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INTRODUCTION

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Homothallism: an umbrella term for describing diverse sexual behaviours

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CONVENTIONAL CATEGORIES OF

HOMOTHALLISM

Primary homothallism

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MAT genes

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A. nidulans

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AspergillusA. parasiticus

A. fumigatus% MAT1-1-1 MAT1-2-1 gene9et al.566"Q]et al.

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Pseudohomothallism

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æ!6 z N. tetrasperma are

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MATING TYPE SWITCHING

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Bidirectional Mating Type Switching

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MAT1-1 MATY?

MAT1-2 MATa

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Fig. 1./ %

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Primary homothallism: V

MAT

in Aspergillus nidulansPseudohomothallism:

@. N $ seen in Neurospora tetraspermaBidirectional

mating type switching: G

V $$ %

Saccharomyces cerevisiaeUnidirectional mating

type switching:G

$ $ V ? % $ V mating system is seen in Chromocrea spinulosa

Unisexual reproduction:G

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Unidirectional Mating Type Switching

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Glomerella, Sclerotinia‰!"46U !"45 ZIWŒ!"E_;!"E#9 IU>!""# ‰ et al.5666‰ et al.56!7V% $ %

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seen in Chromocrea spinulosa % .

V $ N % N % / %*I9 566#>% ‰ % ç% ? % > % % ‰I* !"_#*!"7_

UNISEXUALITY– AN UNUSUAL FORM OF

HOMOTHALLISM

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? Neurospora species,

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% mat A MAT1-1

mat a MAT1-2] et al. !""6 @ I !""6 .

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N. africana

V? % $ $

MAT ] I @ !""7 N %

. with the N. africana mat A ? . ] I @ !""7 V % . ?

mat A?

The mating strategy in N. africana % $ N % % N %

$ MAT1-1

MAT1-2

$ V ‰ ? $ $

MAT$

et al.56!7KW!

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Cryptococcus neoformans * et al. 5664 W O I 9 56!_ > et al. 56!_ V . O $

†.† $

* et al. 5664 Z$

> C. neoformans

% {"" z

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% %$

.$ †

a % % 2.G

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‰ et al.!""FV   % N O $ % $ ? *

et al.5664

V$C. neoformans via

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? U

* et al. 5664 V

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† G?

$ $ V $ O ? $ ; et al.56!_

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‰ et al.56!4Ceratocystidaceae

% Ceratocystis+ et al.56!7 Z$

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$ $ $

/ . H. omanensis,

% U/V.! U/V.5 $ $ @ $

MAT1-2

% ‰ et al.56!4

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N. africana % ? % 9% %

$ Neurospora species

O % $ % % ] et al.!""6]I@ !""7 et al.56!7 W Cryptococcus neoformans

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CONCLUSIONS

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the MAT1 ?

$

Z$ ? % N $ % in H. moniliformis ? %

V . $% $ $ % W $

Cryphonectria parasitica

% Cryphonectriaceae

DothideomycetesUet al!""_G % $ œ

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$ via

% % N % et al.56!7

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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REFERENCES

/ <2 9 W 566# ‰ $ [

N[ Sex in Fungi: molecular determination and

evolutionary implication 9 ` 2 `‰ V `‰

G */[45#­4_7‰ <G[/@ U;

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460[E"6­E"_

/*U!"_79 %%. . Pleurage anserinaMycologia 26[ _"5­7!7

+ >; @ U* ] >* !""7 U O . Neurospora,

Gelasinospora AnixiellaMycological Research98[!_6"­!_!F + ` `/< 566_ G $

in Candida albicans

EMBO Journal22[5464­54!4

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Arianta arbustorumJournal of Zoology232[7F4­7#!

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<+Q!"5#> NeurosporaJournal of Agricultural Research35[5E"­_64

< +Q !"4# Neurospora ? Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club

84[!E5­!EE

<S@!"__Gelasinospora

Canadian Journal of Research9[5"7­_64

W OU9 `56!_] %$

$ Cryptococcus neoformansPLoS

Genetics9[!66_FEE

]`SG%@SGGU*`‰ `et al.5664

@? Aspergillus nidulans %

with A. fumigatusA. oryzaeNature438[!!64­!!!4 ] >* ] ` U O * !""6Neurospora

crassa / . Proceedings of the National

Academy of Sciences, USA87[7"!5­7"!F

]>*U O*Œ>+!""69 Sordariaceae

[ a mating

?Experimental Mycology14[5#7­5E"

] >* @ U* !""7 @ . Neurospora africana

Molecular and General Genetics244[76!­76"

9 `S !""E U . Saccharomyces cerevisiaeAnnual Review of Genetics32[4F!­4""

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Saccharomyces cerevisiaeGenetics191[__­F7

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Current Genetics32[45­4"

9+‰O.;`9GN566"@$

' $.Aspergillus

parasiticusFungal Genetics and Biology46[!F"­!#4

9GU`/<!"""N .

$ Candida albicansScience285[

!5#!­!5#4

2 `‰ @ G !""# U

Annual Review of Genetics31[574­5#F

2.G2`!"#FUFilobasidiella neoformans, $ Cryptococcus neoformansMycologia 68[ E5!­E__

2.G 2` + `S !"#E < è a mating

Cryptococcus neoformans

American Journal of Epidemiology 108[__#­_76 *<$`‰+<‰U`56!4X

% . . Ceratocystis albifundus

Plant Pathology[[!6!!!!\!5_7"

* ‹ 9 ` 566# U

N[Sex

in Fungi: molecular determination and evolutionary implication 9 `2 `‰V`‰G */[_4­4# ‰ <G[/@ U; * ‹ 9 GU 9 ` 5664 @$

Cryptococcus neoformans

Nature 434[!6!#­!65!

* GG * ] !"7_ @

Saccharomyces cerevisiaeAnnals of the Missouri Botanical Garden30[74_­7FE

* GG * ] !"77 N

SaccharomycesAnnals of the Missouri Botanical

Garden31[56_­5!F

U U !"45 /

Chromocrea spinulosa W; Annals of Botany

16[77"­7FE

U @V > U/ ` <` > % <Q !""F

; % .

Neurospora tetraspermaGenetics143[#E"­#"" U U] * @S S / * G !""_ S

Cryphonectria parasiticaHeredity70[_E4­_"5

> 2/!"E5U Annual Review of Genetics16[7_"­466

> 2/V 2!"E6V Cell19[#4_­#F7

>566F‰$œScience311["F6­"F!

> U W O U * ‰ W./% / UO ;et

al. 56!_ Z$ $

% de novo in the yeast Cryptococcus neoformansPLoS Biology11[!66!F4_ >UW OU@@‰‹9 `56!!@$

Annual Review of Genetics45[764­7_6

> @U ` /< 566# ] Candida albicans, a

Annual Review of Genetics41[ !"_­5!!

Q] GU W 9V < ;@ 566" <% $

Aspergillus fumigatus

Nature457[7#!­7#7

; ` 56!4 S% O

Molecular Ecology24[56!E­56_#

; U@W//U`2>G%/Uet al.566# U . Aspergillus nidulansCurrent Biology17[!_E7­!_E" ;<<!"E#U .

Genetics115[5!4­5!F

;@@W OU9 `56!_Z$ % $ via Eukaryotic Cell

12[!!44­!!4"

;˜ @ @ 2‘ Z QO 9< !""# U . Sordaria macrospora are

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147[4F#­4E6

; % ] `/ 9 */ U< <2 + ‰` !"4_ V Aspergillus nidulansAdvances in Genetics5[!7!­5_E

Œ>+!""5W

Neurospora tetraspermaMycological

Research96[!6_­!!F

2 W O U @ @ 9 ` 56!7 Z$

Advances in Genetics85[544­_64

*> 2 /* ` 566_ V

Saccharomyces

cerevisiaeAnnual Review of Biochemistry72[7E!­4!F @OO G 56!7 W .

Fungal Biology and Biotechnology1[#

@<Gª ;‰ U+ `566#+ %

in Candida albicans

Eukaryotic Cell6["6#­"!E

@ G G !""6Neurospora crassa .

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA

87[7"!#­7"5!

V%.9–O U/ U|O > @.+– ` 566"

Branchiomma bairdi[

. ]GPolychaeta[SabellidaeMarine Biodiversity Records2[7_

V+]Q5666;

Fungal Genetics and Biology

31[!­4

Z ` WΠ9 !"E_ 9

Sclerotinia trifoliorumPhytopathology73[4F"J4#5

‰ G.* @ ‰.+ @ +< 56!6 Aspergillus nidulans

@ @ / $ % O

Fungal Genetics and Biology 47[

#E"­#""

‰ + S !"F# V . . " Mycologia

59[5!5­55!

‰ 9 !"46 ] Glomerella XNNN/ American Journal of Botany

37[_67­_!5

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‰+*UUSSZS`G!""F<

Cryptococcus neoformans[

Proceedings of the National Academy

of Sciences, USA93[#_5#­#__!

‰ ;U @ SV ‰ U` < + ‰ ‰ +< 56!7 <>/ "

. PloS One9["5!E6

‰/] V%> U/‰;U‰U`

et al. 56!4 Z$ Huntiella moniliformis

Fungal Genetics and Biology80[!­"

‰ Q * Q !"_# Q Saccharomyces

. Comptes Rendus des Travaux du

Laboratoire Carlsberg22[""­!!#

‰ G 9 VG ‰ +< @ `; ‰ U` 5666 < MAT-2 . . . CeratocystisCurrent Genetics38[7E­45

@.9 + U* Q V +] !""" S% . % .

Figure

Fig. 1.��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ����� �������� ���������� �������� �������� �������������������������������������������������������������� ������� ������ ���� ������ ������ �������� ������������� ������ ���������� ����������� ������� ������Primary homothallism: ���� ��������� ��� �����MAT� ����������� ������� �� ������� ������� ����������� ������������ ����������� ��� ������ ��������������������������������������������������������������in Aspergillus nidulans�� Pseudohomothallism: ��������������������������������������������������������������� ������� ����� ������� ������� �� ������� ������������������ ������� ������������� �������� ��� ��������������� ��� ����� ����������� ����������� ���seen in Neurospora tetrasperma�� Bidirectional mating type switching: �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Saccharomyces cerevisiae��Unidirectional mating type switching:���������������������������������������� ���� ����� ��� ������� ������� ������ ������������ ������ ������� ����� �������� �������� ��� ������������������������� ������ ������� ����� ��� ������� ���������������������������������������������������������������� ��� �������� ������� �������������� �����mating system is seen in Chromocrea spinulosa��Unisexual reproduction:������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������type partner as in Cryptococcus neoformans�

References

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