Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road

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Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road

Alibech Mireles Diaz Transport Division, UNECE

© United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

ECA-ECE-ICAP Workshop: UN Road Safety Conventions and

Approaches to Preventing Drink Driving


• Introduction

• Packagings and tanks

• Emergency response

‒ Marks

‒ Labels

‒ Placards

• Transport operations

• Driver training

‒ Driver training certificates

• Vehicle construction and approval

‒ Vehicle certificates



3 © United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Are produced and transported in very large quantities

Cover a very large range of products

Present risks for the population in general, property and

the environment (at all stages of their lifecycle)

Dangerous goods:


Dangerous Goods (examples)

Class 1: Explosives

•Military ammunitions, bombs (all types) •Industrial explosives (dynamite)


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Class 2: Divisions 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3

• Gases compressed, liquefied or refrigerated • Div. 2.1: Flammable gases

(propane, LPG, cigarette lighters) • Div. 2.2: Non-flammable, non-toxic gases

(air, oxygen, nitrogen, helium) • Div.2.3: Toxic gases

(ammonia, chlorine)


Dangerous Goods (examples)

Class 3: Flammable liquids

• Petroleum products, paints, alcoholic beverages


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Dangerous Goods (examples)

Class 4: Div. 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3

• Div. 4.1: Flammable solids (Sulphur, matches)

• Div. 4.2: Substances liable to spontaneous combustion (phosphorus; fish meal, seed cake)

• Div. 4.3: In contact with water emit flammable gases (metal powders; sodium)


Dangerous Goods (examples)

Class 5: Div. 5.1 and 5.2

• Div. 5.1: Oxidizing substances (Ammonium nitrate fertilizers,

hydrogen peroxide, bleaching agents) • Div. 5.2: Organic peroxides (Dibenzoyl

peroxide, catalysts for polyester resin)


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Dangerous Goods (examples)

Class 6: Div. 6.1 and 6.2

• Div. 6.1: Toxic substances (Sodium cyanide, pesticides)

• Div. 6.2: Infectious substances (Cultures for bacteria, viruses, etc; medical diagnostic specimens, medical wastes)


Dangerous Goods (examples)

Class 7: Radioactive material

• Nuclear fuel,

• Uranium hexafluoride, • Medical radioisotopes


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Dangerous Goods (examples)

Class 8: Corrosive substances

• Sulphuric acid, Caustic soda, Car batteries


Dangerous Goods (examples)

Class 9: Miscellaneous

• Environmentally hazardous substances; • Mobile phone/computer batteries…


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1978, Los Alfaques (Spain)

•Substance involved: 43 m3 liquefied propylene; •Mode of transport: by road;

•217 people killed; 400 yards devastated in all directions.

1998, Yaounde (Cameroun):

•Substance involved: petroleum products; •Mode of transport: by rail;


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• Accidents have also negative effects on the environment.

• Well-known examples are oil spillages: – Torrey-Canyon;

– Amoco Cadiz; – Exxon Valdez; – Erika…

• Although small spillages of highly toxic substances may also have disastrous effects.


UN Regulatory Framework

IMO ICAO RID/ADR/ADN Joint Meeting (WP.15/AC.1)

OTIF WP.15 WP.15/AC.2

Provisions implemented as from January 2015

UNMR Rev.18 (adopted in Dec. 2012)


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Classic packagings

• Up to 400 kg/450 l, such as drums, jerricans, boxes, bags, etc.


IBCs and

large packagings


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Hazard labels

3 4 4 4 5.1 5.2


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UN No.: 3082


Marking the UN (identification) number of the goods on the package,

and the “Proper Shipping Name”



Affixing placards on the cargo transport units (vehicles, wagons,

containers, tanks) and displaying, either on these placards or on

separate orange plates, the UN identification number;



COOLANT/CONDITIONER warning mark for vehicles and containers

Placard for radioactive material (class 7) Mark for carriage at elevated


Fumigation warning mark

Environmentally hazardous substance mark


Hazard identification numbers

The hazard identification number consists of two or three figures. In general, the figures indicate the following hazards:

2. Emission of gas due to pressure or to chemical reaction

3. Flammability of liquids (vapours) and gases or self-heating liquid

4. Flammability of solids or self-heating solid 5. Oxidizing (fire-intensifying) effect

6. Toxicity or risk of infection 7. Radioactivity

8. Corrosivity

9. Risk of spontaneous violent reaction

ADR orange-coloured plate marking with hazard identification number

and UN number

Doubling of a figure indicates an intensification of that particular hazard. Where the hazard associated with a substance can be adequately indicated by a single figure, this is followed by zero. If a hazard identification number is prefixed by the letter "X", this

indicates that the substance will react dangerously with water.


• Multimodal Transport document

• Providing details of the dangerous goods offered for shipment:

• UN No., proper shipping name, hazard class and subsidiary hazard, packing group

• Number and kind of packages • Shipper’s declaration

• Shipper/consignor/consignee

Transport Hazard Communication:



Emergency response information

For consignments for which a dangerous goods transport document is required, appropriate information shall be immediately available at all times for use in emergency response to accidents and incidents involving dangerous goods in transport.

The information shall be available away from the packages containing the dangerous goods and immediately accessible in the event of an accident or incident. Methods of compliance include:

1.Appropriate entries in the transport document; or

2.Provision of a separate document such as a safety data sheet; or

3.Provision of a separate document, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) “Emergency Response Guidance for Aircraft Incidents Involving Dangerous Goods” or the International Maritime

Organization (IMO) “Emergency Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods” and “Medical First Aid Guide in Accidents Involving Dangerous Goods”, for use in conjunction with the transport document.


The Emergency Response Guidebook has several sections based on the color of the pages:

1.The white section provides directions, emergency phone numbers, general

information and guidance.

2.The yellow section lists the chemicals based on their four digit ID and guide


3.The blue section lists the chemicals in alphabetical order (a way for you to get

the four digit UN number and the guide page number also).

4.The orange section is the guide pages which provide emergency chemical

information, actions to take, personal protective equipment guidelines, fire extinguishing material recommendations and isolation/evacuation distances; these are known as the “guide pages”.

5.The green section provides distances for isolation and protective action

(evacuation and shelter-in-place distances) for chemical that are gases or will travel as gases and a list of water reactive chemicals that will give off toxic gases when in contact with water.


The CEFIC Emergency Response Intervention Cards (ERICards or ERIC's) provide

guidance on initial actions for fire crews when they first arrive at the scene of a chemical transport accident without having appropriate and reliable product specific

emergency information at hand.

1. Page header with substance name, UN number,

hazard number, ADR label, ADR class, classification code (hazard identification number), packing group and ERICard number

2. Properties 3. Dangers

4. Personal protection

Emergency Response Intervention Cards information is structured according to a standard format:

5. Emergency response

‒ General measures ‒ Measures fabric outlet

‒ Measures in case of fire (if material involved)

6. First Aid

7. Special precautions in the recovery of dang. goods 8. Precautions for the use of aid

‒ Removal of protective clothing (Decon P) ‒ Cleaning of equipment (Decon G)

Emergency response


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Training (UN Model Regulations)

• Human errors are the main cause of accidents.

• The UN Model Regulations (and related legal instruments):

(a) require training of all persons engaged in the transport of dangerous goods: – in the contents of dangerous goods requirements;

– commensurate with their responsibilities; and (b) lay down specific provisions regarding:

– general awareness/familiarization training, – function specific training,

– safety training, records of training, etc. • Training can be provided by the employer


Training RID/ADR/ADN

•ADR requires:

– Training for drivers of road vehicles (ADR driver training certificate) (initial training and refreshers courses); and

– Specific additional training for drivers of tank vehicles, vehicles carrying explosives and vehicles carrying radioactive material.

•ADN requires:

– experts trained every 5 years be on board chemical and gas tankers

•RID/ADR/ADN also require the appointment of a dangerous goods safety adviser (DGSA) holding a vocational training certificate.


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Means of transport

SOLAS, MARPOL certificates ADN certificate




– Done on 30 September 1957

– Entered into force on 29 January 1968 ANNEXES A AND B:

– Regularly amended since 1968

– Now amended every two years on the basis of UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods

– Harmonized with other mode regulations (sea, air, rail, inland waterways) – Latest edition in force since 1 January 2013


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48 contracting parties


ADR: Structure

• Annex A (Parts 1-7), general provisions:

– Applicable to the goods themselves (classification, packing, tanks, labelling, documents…)

– Relevant for all modes of transport

– Directly based on the UN Model Regulations – Nearly identical to:

• RID (rail)

• ADN (inland waterways) • IMDG Code (sea)

• ICAO TI (air)

– Conditions for application of additional rules


ADR: Structure

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• Annex B (Parts 8-9)

– provisions concerning transport equipment and transport operations specific to road transport

• Vehicle crew, including training • Operation and equipment

• Supervision of vehicles • Road tunnel restrictions



ADR = Safety + Security + Facilitation

– Allows carriers of one country to carry dangerous goods from this country through and to any other Contracting Party country. No additional requirements imposed by transit or destination countries;

– Mutual recognition of certificates: – Packaging certificates

– Vehicle certificates – Tank certificates


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– Mutual trust and cooperation between Contracting Parties; – High level of safety, but not excessive burden for countries;

– Possibility of negotiating derogations with other Contracting Parties (bilateral/multilateral agreements);


Working Party on the Transport of Dangerous Goods - WP.15

– All UNECE countries

– All UN Member States interested in ADR


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ADR: implications for Parties


• Administrative procedures for:

– packagings, tanks and vehicles approval/certificates

– dangerous goods safety adviser certificates – driver training certificates

– enforcement (controls and checks; penalties) – cooperation with other Contracting Parties

• Notifications to the UNECE secretariat

• Regular participation in the Working Party on the

Transport of Dangerous Goods (WP.15)


ADR: application to domestic traffic

• Not required by ADR, but highly recommended

– (UNECE Inland Transport Committee, Resolution No. 200, 18.12.1959)

• ADR application to domestic traffic ensures:

– full compatibility of national and international regulations; – better performance of transport operators;

– better compliance with safety regulations; – better enforcement.


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