Report on the working visit to Nyahururu on November 2010 Heli Jutila Environmental Expert

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The North-South Local Government Co-operation Programme / 2008-2010 The Municipalities of Hattula, Janakkala and Nyahururu

Report on the working visit to Nyahururu on November 2010

Heli Jutila

Environmental Expert

Hämeenlinnan ympäristöjulkaisuja 10

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Photos. Front page. Above left: Finishing the compostor in Mariakani primary school 4.11.2010. Above right: A play of elderly people by pupils of Uaso Narok primary school 2.11.2010. Below: Flamingos in Lake Bogoria 6.11.2010.

Above left: Rumuruti scenery 4.11.2010. Right: Thompson Falls from above 2.11.2010.Below left: Traditional dance by girls and boys in Uaso Narok primary school 2.11.2010. Right: Flower beds in Tabor Hill garden, 9.11.2010.

Photographs are the Heli Jutila’s except the once with named author.

Jutila Heli 2010: Report on the working visit to Nyahururu on November 2010. The North-South Local

Government Co-operation Programme / 2008-2010. The Municipalities of Hattula, Janakkala and Nyahururu. - Hämeenlinnan ympäristöjulkaisuja 10 [Environmental Publications of Hämeenlinna 10]. 24 p.

ISBN 978-952-9509-90-4 ISSN-L 1798-0704

ISSN 1798-0704 (painettu) ISSN 1798-0712 (verkkojulkaisu)

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Contents

Abstract __________________________________________________________________________ 4 1. DAY: Monday 1st of November 2010 _________________________________________________ 5 2. DAY: Tuesday 2nd of November 2010 ________________________________________________ 6 3. DAY: Wednesday 3rd of November 2010 ______________________________________________ 9 4. DAY: Thursday 4th of November 2010 _______________________________________________ 12 5. DAY: Friday 5th of November 2010 _________________________________________________ 13 6. DAY: Saturday 6th of November 2010 _______________________________________________ 15 7. DAY: Sunday 7th of November 2010 ________________________________________________ 16 8. DAY: Monday 8th of November 2010 ________________________________________________ 18 9. DAY: Tuesday 9th of November 2010 ________________________________________________ 19 10. DAY: Wednesday 10th of November 2010 ___________________________________________ 23 Thanks __________________________________________________________________________ 24

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Abstract

The journey of Finnish delegates from Hattula and Janakkala to Nyahururu in the North-South co-operation programme was made on 30.10.-11.11.2010. The journey focused on inspecting the

implemented activities and planning for the next funding period. My personal task was also to collect flora and fauna information to be used later in nature brochures.

On Tuesday we visited at Thama school and planted some trees. Then we walked around Maina slum visiting first the vocational centre, then dispensary, women’s group and youth club. Jukka interviewed three persons for a village plan. On the way to Uaso Narok School mistakenly drove to the Silale Primary School. The Uaso Narok school is in hilly surroundings. After a plenty of children’s dances and presentations we planted trees and mine was cape ash. On Wednesday there was two seminars at Kawa Falls hotel about Strategic planning and environmental issues. Several stakeholders such as Nyahuwasco, National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenyan Forest Service (KFS), Kenyan Wildlife Service (KWS) and Tree is Life organization were invited to the environmental seminar in addition to the officers of the Nyahururu municipality. The participants had a chance to list the successes and failures of the environmental component of this Hattula, Janakkala – Nyahururu co-operation. Then we started planning for the next period based on the logical framework table, on which the Finnish team had drafted the future plans and which had been sent to South about two months before the meeting. Jonne Routio organized a team work on the possible activities of environmental clubs for the teachers group in the Education seminar. We spend the Thursday morning up till afternoon in Mariakani primary school, where Finnish men built a compostor and I demonstrated the use of reflectors. In the afternoon we went to a safari to see elephants in Kiandege, Rumuruti. On Friday we visited Kiandege Primary School, where the event included many speeches and traditional dances. There was a collection of the important vegetables, pots and a traditional reed hut for use to see. In the afternoon I visited “Tree is life” organization, which is actively working in this region to promote environmental conservation and raise environmental awareness.

During the weekend we visited Lake Bogoria, Menangai Crater and Lake Nakuru National Park. On Monday we had a chance to meet the Nakuru – Hämeenlinnan linkage actors. On Tuesday we had a project review meeting and in the afternoon we visited the sites where some of the tasks are unfinished e.g. Social Hall computer lab, hippo view point and sewage plant condemnation pit. On Wednesday we had an audience at the embassy of Finland and discussed about the development projects in Kenya. The journey was successful and I managed to build up many more new connections, which will hopefully help in the implementation of the planned project.

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1. DAY: Monday 1

st

of November 2010

I flew with Jukka Pettersson, Jouko Tuomola, Seppo Kopra and Jonne Routio from Helsinki-Vantaa through Amsterdam to Nairobi, where the night flight landed at 7 am 1.11.2010. Colleagues from Nyahururu were meeting us with a “matatu” van on the airport. During the drove through Nairobi I saw several bird species: doves, superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus), Eurasian swifts (Apus apus), cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis), Marabou storks (Leptoptilos crumeniferus), sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus), Augur buzzard (Buteo augur) and common fiscal (Lanius collaris). I also recorded some plants: Jacaranda mimosifolia, Grewillea robusta, Magnifera indica, Markhamia lutea, Bougainvillea, Schinus molle, Thevetia thevetioides and Eucalyptus globosus,

We enjoyed breakfast at Nairobi Fair View Hotel, which had a nice garden with Strelizia reginae, Howea forsteriana, Phoenix canariensis, Bauchinia variegata, Ravenala madagaskariensis, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Bougainvillea glabra, Spathodea campanulata, Roystonia regia, Brachyhiton acerifolius, Scheflera actinophylla and Ceiba pentandra. Then we headed to Nyahururu. The scenery seemed somewhat dry, even though currently it was short rains season.

At Rift Valley sightseeing site I identified collared sunbird (Hedydipna collaris), Kenya rufous sparrow (Passer rufocinctus) and black-backed puffback (Dryoscopus cubla). We drove through Naivasha and Nakuru Nyahururu. Tea (Camellia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica) plantations are common after Nakuru.

On the left: Fair View hotel garden Nairobi 1.11.2010. On the right: Rift Valley View Point near Nairobi road 1.11.2010.

After the courtesy call of the Mayor at Nyahururu Town Hall and several speeches we checked in to Thomson’s Falls Lodge and had dinner at 7.30 p.m. I recorded red-eyed dove (Streptopelia

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semitorquata), Cape robin-chat (Cossypha caffra), tacazze sunbird (Nectarinia tacazze) and baglafecht weaver (Ploceus baglafecht) in the hotel garden.

2. DAY: Tuesday 2

nd

of November 2010

In the morning I had a walk in the hotel garden and noticed that bottlebrush tree (Callistemon citrinus) was very attractive tree for amethyst sunbirds (Chalcomitra amethystina), because they can feed on the flowers. I also recorded olive trush (Turdus olivaceus), rufous-naped lark (Mirafra africana), hadada ibis (Bostrychia hagedash), sacred ibis and pied crow (Corvus albus). The hadada ibises, which have a bad sounding voice, were digging waste form the bins. The pied crow seems also to have a croaking voice. The constant sound of a dove become familiar during the stay. kvaa-kvak - jatkuva pulu

In the walking bridge above Thompson’s Falls I noticed African black duck (Anas sparsa) in the pond and nearby a speckled mousebird (Colius striatus), some cisticolas, white-eyed slaty flycatcher

(Melaenornis fischeri) in Acacia nilotica. On the walk I met Peter Karani, who is a member in Nyahururu Bird Club and works also at the Kenyan Forest Service. (tel. 0720564494; peter.karani@yahoo.com.21)

On the right: Thompson's Falls 1.11.2010. On the right: Service charter at Nyahururu Municipal Hall. In the morning we met Mayor Peter Thiari at his office. A local journalist James Wanjohi and the photographer of The Home News joined us for all the day and also during for some other days. The Home News is a newspaper published once a week on Fridays and has 5000-8000 subscribers.

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In the morning we visited Maina village, which is a ward of Cllr. Gicheru. At first we stopped at Thama school, where we greeted the Head teacher Mercy Nyaguthii Ngatia and planted trees. The primary school has an active environmental club and co-operation with Tree is life organization. There are 1046 pupils and 28 teachers in the school. I planted water berry (Warburgia ugandensis), others did cape ash (Ekebergia capensis) in a planting area, which was fenced. Thama School received 2000 seedlings in the special program of the Ministry during the year 2010. Mercy told that 82 candidates are participating the national exam this year in Thama school. There are orphans and aids in the school. Some discipline problems exist. Parents participate to school activities and come to dig trenchers before building class rooms. When looking at school surroundings there is clearly a progress made in Thama school.

On the left: Jonne and Jukka planting trees at Thama school 2.11.2010. On the right: Heli planting water berry at Thama school Nyahururu 2112010.

Next we visited the vocational centre in Maina. It will start in January after renovation. Treasurer and 5 other teachers represented themselves. It will be possible to study mechanics, repair, dress making and embroiling. The graduated students will self-employ themselves.

We were to know that there is a health and environment committee in Maina village. The council supports it by providing a truck as part of normal operation, once a year, to make a clean-up.

Jukka interviewed three persons for a village plan. The first one was a retired, 60 years old lady, who had been a traditional dancer. She told that she can not pay the rent. She does not have energy to work anymore. She would like to cultivate and grow her own food. When she was asked, how municipality helps her, she said that the councillor gives her money and takes her to visit a sick relative. The slum road has been upgraded by the council. There is only one public toilet in the area, and because it is too far, she would like the council make another. Another wish is a meeting place for elderly people. A sparrow was noticed.

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Jukka made the same questions for a man, Paul Muegi, who also dreamed about a shamba of his own. He earns 200 ShK per day. If he had a farm he could sell the excess. Some people practice illegal farming in the nearby hills. When asked of the municipal services, he could name the road repair with maramine. He also wished employment by the municipality. As problems he mentioned no food and bad living conditions.

The third person to be interviewed was a lady of 49 years with six children. One of the children had cut his legs. Mother wished that the municipality would help this 18 years old boy. She asked for a wheel chair or artificial ribs and toilette for the disabled. She earns 1 euro per day. The rent is 400

ShK/month. She dreamed of a house of her own.

On the left: Solid waste collection point at Maina slum and on the right: Scenery from Maina slum 2.11.2010.

Then we visited Maina dispensary, which is a government institute started by the locals. The most common diseases are respiratory infections, tuberculosis and acute respiratory infections, diarrhea and malaria. There are three casual employees and three qualified staff meaning nurses, but no doctors. There is a small laboratory and also vaccination occurs. Drugs are not charged from the patients and the costs are covered by government to the dispensary. A new room is being constructed for a maternity clinic. Dispensary has to pay for the electricity. The dispensary is connected to the water pipeline. A water collection tank was located outside the dispensary.

Next we visited women's group, which shares problems and also meets to celebrate successes. In the group there were Mayor, vice Mayor, four councillors, public officer, driver, Public Health officer, co-ordinator, assistant co-ordinator and Polytechnic teacher. The chairlady told that the group was founded in 1997 and their motto is "You stand by your feet". The secretary emphasized that the contribution of each member in the group is important. Women have raised sheep and rabbits. The group wants to buy a farm and a plot to build a hall for meetings. Different age groups are represented in the group: there are mothers and grand mothers. Physical and spiritual guidance is also provided.

The next site for a visit was a youth club, which has several activities e.g. AIDS-testing, psychological and other counselling, polio and malaria campaigns, condoms delivery and recreational activities such as games like chess. Youth come to the premises to enjoy. They would like to have many other things like TV and ICT connection. They presented us a play about sex education and a story about water boreholes (the message was do not share your water). The youth club visits schools, and works with the

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Ministry of Health. The club has participated in competitions and has been 4.th best in the whole country. They have several certificates. They have been awarded as one of the best groups in Nyahururu.

On the way to Uaso Narok School our driver councillor Gicheru mistakenly drove to the Silale Primary School, which I recognized because I visited it about one year before. The last bit to the Uaso Narok school was walked over a small river bridge in a hilly surroundings. In this primary school the biggest classes had even 74 pupils. There are about ten teachers, Mkuzu being the Head teacher. The school is 36th in the national rank and 5th in the district rank. After a plenty of children’s dances and

presentations we planted trees and mine was cape ash. The day was quite successful altogether.

On the left: Scenery to the Uaso Narok school. On the right: Play about elderly people Uaso Narok Nyahururu. 2.11.2010.

3. DAY: Wednesday 3

rd

of November 2010

We went directly to Kawa Falls hotel, which was the seminar venue. After a short introduction and speeches by Mayor and Town Clerk, all the participants presented themselves. Then the group was divided into two. People involved with the environmental component moved to another room and had a meeting lead by Dr. Heli Jutila and George Mwangi. The rest stayed at the main hall and heard

presentations under title “Strategic Planning”.

First, I explained to the participants the rationale of the meeting. To my pleasure several stakeholders were invited to the meeting. This was particularly important when planning the work for the next application period. There were representatives from the Municipality of Nyahururu, Nyahuwasco, National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Kenyan Forest Service (KFS), Kenyan Wildlife Service (KWS) and Tree is Life organization. KWS representative told about education programmes and clubs, in which they co-operate with some secondary schools. They also organize environmental assay competitions. Antelopes are planned to be planted by hippo pools. KWS is conducting research on elephants in Marmanet forest. KFS makes vegetation inventories in the forest. Together with the National Museum of Kenya the bird fauna of Thompson Falls and Marmanet forest has just recently been studied. Every district of NEMA gives an annual state of environment report. This will be an important source when preparing the state of environment report for Nyahururu. One of

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the stakeholders in the Environmental component meeting was Tree is Life organization, which raises environmental awareness and works particularly with schools. Nancy Kihato participated the seminar. I told briefly with the logical framework table what had been planned and done during this first period in the North-South co-operation program and Hattula, Janakkala – Nyahururu linkage. I also put my travel report of the previous visit in December 2009 to circulate. Then the participants had a chance to list the successes and failures of the environmental component of this Hattula, Janakkala – Nyahururu co-operation. Among the failures have been the stolen dumping site fence and planted trees destroyed by grazing animals. There is need to plant more trees. The municipality has been able in the project to establish a tree nursery and grow some of its own seedlings. In general the tree planting has been the best success in the environmental component. The share of indigenous species has increased all the time. Trees have been planted along roads, in school yards and parks.

The waste management and particularly dumping site is a challenge in Nyahururu. The local have suggested building an incinerator and even thought there was a quite critical approach by the Northern partners based on EU standards. The incinerator was even budgeted for year 2009, but it was never built. Now it has become clear that also the NEMA standards and waste management regulation of Kenya year 2006 would mean so an expensive incinerator that the project and municipality could not afford it.

Lydia Karanja Environment Officer of NEMA informed that there is a need for the municipality to organize a meeting about the dumping site and invite NEMA and other stakeholders to it. The ministry of settlement has gazetted 5 acres of forest for the municipality as a dumping site, but still there seemed to be some disagreement on the ownership. When discussing about the recycling somebody mentioned that plastic is being recycled as fencing posts. Littering with cheap polyethene bags is a big problem in Kenya and maybe a revolving fund could be some part of solution. A contamination pit for dead animals is being built at the sewage plant plot.

Later in the meeting I had a chance to use computer and data projector and give a presentation on “Sustainable development in Hämeenlinna”.

Then we started planning for the next period based on the logical framework table, on which the Finnish team had drafted the future plans and which had been sent to South about two months before the meeting.

The goal of the Environmental component for years 2011-2013 was planned as to ensure environmental sustainability in Nyahururu and Finnish municipalities.

Objectives:

1. Increased capacity and knowledge of personnel and councillors to manage environment as well improve infrastructure for healthier and more attractive environment for residents, tourists and investors.

2. Improved solid waste management and running of the dumpsite and raised awareness about reducing the amount of waste, recycling and comfortable environment.

3. Green Nyahururu and more biodiversity. Natural environment is managed and conserved to attract investors, tourists, residents and avoid erosion:.

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4. Environmental awareness is raised and best environmental management practices are applied in schools and the in wider community of Nyahururu.

5. Drinking and waste water management is improved through capacity building and systematic land use planning.

Also the planned activities for different objectives were discussed particularly focusing on their importance and feasibility of implementation. Topics like solid waste management, waste water and storm water treatment, climate change, town planning, taking care of trees and preparing nature brochures. When discussing about renewable energy it was raised that a wind park a height of 80 m was being built to Kinnango by Helios of Kenya.

Jonne Routio organized a team work on the possible activities of environmental clubs for the teachers group in the Education seminar. In the preliminary planning the following themes were planned to be given to the working groups: Air pollution, Climate change, Biodiversity conservation, Ecosystems and biotopes, Human health, Waste and recycling and Water. Possible activities for environmental clubs could include tree nursery, flower and vegetable planting, growing grass, labelling the plantings by species, identification of plant and animal species and biotopes, conservation measures, brochures, planning nature trails, billboards, organizing trips to nature reserves, to wildlife service office, forest service, mapping nature sites. The activities can also deal with waste issues such as avoidance of litter, cleaning sites, waste sorting or separation, composting, measuring amounts of waste created, studying what happens to waste, study about the harmful effects of polyethene bags - and ways to reduce their use. Water studies are also of great interest: to study the cycle of water, rain, infiltration, quality of water in lakes and rivers, amount of water, drought, ground water, life in water, pollution of water and how to avoid it.

Also in Finland an important part of the activities of nature clubs deal with flora and fauna and nature trips. In environmental Clubs all the senses are encouraged to be used. Part of the activity is enjoyment, getting calm and recreation. Environmental clubs can be in schools and or under voluntary societies or associations. The most important issue of environmental clubs is to raise environmental awareness. Field camps, lake surveys and environmental detectives are also examples of environmental club activities.

On the left: Billboard at the hippo view point Nyahururu. On the right: Hippos and giant Cyperus at Manguo Nyahururu. 3.11.2010.

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In the evening we walked to the Manguo hippo pools. I recorded hadada ibis, sacred ibis, common sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos), African black duck, red-knobbed coot (Fulica cristata), great white egret (Casmerodius albus) and black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus). Of the plants I marked Phalaris arundinaceae, Tribulus cistuloides, Cyperus, Sphaeranthus bullatus. Ten hippos were active. We saw the billboard of the site. The hippo pools are international bird areas designated by IUCN.

4. DAY: Thursday 4

th

of November 2010

In the morning I spotted male, young and female malachite sunbirds in the hotel yard. The typical voices of ring-necked dove (Streptopelia capicola) and red-eyed dove were heard as most of the time. Cape robin-chat and common bulbul (Pycnonotus barbatus) were recorded. I listed the following plant species: Fabaceae tree (with 7 pairs of leaves trunk with deep depressions in the bark) in the park, Thunbergia alata, Commelina communis, Impatiens (with big light purple flowers and four petals), devils horse whip, scrubs related to Senecio (umbel) and another with more arched and bunched, large, yellow floret (up to 12 cm in diameter), Ocimum obovatum, Justicia flava, Verbena, Ricinus communis, grass (somewhat similar to Molinia) and a giant Cyperus.

We spend the morning up till afternoon in Mariakani primary school, where Finnish men built a compostor. I set up a demonstration of reflectors in one class room and after that all the classes of Mariakani school and some visiting from the 91 school came to listen to the demonstration. In the end the reflectors brought to Kenya by Seppo Kopra were delivered to the teachers to be given to the children. Seppo, Jonne and Jouko finished the construction of the compost and a short presentation of operating it was given to the teachers. During this morning Jukka Petterson interviewed Town Clerk, Mayor, Town Treasurer and co-ordinators. Seppo and I stayed later at Mariakani to watch the plays and dances the pupils had prepared.

On the left: Trees with signs planted in December 2009 at Thompson Falls park. On the right Mariakani school is located in a grassland. 4112010.

In the afternoon we went to a safari to see elephants in Kiandege, Rumuruti. The nature reserve, which includes Marmanet forest in the South actually reaches this far. We had a KWS man with us and managed to see four elephants. The region was very beautiful bush savannah, where I recorded Cassia

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didymobotrya, kahki weed (Tagetes minuta), black jack, Solanum incanum, red thatching grass (Hyparrhenia rufa), Kalanchoe, Euphorbia candelabrum, Rhodes’ grass (Chloris gayana), leleshwa (Tarchonanthus camphorates), Senecio, Diospyros abyssinica and lion's paw (Leonotis nepetifolia). One of the men with us told that the best place to get nature books was from the Sarit Centre in Nairobi.

In the evening I had a walk in the Thompson’s Falls Lodge garden and listed the following: pink Gladiolus, Agave americana, Dahlia, Aristea alata ssp. abyssinica (starlike with light purple four petals, diameter 3 mm), Agapanthus africanus, Podocarpus falcatus, Phoenis reclinata and Olea africana.

Elephants in Rumuruti 4.11.2010.

5. DAY: Friday 5

th

of November 2010

In the morning I spotted cinnamon-chested bee-eater (Merops oreobates) at Thompson Fall’s hotel yard.

We stopped at Town Hall for a chocolate at Mayor’s room. I had a chance to look some email. There was once again a lot of waiting before we went to Kiandege Primary School. There the event was started with traditional dances. In the school yard I recorded bottlebrush tree, African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera), cape ash (Ekebergia capensis), silky oak (Grewillea robusta), Eucalyptus, Acacia

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nilotica and hadada ibises. The head teacher gave an opening speech about culture, and after that the teachers were presented. There are 42 tribes in Kenia, each having their own language. The head teacher wished for more classrooms. Then there were many more speeches and presentations. One poem was about constitution, dances and songs, which told about good behaviour, home work,

grammar, a girl to be married. There was a collection of the important vegetables, pots and other things collected on a table. Cassava (Manihot esculenta), pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo), sweet potatoes

(Ipomoea batatas), bananas (Musa x paradisiaca), sugarcane (Saccharum ssp.) have been used as a food. Baskets, bowls for porridge, spoons, sour milk calebases, an ebony chair, cow horns to drink traditional bear, grinding stones, a sword, a cooking pot and a pot for cold water were other examples of items. A traditional reed house had also been built on the yard.

On the left: Dances at Kinadege primary. On the right: Vegetable plantings at Kiandege primary school. 5.11.2010.

In the afternoon I visited “Tree is life” office. Nancy, who had invited me to visit was not at office, but I met two persons, men, of which the other was a forester. Tree is life was founded year 2002 in a Catholic parish as a part of the church. The objective is to promote environmental conservation. Most of all it is a training program, in which school’s environmental clubs, farmers and general public are trained for environmental awareness. They also co-operate with 50 primary schools in five divisions’ area. The organisation started with planting trees, but recently it has become more and more as a facilitating actor. The second important area is to promote sustainable agriculture and agro-forestry. Organization has mobilized communities for forest associations in five places. Sixth forest association is planned to be founded near Thompson's Falls. When I inquired about a good identification manual of the Kenyan tree species, the forester suggested “Useful trees and shrubs in Kenya” by Patrick Maundu and Bo Tengnäs ed. Technical Handbook no 35. World Agroforestry Centre. He suggested that the problems with Juniperus procera seedlings at the 91 school may have to due with a pathogenic fungi, which spreads in the nursery.

“Tree is Life” has developed and markets environmental games for children and youth. They also sell seedlings to parents, who can participate to tree planting with schools and children. In addition essay

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competitions are organized for school pupils. Tree is Life makes wall paintings to inform about

environmental topics. When I mentioned about the initial plans of our project to train nature guides the forester told that Tree is Life has trained 30 bird watcher guides for this area. One important aspect in the work is group building.

Tree is life organization co-operates with UNDP in a project in Mount Kenya, which is a world heritage site. They co-operate also with IUCN and EU for establishing forest associations.

The tree is life trust employs a team of six persons. Sometimes they have had volunteers. They have won total eco-challenge awards during years 2007 and 2008. In 2006 the trust was founded. It is lead by a board under which the staff is working. The organization follows five year plans.

On the left: Callistemon sinensis in flower in Thompson Falls lodge garden. On the right: Trees in Thompson Falls lodge garden. 5.11.2010.

6. DAY: Saturday 6

th

of November 2010

During the Saturday morning walk by the Thompson’s Falls I recorded a montane white-eye (Zosterops poliogastrus), cisticolas and eastern double-collared sunbirds (Nectarinia mediocris). Mespilus

germanica and Asteraceae flower with white petals were marked. In the program for the weekend we had visits to two National Parks, Lake Bogoria and Lake Nakuru. On the way to Nakuru black kite (Milvus migrans) was spotted and large tea and coffee plantations passed. I read an article in The Standard about moringa (Moringa oleifera), a plant of Indian and Malaysian origin, which is being used for several purposes, as a medicine against malaria, hot drink, seeds for libido raising and immune booster. The plant has essential amino acids, vitamins A, B, C and key minerals.

We stopped at the equator line, where I found a birder, who helped me to identify some birds such as white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali), superb starling, common bulbul, Nubian

woodpecker (Campethera nubica) and also some trees, Balanes aegyptica, Acacia seyal, A. gerrardii, A. tortilis. In this region large sisal (Agave sisalana) cultivations attract your attention. You may also notice Opuntia ficus-indica and Aloe species such as A. vera. Many locals try to sell honey and bee nests can be seen hanging on the Acacias. The sceneries started to be desert like even though there was not even a semi-desert according to vegetation maps. The area nearby Lake Bogoria is hot and dry

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bushland. Lake Bogoria is situated on a height of 500 m and the temperature is warm year around. Hot springs and termite nests are typical to the site.

In the Lake Bogoria National Park I spotted from a distance a red flowering bush which probably was Adenium obesum. There was a lot of water in Lake Bogoria and some hot springs were below water line. To our luck there were thousands of flamingos, mainly lesser (Phoenicopterus minor), but also some greater flamingos (P. roseus). Other bird species identified were cattle egrets, oystriches (Struthio camelus), common sandpipers, black-winged stilts, Calidris ssp., swallows, blacksmith plovers

(Vanellus armatus), ring-necked dove, African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), kingfisher (Alcedines), grey-headed kingfisher (Halcyon leucocephala), red-fronted barbet (Tricholaema diademata), fawn-coloured lark (Mirafra africanoides), rufous-naped lark (M. africana), yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava), African or grassland pipit (Anthus cinnamomeus), Kenrick's starling (Poeoptera kenricki) and Donaldson-Smith's sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser donaldsoni). Of the mammals we saw blacked-faced vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), impalas (Aepyceros melampus), steenbok (Raphicerus campestris), warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) and zebras (Equus quagga). The flora included Acacia senegal.

On the left: Flamingos in Lake Bogoria. On the right: Visitors by hot springs in Lake Bogoria. 6.11.2010.

After a successful visit to Lake Bogoria we headed to Nakuru, where we stayed the night at Rift Valley Sports Club.

7. DAY: Sunday 7

th

of November 2010

In the Rift Valley Sports Club yard I recorded Plumeria alba, Ensete ventricosum, Camaerops humilis, Musa sapientum, purple flowered Tradescantia, Calendula ssp., Yuccassp. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Callistemon citrinus, Podocarpus falcatus, purple flowered Fabaceae tree with big pods 10 leaflets, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Datura suaveolens, light red coloured trumpet flower (Burgmansia), Sanseviera, Pelargonium, Buxus sempervirens, Euphorbia candelabrum, blue and small flowered Lobelia, Vernonia and Washingtonia filifera. The detected bird species weresuberb starling, baglafleht weaver, Apus ssp., sunbird, greater blue-eared starling (Lamprotornis chalybaeus), speckled pigeon

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(Columba guinea), little swift (Apus affinis), tawn eagle (Aquila rapax) and common sparrow (Passer domesticus).

As a surprise the Town Clerk and Mayor wanted us to go first to the Menagai Crater view point, which suited me very well because I had never been there before. The driving up was a little bit demanding with the matatu, but we managed to the top, where there was an amazing view over the Crater and also over the City and Lake Nakuru. I recorded some plants: Solanum incanum, Brachyhiton acerifolium, Lantana camara, Eucalyptus, devil's horsewhip and Commelina communis. Of the birds I had marked Stuhlman's starling (Poeoptera stuhlmanni). The height from the crater is 485 m, and the sightseeing point is located at 2272 m above sea level.

Sceneries from the Menangai crater view point, Nakuru, 7.11.2010.

Around noon we entered Lake Nakuru National Park, where the Lake was quite large and flamingos were fairly plenty. Black-faced vervet monkeys welcomed us at the port, and also zebras, waterbucks (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) could be seen from there. Sacred iibises, Ruppel's long-tailed starling

(Lamprotornis purpuropterus), African grey hornbill (Tockus nasutus), white-winged starling (Neocichla gutturalis) and common fiscal were recorded at the port.

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In the park, near the shore of Lake Nakuru yellow-billed storks (Mycteria ibis), pink-backed pelicans (Pelecanus rufescens), cattle egrets, stilts, Podiceps, Aythyas and black-smith plovers, crowned lapwings (Vanellus coronatus), marabous storks, cormorants (Phalarocorax ssp.), sandpipers, black-winged stilts, wood sandpipers (Tringa glareola), green sandpipers (T. ochropus), some yellow-headed small birds, oxpeckers (Buphagus), grey crowned cranes (Balearica regulorum) and yellow wagtails were detected in great numbers. Pink-ink flower (Cycnium tubulosum) spotted the scenery.

Impalas, warthogs, African buffalos (Syncerus caffer), and Thompson’s gazelles (Eudorcas thomsonii) were also noticed. The vegetation of the low lands in the part are dominated by Acacia xanthophloea and high herbs or scrubs like wild hemp (Hibiscus cannabinus), devil's horsewhips, big Chenopodium and Lantana camara. In addition savannas grasses like Rhodes grass dominated. On rocky hills Kalanchoe, Rudbeckia and Olea africana are among the plants, and rock hyrax (Procavia capensis), hoopoe (Upupa epops), eastern yellow-billed hornbill (Tockus flavirostris), drongo (Dicrurus ssp.), helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) among the birds.

We had a thorough tour in the National Park, which included the both sightseeing sites, the waterfalls and a tour around the lake. Out of Africa look point was the one where I had not previously been. In the southern part of the Park I spotted a brown snake-eagle (Circaetus cinereus), a long-crested eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) and a bee-eater (Merops ssp.). Scarlet-red flowered Kleinia abyssinica, Grewia similis, kahki plant, Eucalyptus ficifolia were flowering abundantly in the Park. Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) was found in the southern part of the park, but we were unable to see rhinos. For a while it was raining quite heavily.

Buffalos and Thompson’s gazelles and a yellow-billed stork at Lake Nakuru National Park 7.11.2010.

8. DAY: Monday 8

th

of November 2010

In Monday morning at Rift Valley Sports Club I spotted spider liliy, Jacarandaa minosifolia,

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co-ordinator of the Nakuru-Hämeenlinna co-operation was not at office. Luckily I had announced of our arrival also to the Environmental Director, who with assistant co-ordinator told about the co-operation and Nyahururu- Hattula-Janakkala group told about theirs.

After lunch the others went to visit Racetrack, but I stayed at Town Hall to be able to meet Sammy Ngige another time and discuss the Hml – Nakuru co-operation. It was regarded as a good idea that the southern partners could also have some co-operation and exchange of knowhow together. I found out that the hedge plant at the Gyoto dumping site was key apple or caffra amber (Dovialis caffra). The composting at Racetrack has been stopped for a while due to some complaints about the smell by the neighbours. I suggested using a compostor in Racetrack similarly to Mariakani.

On the way back to Nyahururu it was raining and I noticed also the following species: Croton

megalocarpus is a shade tree whose fruit is used for biodisel in Rumuruti. Also Jathropa and matenge plant are grown in Paringo area for several purposes. It appeared that George Mwangi had studied the identification of tree species. We discussed some of the shrubs, which were presented in the booklet which I received from Tree is Life organization. For example Sesbania sesban isedible, rich in vitamin C and used to ferment.

In Nyahururu we were taken to spend the night to Tabor Hill hotel and monastry owned by the Catholic church. The whole hotel area was very beautiful and clean place with amazingly decorative ornamental plantings. Common sparrows were noticed. Mexican green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica) was used as a common tree species in the park. Canna spectabilis, Dicentra, red Coliaeus, Araucaria excelsa, Phoenix dactylifera, Chamaerops humilis, Genista, Thunbergia, Tradescanthia, Brunfelsia pauciflora, Cupressus sempervirens, and different colours of roses belonged to the flora of the park.

Tabor Hill garden 8.11.2010.

9. DAY: Tuesday 9

th

of November 2010

In Tuesday morning I had a chance to study the garden more. Two dove species, superb starling, common fiscal, greater blue-eared starling, ring-necked dove, olive trush, hadada ibis and rufous sparrow were among the fauna. To the plant list was added Chrysanthemum ssp., Leucanthemum

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vulgare, Euphorbia milii, Grewillea robusta, Aaloe vera, Cyperus, Taraxacum, Thlaspi alpeatre, Cynodon dactylon, Agapanthus africanus, Gladiolus, Acacia xanthophloea,Sanseviera, Burgamansia, Begonia, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Callistemon sinensis, Musa sapientum, cabbage (Brassica oleracea), onion (A. cepa), Citrus sinensis, sugar cane, Tetragonolobus purpureus and Zinnia.

The project review meeting was scheduled starting at 9 am, but we only started at about 11:30. Once again we had a long morning to wait in the Mayor’s room before the meeting was started. Actually we did not have time to plan for the next period even though it was in the program.

I asked the list of the trees planted during the project, particularly during year 2010. Based on the data, which has been provided for me in December 2009 and November 2010, I have compiled the list of all seedlings planted in the project (Table 1). There is some ambiguity in the numbers, but it seems that the total number of planted seedlings is approximately 50 000. Exact numbers of tree species or even division to indigenous vs. exotic species was unfortunately not provided. There is need for a better recording of the species and numbers of seedlings. The survival of the seedlings has been a challenge due to the life stock, but now by-laws are being implemented and reviewed. A condemination pit for dead animals is been digged instead of building the incinerator. There was some dispute about the dump site is, but it is supposed to be now on municipal land. Some poles had been burned. The seminar was organized to discuss about environmental topics in the project.

On the left: Manguo riverine land. On the right: Constructing the condemnation pit at waste water plant of Nyahururu 9.11.2010.

Education component had a capacity building seminar at Kawa Fall in November. A class room was just being built in Mariakani. Almost all the schools have environmental clubs.

In tourism component a capacity building seminar is planned by the end of the year. Marketing and management plan has been implemented. A sign post has been set and a plan is made of the elevated view platform. Trees have been planted at Manguo point. Brochures and web site are being prepared. There is a new secretary for the component. 3000 seedlings have been planted in Manguo. A road was improved and car parking plot was set. In the administration component capacity building and

reporting has been done. Internet connections are available in Town Hall. ICT training and fire training may be even organized.

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Table 1. Number of planted tree seedlings in Nyahururu in North-South co-operation project. total number of seedlings

Road sides 4638 Nyahururu-Rumuruti 1607 Nyahururu-Nyeri 650 Nyahururu-Nairobi 967 Nyahururu-Silibwet 400 Nyahururu-Nakuru 878 Nakuru-Nairobi 136 Public property 23680 stadium 250

open spaces, parks 50

Manguo hippo point 8870

water intake plant 30

water treatment plant 600

sewerage plant 6780

dumpsite 7100

Wards 1190

Ndunyu ward 200

Kiganda Ward 490

All municipality wards 500

Schools 14625 Mariakani Primary 1700 Jupiter Primary 580 Nyahururu Primary 3035 91 Municipality Primary 1300 Starehe Primary 1520 S.D.A. Primary 1240 Thama Primary 1200

Laikipia High School 250

Bishop Luigi Silale Primary 600

Maina Primary 1000

Falling Waters Primary 2000

Kiandege Primary School 200

Other institutions 1450

Social Hall 50

Office of Assistant Chief – Maina 1000

Other institutions 400

Churces 4580

A.C.K. Church 980

P.C.E.A. Church 3600

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In the afternoon we visited the sites, where there still is work to do during the project. First we went to the Social Hall, where the computer lab was being prepared in the second floor. The ceilings had been painted, electricity connected but internet connection had not yet been connected. The security matters had been put a lot of thought for a reason. There is otherwise a risk of computers being stolen.

Then we went to the Manguo hippo pools, where the planned sightseeing platform was going to be built soon. Nyeri road side location would have provided a better location for the platform, but the ownership of the land (Private land, Forest Services land and riparian land) could not be solved and the locals seemed to be confident on the fact that the initially planned hippo platform site is better than the newly suggested one.

From the hippo pool we walked to the waste water plant, where the condemnation pit was already under construction. The about 10 m deep and 1 m x 1.5 m pit was in about 6 m deep. Thus, this task is certainly going to be ended in time. On the way there I spotted long-tailed Widowbird (Euplectes progne).

In the evening after a short rest at Tabor Hill we returned to Thompson Falls Lodge for a farewell dinner. Mr Jouko Tuomisto gave a speach translated by Jukka Pettersson. After that the Mayor and Co-ordinator spoke and the Miriam delivered the presents bought for the visitors. I got a kanga scarf, belt, bag, art and glass plates. I thanked with a short speak and the men in Finnish delegation got a shirt, a belt, a painting and glass plates. In the en Town Clerk spoke. During that time also the District

Commissioner came to place and was introduced as well as the whole project. Finally we had come to the end of ceremonies and we were ready to return for one more night in Tabor Hill.

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10. DAY: Wednesday 10

th

of November 2010

After having enjoyed the Tabor Hill for two nights we were ready to leave for Nairobi at 9:00 as planned, but the program was delayed even one and half an hour. We were sad about the delay. In Nairobi we went to the Embassy of Finland. We were about to meet Emma Pajunen at 14:00, but there was some misunderstanding in the time and she was expecting us only 15:00. While we were waiting and she was busy with another Finnish delegation, Taina Veltheim, Cousellor of Forestry issues came to meet us for a few minutes and we had a chance to explain about the environmental component in our project.

After Emma Pajunen had arrived Jukka spoke the Hattula, Janakkala – Nyahururu linkage in the North-South program. Then Emma Pajunen told us about the Finnish development policy, which is based on the theme "towards a sustainable and just world community". In accordance with the programme, the most important objective is to eradicate poverty in compliance with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), set in 2000. Eradication of poverty is possible only if both the developing and industrialised countries pursue economically, socially and ecologically sustainable policies. The bilateral development cooperation between Finland and Kenya has focused on good governance, forestry and energy.

In addition to the bilateral development cooperation, Finland and Kenya have also co-operation through the Finnish Non-Governmental organisations. The Fund for Local Cooperation, which is administered by the Embassy, supports the development of the civil society in Kenya. The projects have dealt with human rights, rural development, energy and environmental issues such as biodiesel from Jathropa in Narumoru, tree planting and NGO co-operation The annual budget for this NGO co-operation has been approximately 1,3 million €. The North-South-South Higher Education Network Programme is an exchange programme for teachers and students from universities in Finland and the developing countries.

We were escorted to the air port by Co-ordinators, George, two Councillors, Mayor, Town Clark and the drivers. The flights went well and we were in Helsinki Vantaa on 11.11.2010 at 10:20.

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Thanks

I want to take this opportunity and thank on my part and also on the part of the whole Finnish team all the people we met during the visit and particularly Mercy, Miriam, George, Lucy and Mayor and Town Clerk for their hard work to make the visit very successful and fruitful. Thanks to all the persons we met, among them

Principal Administrative Officer and Programme co-ordinator Mercy Wangu Wahome Programme Assistant Co-ordinator Miariam Githaiga

Chief Public Health Officer George Mwangi Environmental Officer Lydia N. Karanja, NEMA Nancy Kihato, Tree is Life

Head Teacher of Mariakani Primary School Lucy Kangangi Mayor Peter Thiari

Deputy Mayor, Councillor Irene Wacuka John D.N. Nganga -Town Clerk

Municipal Treasurer Paul Ngethe Tourism Component Eric Nyambu Manager Joseph Theuri NyahyWasCo

Technical Manager Peter Mwangi NyahyWasCo Councillor Jonnah Gicheru Munga

Councillor John Muritu Karumba Councillor Timothy Nduhio

Public Officer, Councillor James Kabugi Publich Health Technician John Wamugi Municipal driver Kingori Wamatu Driver Benson Ndungu

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Hot springs in Lake Bogoria 6.11.2010. Flower decorations of dancer at Kinadege primary school 5.11.2010.

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