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(1)City University of New York (CUNY). CUNY Academic Works Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects. CUNY Graduate Center. 9-2016. The Relation of Analysis to Performance of Post-tonal Violin Music: Three Case Studies Karen E. Rostron The Graduate Center, City University of New York. How does access to this work benefit you? Let us know! More information about this work at: https://academicworks.cuny.edu/gc_etds/1565 Discover additional works at: https://academicworks.cuny.edu This work is made publicly available by the City University of New York (CUNY). Contact: AcademicWorks@cuny.edu.

(2) The Relation of Analysis to Performance of Post-tonal Violin Music: Three Case Studies. by. Karen Rostron. A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Music in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts. The City University of New York 2016.

(3) ii. © 2016 KAREN ROSTRON All Rights Reserved.

(4) iii. This manuscript has been read and accepted by the Graduate Faculty in Music in satisfaction of the dissertation requirement for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts.. Jeff Nichols. _____________________. ______________________________________. Date. Chair of Examining Committee. Norman Carey. _____________________ Date. ___________________________________ Executive Officer. Joseph N. Straus, Adviser. Norman Carey, First Reader. Ursula Oppens , Reader. Supervisory Committee. THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK.

(5) iv. Abstract. THE RELATION OF ANALYSIS TO PERFORMANCE OF POST-TONAL VIOLIN MUSIC: THREE CASE STUDIES by Karen Rostron. Adviser: Professor Joseph N. Straus. This dissertation investigates analytical and performance relationships through studies of three post-tonal pieces for solo violin: Élégie by Igor Stravinsky (1944), Riconoscenza per Goffredo Petrassi by Elliott Carter (1984), and Melismata by Milton Babbitt (1982). The challenge of interpretation is especially evident in non-tonal music, as performers are unlikely to have any knowledge of the relevant relationships between pitches, functions of harmonies, or formal features in the pieces they play. In this respect analysis can contribute to an understanding needed to form a meaningful interpretation. I will attempt to show that even the most seemingly abstract theoretical concepts can have direct bearing on performance of modernist music and will propose a four-step process that I believe is effective at producing analyses in a form that can influence playing, down to the minute details..

(6) v. Acknowledgments I am deeply grateful to my professors at the CUNY Graduate Center, particularly to my adviser, Joseph Straus, for his knowledge, prompt feedback, and for always encouraging and believing in me. His invaluable mentorship has guided me throughout this project, from beginning to end. A seminar on Stravinsky inspired my chapter on Élégie, a year of independent study on Carter produced the chapter on Riconoscenza per Goffredo Petrassi, and a seminar on the music of Milton Babbitt, co-taught by Jeff Nichols, prompted me to write a chapter on Babbitt’s Melismata. I am also grateful to Norman Carey for his straightforward guidance in performance and analysis, as well as his precise and thorough editing of my drafts. I would also like to thank Ursula Oppens for indirectly being responsible for this whole project and for being a role model and an inspiration to me. Rolf Schulte generously shared his knowledge of and enthusiasm for all of the pieces discussed here, and others. I am indebted to Roger Zare for his notation brilliance in digitizing the Babbitt score. Michael Cherlin, John Link, and John Roeder provided valuable input in the beginning stages of this project. I must also acknowledge the assistance I received from the music librarians of the Library of Congress who extended themselves to give me access to both the Stravinsky and Babbitt material. Josh Gilinsky, Ron Ma, and Bob Sweeney helped too by offering their advice and support..

(7) vi. I gratefully acknowledge the publishers for permission to use the following musical examples: MELISMATA by Milton Babbitt © Copyright 1983 by C. F. Peters Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Reprinted by permission ELEGIE by Igor Stravinsky © Copyright 1944 by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. Copyright renewed. Reprinted by permission. ORPHEUS by Igor Stravinsky © Copyright 1948 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd. Reprinted by permission. OEDIPUS REX by Igor Stravinsky © Copyright 1927 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd. Revised Version: © Copyright 1949, 1950 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ltd. U.S. Copyright Renewed. Reprinted by permission. RICONOSCENZA PER GOFFREDO PETRASSI by Elliott Carter © Copyright 1985 by Hendon Music, Inc. Reprinted by permission..

(8) vii. Table of Contents Abstract ······································································································ iv Acknowledgements ·························································································· v Table of Contents ·························································································· vii List of Examples ····························································································· x List of Figures ···························································································· xviii List of Tables ····························································································· xviii Preface ······································································································· xix. Chapter 1. The Relation of Post-Tonal Analysis to Performance ····················· 1 Perspectives from Music Theory ················································ 1 Performers’ Intuition ······························································ 3 Composers’ Intent ································································· 7 Historical Information ····························································· 9 Integrating Analysis and Performance ·········································11 Play the Interpretation, Not the Analysis ······································12 The Four-step Process ····························································13. Chapter 2. Case Study One: Élégie by Igor Stravinsky ································16 Introduction ······································································16 The Old: Borrowing and Style Background ········································································18 Bach and Chant ···································································18 Meter and Tempo Variance ·····················································19 Vibrato ·············································································21 Counterpoint Determines Fingerings···········································23 Melodic Violin ····································································27 Absence of Other Typical Elements············································28 The Old: Insinuations of Tonality Diatonicism ········································································29 Impression of “G minor” ························································30 Possibility of E Major ···························································33 Local Tendency Tones and Voice-Leading ···································35 The New: Non-tonal Views of Pitch Organization Bi-quintal Model ··································································38 Block Insertion of Basic Cells ··················································45 [024579] as a Generating, Fundamental Chord ·······························48 Collectional or Scalar View ·····················································53 The New: Symbolic Devices Referential Collections/Scales ··················································56.

(9) viii. “Stutter” ············································································63 Summary and Conclusion ·····················································69 Chapter 3. Case Study Two: Riconoscenza per Goffredo Petrassi by Elliott Carter ····························································74 Introduction ······································································74 Drama and Human Social Interaction ··········································76 Characters in Riconoscenza ·····················································78 Interruption and Recollection ···················································80 Central Lyrical Figure ····························································81 Narrative Overview ·······························································82 The Characters in Detail The Main Character, Dolce A ···················································83 About Martellato B ·······························································89 About Tranquillo C ·······························································90 Early Connections between the Characters (mm. 1–36) Synopsis ············································································91 Pre-existence of B and C Elements within Dolce A ··························92 Prefiguring in B ································································· 101 Connecting Gestures across Boundaries between Characters ············ 102 Connections Become More Overt (mm. 36–66) Synopsis ·········································································· 104 First Response ··································································· 104 Cooperation ······································································ 106 Establishing Order and Agreement (mm. 66–91) Synopsis ·········································································· 108 A’s Progression (mm. 66–83) ················································· 108 B’s Progression (mm. 82–91) ················································· 115 Final Process toward Order and Assimilation (mm. 91–99) Synopsis ·········································································· 118 Reestablishing Order ··························································· 118 Closure (mm. 100–End) Synopsis ·········································································· 122 Integration and Unification ···················································· 122 Conclusion ······································································ 126. Chapter 4. Case Study Three: Melismata by Milton Babbitt ······················· 129 Introduction ···································································· 129 General Performance Issues ················································ 130 Babbitt’s Serial Practice ····················································· 138.

(10) ix. Melismata’s Array ···························································· 141 Registers ········································································· 141 Combinatorial Lyne pairs – Transposition Areas ·························· 142 Partitioning ······································································ 144 Aggregate Durations ··························································· 147 Contextual or Self-Referential ················································ 150 Interaction between Surface and Array Surface Serves the Array ······················································ 154 Timbre Forms Generalized Aggregates ······································ 157 Array Serves the Surface ······················································ 163 Prioritizing ······································································ 169 How to Progress through the Piece (Large Scale) Referential Sonorities ·························································· 174 Dynamic Trajectory ···························································· 180 Comparison of First and Last Blocks ········································ 181 The Question of Climax ······················································· 184 Summary and Conclusion Summary ········································································· 192 Final Thoughts – Expansion Effect··········································· 193 Afterword ·································································································· 195 Appendix A. All-Partition Array of Melismata··········································· 198. Appendix B. Disposition of the Row in Lynes, Registers, and Blocks ··············· 202. Appendix C. Melismata Errata ······························································ 203. Appendix D. Related Arrays ································································· 204. Works Cited ······························································································· 205.

(11) x. List of Examples 1–1. Riconoscenza, chords in m. 91 ······································································· 5 1–2a. Misprint in Catenaires, m. 40 ······································································· 5 1–2b. Misprint in Catenaires, m. 154 ····································································· 6 1–3. Corrected m. 154 with 12-note chord ······························································· 7 1-4. “Link Chord” containing {9T1345} ·································································· 7 1–5. Mm. 1—2 of Mozart’s Sonata in A minor, K. 310 ···············································10 2–1a. Vibrato indications in Apollo: M. 15 ······························································22 2–1b. Vibrato indications in Apollo: R. 22 ······························································22 2–2. Finger contractions····················································································24 2–3a. Fingerings for augmented fourth: Printed fingering ············································25 2–3b. Fingerings for augmented fourth: Alternative fingering ·······································25 2–4. Extension fingering ···················································································26 2–5. Alternate fingering for perfect fifth ·································································26 2–6a. G minor collection in mm. 1–4 ····································································31 2–6b. G minor harmonic framework ·····································································31 2–6c. Support of the fifth, D to G ·········································································31 2–7a. Suggestion of E : Implied harmonic progression toward E ···································33 2–7b. Suggestion of E : Expected resolution ····························································33 2–7c. Suggestion of E : Actual music: lack of resolution ·············································33 2–8a. Impression of “modulation” to “c minor,” built into subject, m. 20: End of fugue subject ································································································36.

(12) xi. 2–8b. Implied voice-leading and harmonic resolution ·················································36 2–8c. Enlarged excerpt shows function is localized ····················································36 2–9. Tritone resolution, mm. 39–40 ······································································37 2–10. Melodic sequence in upper voice, mm. 27–29 ··················································37 2-11a. Structural fifths in the introduction: Harmonic span of a fifth G–D filled in with B and seventh F ·····························································································40 2–11b. Melodic span of a perfect fourth A–D filled in as [0135] ····································40 2–12. Mm. 5-10 Melodic span of a fourth F–B ························································41 2–13a. Transition to Model 3: New melodic span of a fourth, F–B ·································43 2–13b. Melodic spans of mm. 1–3 and m. 4 filled-in with two [0135] tetrachords related by inversion ·····························································································43 2–14. Measures 11–15······················································································44 2–15. [0135] in opening of fugue subject ································································44 2–16a. Three-note cells from block insertion: M. 3 block insertion ·································46 2–16b. M. 5, melodic cell from m. 3 upper voice ······················································46 2–16c. M. 17, beginning of fugue subject [013] from m. 3 lower voice ····························46 2–16d. Mm. 21–22, counterpoint entrance in lower voice ············································46 2–16e. Mm. 30–31, [013] in counterpoint in upper voice ·············································48 2–17a. [012]: Introduction of [012] at end of subject, answered in counterpoint ··················48 2–17b. [012] used in free counterpoint episode ·························································48 2–17c. [012] together with [013] at end of the piece ···················································48 2–18. Mm. 30–31 ···························································································49 2–19. Melodic pitch content, including grace notes, forms [024579] ································50.

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