chancellor of Education, Invited His Junior

Colleagues to Visit the Pei Garden … 698 During an Intercalary August After the “Arrival of Autumn”

It Was Hot in Evening and I Went to Be CoqI in the

Prefectural Garden (first of two) 699

One Day Before New Year’s Eve, While Returning by Boat,

We Moored at Qu-wo Market, and I Spent the Night in

Zhi-ping Temple 699

Just Before the Mid-March 1164 Festival, I Heard That My

Father Was not Feeling W e ll. . . (first of two) 700 Two Companion Pieces for Li Tian-lin (first of two) 700 Ten Stanzas on the Autumn Rain (one of ten) 700 March 5, 1180. In early morning crossing on the Great Marsh

ferry (first of two) 701

Going to the Palace Library Early in the Morning with the

Crescent M oon Just Rising 701


Coda 702 Wang Yuan-liang, Songs of Hu-zhou (third of ninety-eight) 702 to “Leaves of a Thousand Lotuses” (Qiau-he ye) 703 Interlude: W en Tian-xiang (1236-1282) and the Fall of

the Song 704

from The Account of the Compass (Zhi-nan lu) 705

The Yuan and Ming Dynasties


Yuan Vernacular Song 728

Guan Han-qing (late 13th-early 14th century), to “A Spray of Flowers” (Not Giving In to Old Age) 729 Zhong Si-cheng (14th century), from a song sequence to “A

Spray of Flowers” (A Word About Ugly Studio) 731 X u Zai-si (14th century), to “Dead Drunk in the East W ind”

(Chen-zui dong-feng) 734

Bo Pu (1226-after 1306),to “Victory Music” (De sheng yue) 735 Qiao Ji (d. 1345), to Lii-yao-bian, O f Myself 735 Wang He-qing (late 13th century), to “Heaven Drunk”

(Zui'zhong Tian),Big Butterfly 736 to “Helped Home Drunk” (Zui fu gui) 736 Lan Chu-fang (14th century?), to “Four Pieces of Jade”

(Si-kuai yu)} Passion 736

Guan Han-qing, to “A H alf” (Yi-ban-er) 737 X u Zai-si, to “M oon Palace” (Chan-gong qu), Spring Passion 737 Zhang Ke-jiu (ca. 1280-after 1348),to “Someone Leaning on

the Balustrade” (Ping-lan ten), By the Lake 738 Guan Yun-shi (1286-1324), to “Clear River” (Qing-jiang yin) 738 Zhang Yang-hao (1270-1329),to “Sheep on the Hillside”

(Shan-po yang), Thoughts on the Past at Tong Pass 738 4 Anon., to “Drunk in an Age of Peace” (Zui tai-ping) 739 *

Ma Zhi-yuan (1260-1325) 739

to “Heaven Pure Sand” (Tian jing sha),Autumn Thoughts 740 to “Shou-yang Melody” (Shou-yang qu)9 Clearing Haze at a

Market in the Hills 740 *

to “Shou-yang Melody” (Shou-yang qu),A Sail Returns to the

Distant Shore 740

to KShou-yang Melody” (Shou-yang qu)3 Evening Bells in a

Misty Temple 740

to “Shou-yang Melody” (Shou-yang qu)y Evening Sunshine in


to “Shou-yang Melody” (Shou-yang qu),Autumn Moonlight

on Lake Dong-ting 741

A Suite on Autumn Thoughts 741

I. to “A Boat Going by Night” (Ye xing cbuan) 741 II. to “Tall Trees Far Away” (Qiao-mu yao) 742 III. to “Celebrating the Xuan-he Reign” (Q ing Xuan-he) 742 IV. to “The W ind That Brings Down Plum Blossoms”

(Luo-mei-feng) 742

V. to “W ind Enters Pines” (Feng ru song) 742 VI. to “Keep Stirring Things U p,’ (Bo-bu-duan) 742 VII. to “Feast at the Pavilion of Parting” (Li-ting yan sha) 743

Variety Plays: G uan Han-qing, Rescuing One o f the Girls

(fiu feng-chen)


from The Romance o f the Gods (Feng-shen yan-yi): Ne-zha

and His Father 771

Episode XII: Ne-zha Is Born into the World at Chen-tang Pass 772 Episode XIII: The High Immortal Unity Catches

Rock-in-the-Stream 784

Episode X IV: The Reincarnation of Ne-zha from a*

Lotus Blossom , ^ 794

Late M ing Informal Prose 807

Li Zhi (1527-1602),“O n the Child-Mind” ^ 808 Yuan Hong-dao (1568-1610), O n Chen Zheng-fu’s Collected

Works, Intuitive Grasp Bll

Spider-Fighting 812

Letter to Li Zi-ran 813

Letter to Q iu Chang-ru 814

Tu Long (1542-1605), From the capital, to a Friend 814 Chen Ji-ru (1558-1639),A Colophon for “The History

of Flowers” r 815

Zhang Dai (1597-1679),Night Theater on Gold Mountain

(“The Dream Recollections of Tao-anw) 815 Mid-September on West Lake (“The Dream Recollections

ofTao-an”) 816

Viewing the Snow from “Heart of the Lake Pavilion” (“The Dream Recollections of Tao-an ’,) 818

The Performance of Peng Tian-xi (“The Dream Recollections

ofT'ao-ati” ) 818

Preface to “Tracing West Lake in a Dream” 819

Belatedness 820

Yuan Zhong-dao (1570-1623), A Preface to “Poetry of the

Song and Yuan55 821


Diary 823 Yuan Zhong-dao, from wAccount of M y Travels in Fei” 824 Wang Xiu-chu, from “Ten Days of Yang-zhou” 826 Vernacular Stories: Feng Meng-long and Lang-xian 8 3 4 、

Feng Meng-long (1574-1646), “Du Tenth Sinks the Jewel Box in Anger” (from Common Words to Warn the World,

translated by Robert Ashmore) 835

Lang-xian, “Censor Xue Finds Immortality in the Guise of a Fish” (from Constant Words to Awaken the World,

translated by Robert Ashmore) 856

Tang Xian-zu,

Peony Pavilion:

Selected Acts 880

An Introductory Comment on Peony Pavilion 881

Waking Suddenly from Dream (X) 882

Looking Over the Portrait (XXVI) 892

Secret Union (XXVIII) 896

The Qing Dynasty


Li Yu, Silent Operas (Wu-sheng xi): "A n Actress Scorns W ealth and Honor to Preserve Her Chastity" (translated by

Patrick Hanan)


Kong Shang-ren,

Peach Blossom Fan:

Selected Acts 942

Prologue (I),October 1684 943

Teaching the Song (II),April 1643 946

Refusing the Trousseau (VII), May 1643 953 Sending the Fan (XXIII), January 1645 960

from “Accepting the Way” (XL), September 1645 968

H ong Sheng (1605-1704), The Palace of Lasting Life:

Selected Acts 973

Prologue and Argument (I) 975

Declaration of Love (II) 976

Bribe (III) 983

Outing on a Spring Holiday (V) 988

Omen (X) 995

The Music (XI) 1002

Melody-Theft (XIV) 1008

Bringing Her Fruit (XV) 1014


Peeking at the Bathers (XXI) 1028

Secret Pledge (XXII) 1033

Jade Burial (XXV) 1041

Gift of a Meal (XXVI) 1048

Denouncing the Rebel (XXVIII) 1054

Bells (X XIX ) io59

Stocking-Viewing (XXXVI) 1063

The Corpse Released (XXXVII) 1067

Ballad (X X X V m ) 臟

The Immortars Recollections (XL) 1087

Reunion (L) 1091

Pu Song-ling (1640-1715), Liao-zhai's Record o f Wonders 1103

Lian-xiang 110 3

Xiao-cui 1 1 1 3

Blue M aid 1120

Qing Classical Poetry and Song Lyric


Cu Yan-wu (1613-1682) 1129

Autumn Hills (first of two) 1130

Wu Wei-ye (1609-1671) ( ‘ m o

Escaping the Fighting (fifth of six) ' 1131 Escaping the Fighting (last of six) 1131 A Lament for M y Daughter (first of three) 1132

West Fields (first of four) 1133

Mooring in the Evening 1133

from Thoughts Stirred on Meeting the Gardener of the Royal

Academy in Nanjing 1134

Wang Shi-zhen (1634-1711} 1135

Crossing the Ancient Barrier Pass in the Rain (1672) 1135 On the Ba River Bridge: Sent Home to M y Wife (second

of two) 1135

Farm Home by Cu-lai Mountain 1136

• O n the Qing-yang Road 1136

What I Saw on the Northern Outskirts of Zhen-zhou 1136 At Daybreak I Crossed the Ping-jiang River and Climbed on

Foot to the Summit of Crossing-Above-Clouds Mountain 1136

Nara Singde (1655-1685) 1137

to “Like a Dream” (Ru meng ling) 1137

to KClear and Even Music” (Qing-ping yue) 1137 to “Seeking Fragrant Plants” (Xun fang-cao), Account of a

Dream in Xiao Temple 1138

to (tGolden Threads55 (Jin4ii qu)3 Thoughts on the Anniversary

of M y Wife’s Death 1138


to “Like a Dream” (Ru meng ling) 1139 to ltButterflies Love Flowers” (Die lian hua)3 On the Frontier 1139

Zhao Yi (1727-1814) 1140

Poems on My Dwelling in the Rear Park (second of nine) 1140 Poems on M y Dwelling in the Rear Park (third of nine) 1140

Returning on Yang Lake 1141

Local Song 1141

In Bed 1142

Livelihood 1143

O n Poetry (two of five) 1143

Huang Jing-ren (1749-1783) 1144

Written at Night at an Inn in the Hills (second and third

of three) 1144

[title lo s t] ' 1144

Visiting Ju-fa-yuan Temple with Wang Qiu-cheng and

Zhang He-chai 1145

A Companion Piece to a Poem by Qian Bai-quan 1145

Dreaming of a Friend One Night 1145

Offhand Compositions: New Year’s Eve 1774 1146

Gong Zi-zhen (1792-1841) 1146

Poems of the Year ]i-hai, 1839 1147

V 1147

L X X X V I 1147

C X X V 1147

C L X X 1148

Another Repentance 1148

From Spring to Autumn of 1827 Some Things Came to Me

Which I Wrote Down Haphazardly (last of fifteen) 1148

Huang Zun-xian (1848-1905) 1149

O n Reaching Hong Kong 1149

Various Responses on an Ocean Voyage (one of fourteen) 1150

Q iu Jin (1879-1907) 1150

Mr. Ishii of Japan Seeks a Matching Verse (using his rhymes) 1150 O n the Yellow Sea: A M an from Japan Sought Some Verses

and Also Showed Me a M ap of the Russo-Japanese W ar 1151

W ang Guo-wei (1877-1927) 1151

to “Putting on Lipstick” (Dian jiang chun) 1152 to “Washing Creek Sands” (Huan xi sha) 1152

Selected Further Readings 1153

Acknowledgments 1165




Founding of the Zhou Dynasty 1020 b.c. West­ ern Zhou

Zhou capital moved east, beginning of the Eastern Zhou and the period of The Springs and Autumns o f Lu (Chun-qiu) 770b.c.

Confucius ca. 552-479 B.C.

Beginning of the Warring States period 403 b.c.

Period of the "Hundred Schools" of Chinese thought

Q in unification 221 b.c.

Fall of Q in 206 b.c.

Beginning of Western Han

Reign of Emperor Wu of Han 140-86 b.c.

Establishment of the Music Bureau (yue-fu) 120


Chinese expansion into Centra丨 Asia Usurpation of Wang Mang 8 b.c.

Restoration of Han and beginning of the Eastern Han a.d. 25

Buddhism introduced into China 1st century Jian-an reign (196-220). Power in North China

in the hands of Cao Cao

Formal end of the Han and beginning of the Three Kingdoms (220-265)

Jin Dynasty reunifies China 280

North China falls to non-Chinese invaders 316; the Jin court is reestablished south of the Yangzi. Beginning of the Southern Dynasties



the “Temple Hymns” of the Classic of Poetry (Shi-jing) and the earliest sections of the Classic of Documents (Shu~jing)

Classic of Poetry reaches its final form ca.

600 b.c.

The Zuo Tradition

Zhuang Zhou and the early chapters of the


Qu Yuan (ca. 340-299 B.C.) and the traditional date of the H Lyrics of Chu”


Schemes of the Warring States (Zhan-guo ce)

“Mao Commentary” to the Classic of Poetry

Jia Yi (200-168 B.C.), poetic expositions and essays

Mei Sheng (d. 140 b.c.)

? poetic expositions attributed to Song Yu poetic expositions (fu) of Si-ma Xian-ru (179—


Historical Records of Si-ma Qian (ca. 154—87 B.C.)

final form of the wGreat Preface” to the

Classic of Poetry

Ban Gu (a.d. 32-92), The Han History period of anonymous yue-fu and “old poems” ?

Wang Can (177-217), poet Cao Cao (155-220),ruler and poet Cao Zhi (192-232), poet and Cao Cao's son

Ruan Ji (210-263), poet and recluse Lu Ji (261-303). “The Poetic Exposition on


Wang Xi-zhi, Preface to the t( Orchid Pavilion Poems” 353


Rise of the influence of Buddhism and major projects of sutra translation

Sui conquers Chen and reunifies China 589 Tang Dynasty founded 618

Reign ofXuan-zong (712-756), the "High Tang" Tang wars in Central Asia

An Lu-shan Rebellion 755 The "Mid-Tang"

The "Late Tang"

Fall of the Tang 906; beginning of the "Five Dynasties"

Song Dynasty reunifies China 960

Initial development of Neo-Confucianism Enactment of Wang An-shi's "New Laws"

policy 1069

Commercial and state-sponsored printing

Jin invaders capture the two Song emperors and the Song is reestablished in the South 1127 Zhu Xi (1130-1200), Neo-Confucian

philosopher and commentator on the Classics

Hang-zhou, the Southern Song capital, flourishes with major development of commercial printing

Tao Qian (365-427), poet and recluse Xie Lingyun (385-433), landscape poet Bao Zhao (ca. 414-466), poet

Liu Xie (ca. 465-522),critic and author of

Wett-xin diao-long

the poetry of the Southern courts Yu Xin (513-581), poet

Meng Hao-ran (ca. 689-740),poet Wang Wei (ca. 699-761), poet Li Bo (701-762), poet Du Fu (712—770),poet Tang tales (chuan-qi)

Meng Jiao (751-814),poet Li He (791-817), poet

Liu Zong-yuan (773-819), essayist Han Yu (768-824), poet and essayist Yuan Zhen (779-831), poet and author of

“Ying-ying,s Story”

Bo Ju-yi (772-846) poet, “Song of Lasting Pain”

Du Mu (803-852), poet Li Shang-yin (813-858), poet Yu Xuan-ji, poet

Wen Ting-yun (d. 870),poet and early lyricist

Wei Zhuang (ca. 836-910), poet and lyricist Li Yu (937-978), last emperor of the

Southern Tang, lyricist

Liu Yong (987-1053), popular lyricist Yan Shu (991-1055), lyricist

Mei Yao-chen (1002-1060),poet

Ou-yang Xiu (1007-1072)

poet, lyricist, and essayist

Wang An-shi (1021-1086), poet and statesman

Su Shi (1037—1101)

poet, lyricist, essayist, painter, calligrapher

Yan Ji-dao, lyricist

Huang Ting-jian (1045-1105), poet Zhou Bang-yan (1056-1121), lyricist Li Qing-zhao (1084-ca. 1151), lyricist,

Epilogue to Records on Metal and Stone

Fan Cheng-da (1126-1191), poet Yang Wan-li (1127-1206), poet Xin Qi-ji (1140-1207), lyricist Lu You (1125-1210), poet and lyricist Jiang Kui (1155-1221), lyricist


Fall of the Southern Song; the Yuan reunifies China 1279

Fall of the Yuan; founding of the Ming 1368 Archaists, advocating imitation of earlier

models, dominate classical literature, provoking reaction and growing interest in vernacular literature

Fall of the Ming; founding of the Qing 1644

Compilation of the Complete Tang Poetry 1705

Opium War begins 1840

Tai-ping tian-guo Rebellion 1850-60s Boxer Rebellion begins 1899

Fall of the Qing; establishment of the Republic 1911

Wen Tian-xiang (1236-1282), The Account of the Compass

Yuan vernacular song

Guan Han-qing,s variety play, Rescuing One of the Girls

Li Zhi (1527-1602), philosopher Yuan Hong-dao (1568-1610), poet and


Tang Xian-zu (1550-1617),Peony Pavilion The Romance of the Gods (16th century)

“Ten Days of Yang-zhou” (1645) by Wang Xiu-chu

Feng Meng-long (1574-1646), story writer and collector of vernacular literature Lang-xian, story writer, “Censor Xue Finds

Immortality in the Guise of a Fish” Wu Wei-ye (1609-1671), poet Zhang Dai (1597-1679),essayist

Li Yu (1611-1680), “An Actress Scorns Wealth and Honor . . . ” 1

Gu Yan-wu (1613-1682), poet and scholar Wang Shi-zhen (1634-1711), poet Nara Singde (1655-1685), lyricist

Pu Song-ling* (1640-1715), Liao-zhai’s Record of Wonders

final vefsion of The Palace of Lasting Life

(1688) by Hong Sheng

Peach Blossom Fan (1699) by Kong Shang-


Wu Jing-zi (1701-1754)

novelist, author of

The Scholars (published 1803)

Cao Xue-qin (1715-1763), novelist, author of Story of the Stone

Zhao Yi (1727-1814),poet Huang Jing-ren (1749-1783),poet Gong Zi-zhen (1792-1841), poet

first publication of Story o f the Stone (1791) Huang Zun-xian (1848-1905), poet and


Qiu Jin (1879-1907), poet and revolutionary Wang Guo-wei (1877-1927), poet, scholar,

and Qing loyalist

May 4 movement (1919) advocating the use of the vernacular in all writing



The Chinese literary tradition extends continuously from early in the first millennium

b.c. to the present. It was until very recently the basis of all Chinese reading, and a

literate adolescent could read all but the earliest works in this tradition with little difficulty, if not always with perfect accuracy. The tradition's growing body of works—the classics, philosophy, history, and literature— unified Chinese civiliza­ tion through its long history and across regional divisions of language.

As was true of ancient civilizations in general, what we now call literature was initially inseparable from history and thought. The stories of legendary heroes were neither history nor fiction in the modern sense, but the beginning of both: the "philosopher's" fantastic speculations admitted no clear differentiation between ver­ bal invention and thought; and the lyric poem was considered the embodiment of moral and historical truths.

A sense of "literature" as a category of writing distinct from thought did even­ tually begin to take shape, although it was not always "literature" in the same way we use the term in the twentieth century. Like our own concept, the scope and de­ finition of Chinese literature changed over the centuries. Poetry and non-fiction (in­ cluding essays, letters, and even political documents) were considered serious lit­ erature; novels and prose fiction were not fully accepted as true literature until the last century in China— nor in England and Europe, for that matter. Drama, though immensely popular and sophisticated, acquired only marginal legitimacy in China. Yet these works, both "high literature" and the popular genres of fiction and drama, were perhaps the most beloved component of the textual unity of Chinese civiliza­ tion. A nineteenth-century merchant, a Buddhist monk, and a Confucian official may have held profoundly different values; the nature and depth of their educations may have differed greatly; but all three would probably have known, loved, and memo­ rized a few of the same poems by Li Bo. They would have memorized the poems as children and recited them throughout their lives when the occasion seemed ap­ propriate.

Although the literary tradition was a unifying force, it was far from monolithic. Broadly defined, Chinese literature offered its people a wide range of human possi­ bilities and responses. Literature could confirm social values, twist them, or subvert them altogether. The eighth-century poet Du Fu provided a Confucian voice of prin­ cipled response to dynastic upheaval and social suffering. When Wen Tian-xiang, the captured hero of the Song resistance to the Mongol invasion, awaited his exe­ cution in Da-du, modern Beijing, he passed his time in prison composing poems made up of memorized lines of Du Fu rearranged. Later, when the Manchus con­ quered China in the mid-seventeenth century, Du Fu's poetry provided a model for how to give an account of the human suffering that was caused. Likewise, if a per­


son felt expansive, there were the poems of Li Bo; if a person hungered for the sim­ ple life, there was the poetry of Tao Qian and Wang Wei; if a person was in love, there was the poetry of Li Shang-yin or Tang Xian-zu's play, Peony Pavilion. Popu­

lar literature in vernacular Chinese, especially prose fiction, also could represent the impulses that the civilization repressed. A person might believe that a son owed ab­ solute obedience to his father, but that same person as a reader could enjoy read­ ing in The Romance of the Gods how the divine child Ne-zha chased down his fa­

ther with murderous intent.

Readers of another age and culture often have the impulse to identify some uni­ tary "Chineseness" in this literature~perhaps isolating the image of an old fisher­ man in the misty mountains uttering words of Daoist wisdom. This imaginary China is constructed out of the motives and history of outside cultures; it is important to see this simplified image as such, and to recognize the immense diversity of tradi­ tional China throughout its long history.

One of the most distorting elements of the conventional Western image of tra­ ditional China is the belief in its changelessness. There were indeed continuities in the culture and no sense of profound alienation from the past until the twentieth cen­

tury, but in both fact and self-image, traditional China was intensely "historical, each historical period characterized by its distinctive personality. Indeed, the reader's a w a re n e ss o f th e p erio d o f w h ic h he o r she w a s re a d in g w a s an im p o rtan t part o f the reading experience. Viewed from a large perspective, these works were part of a ongoing creation of a myth of Chinese cultural history.

There is a vast body of premodern Chinese literature, as befits a very large and old country that also had extensive commercial printing many centuries before Eu­ rope. Even an anthology such as the present one cannot hope to encompass its im­ pressive size; but it can accomplish the critically important task of recreating the fam­ ily of texts and voices that make up a "tradition" rather than simply collecting some of the more famous texts and arranging them in chronological order.

Vernacular and Classical

Written vernacular Chinese first appeared in Buddhist stories for performance be­ fore illiterate audiences who could not have understood classical Chinese. The real

birth of vernacular literature, however, occurred in the thirteenth century, when com­ mercial publishers sought to capitalize on the popularity of storytelling and theater in the great cities. Publications of drama and fiction tried to catch the lively cadences of the spoken language with linguistic usages that were strictly excluded from clas­ sical Chinese. Thereafter classical Chinese was used for poetry, essays, and some prose fiction, while vernacular was used for fiction, drama, and popular song.

The inevitable changes in language that occurred across millennia tended to enter Chinese written literature by accretion. The literary form of Chinese known as "classical" Chinese took its basic shape in the last three centuries B.C., and contin­ ued to evolve until the present century through new usages, syntax, and forms of ar­ gument. Although the influence of the evolving spoken language made itself felt in subtle ways, "classical" Chinese grew increasingly distant from it. As early as the



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