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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries of Formal Algorithmic Knowledge Project Overview

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 1

Robert L. Constable – Cornell James Caldwell – Wyoming

Jason Hickey – Cal Tech

Progress Report:

Building Interactive Digital Libraries of Formal Algorithmic Knowledge

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 2

• The DoD URI BAA • Our Proposal Goals Strategy Benefits • Challenges • Reply to challenges • Progress in Year One

Cornell Cal Tech Wyoming

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 3

Department of Defense University Research Initiative

“Knowledge about algorithms is derived from discoveries in the mathematical sciences that can be expressed constructively.

Software assurance depends on mathematical understanding and experience in constructive mathematics and its expression.”

“Systematically developing an infrastructure for this knowledge of algorithms – as in a digital library – will contribute to higher

quality software and greater confidence in program construction.

This development begins by codifying constructive mathematical knowledge and engaging the research community in pursuit of this national infrastructure.”

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 4

Research Concentration Areas

1. Proof checking of the standard body of computational mathematics

2. Catalog principal math concepts used in computing 3. Investigate a suitable base language and logic

4. Provide library support for routine aspects of formalization

5. Investigate assured interoperation 6. Investigate reflection

7. Study issues of consistency and maintenance among library collections

8. Investigate appropriate user interfaces 9. Explore innovative correctness metaphors 10. Consider economic issues (as in publishing)

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 5

Characteristics of BAA

The research concentration areas have three aspects: • Building infrastructure for a formal library of

computational mathematics (2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9) • Creating formal content (1, 3, 6)

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 6

What Does “Formal” Mean?

The BAA refers to machine-checked mathematics presented in a consistent formal logical theory

that is implemented.

This meaning of “formal” is technical. It is more narrow than what many people mean in daily use.

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 7

Objective:

To create a digital library of algorithms and

constructive mathematics useable for program and software construction.

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 8

Our Proposal and Project

“Building Interactive Digital Libraries of Formal Algorithmic Knowledge”

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 9

Goals

1. Build a semantics-based interactive logical library infrastructure

2. Create, collect and organize formal computational mathematics content

3. Apply the formal interactive DL in designing and creating reliable software (especially for CIP/SW)

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 10

Strategy

1. Attract a community of contributors who share formal knowledge and the connected mathematically literate articles

2. Account for correctness in a multi-logic, multi-prover (including tactic-style)

environment

3. Provide semantics-based library services at many scales

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 11

1. Community using formal proofs is relatively small

• Market for formal proofs is small

– proof technology not widely used in software – proof technology not widely used in

science and math

– proof technology not widely used in education • Formal proving is still hard work

– expansion factor

– shallow base of basic mathematical facts – demanding skill set (programming + math

+ design)

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 12

2. Community is disconnected

• Each group uses a different system

• Almost no sharing (logical difficulties, practical ones)

• Systems change or go extinct

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 13

Digital Library Approach to the Challenges

1. Widen the community by

• library will increase the services provided • library will decrease the effort to create

proofs (seen from experience)

2. Connect the community through a common service – the digital libraries approach

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 14

value

effort

ascii

XML

XHTML

MathML

SGML

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 15

Formal DL Data Formats

value

effort

subterm (AST)

refs (pointers)

α-equality, substitution

definitions, displays, macros formulas, types

extracts, algorithms proof formats

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 16

Terms (Abstract Syntax Trees)

( ;

; )

for a term

t

=

op t

L

t

t

Term

=

op Term List

×

1 1

( . ;

; . )

n n i list of binding variables

op v t

L

v t

v

1 1

{ :

;

; :

k k

}

Op

=

OpName i F

L

i

F

with binding structure

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 17

Progress in Year One

• Cornell

conceptual basis for FDL

prototype Formal Digital Library

targeted content creation (Nuprl, MetaPRL) applications to DoD problems

• Wyoming

content production – graph theory primitive proof checker in ACL2

• Cal Tech

content production in MetaPRL in CZF MetaPRL development

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 18

Characteristics of Year One Progress

• Prototype FDL has gone farther than promised

includes PVS

has a customer (ORA)

Nuprl and MetaPRL are only clients

extensive advanced design documents reference prototype is small

• Content development has been cooperative

strong ties through MetaPRL JProver has customers

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 19

Benefits to Society

• Basis for highly reliable and responsive software • Acceleration of scientific discovery

mathematics

computer science

computational science meta mathematics

• Wider access to content (participatory science) • Topics in a new science of information

formalized mathematics publication scholarly publication in general (arXiv) quantitative meta mathematics

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 20

Questions from Dr. Ralph Wachter

1. What will the library look like? How will it be used? 2. How can users make contributions to the DL?

3. How can user interaction with the DL be facilitated? 4. On what criteria would users be able to search?

5. How will the DL be maintained?

6. What will the internal and external forms of DL artifacts look like?

7. What about the issues of intellectual property rights in the DL?

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 21

What will the library look like?

How will it be used?

View as a reader

View as a formal contributor

View as an article writer

View as a connected process

Mathematical essence:

( ) DTerm D

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 22

How will users search?

Search mechanisms are not built in, by design. They are part of content.

There will be many search mechanisms, e.g. • indexes

• tables of contents • clustering algorithms • word-based searches • etc.

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Progress Report: Building Interactive Digital Libraries -- Project Overview -- May 2002 23

How will correctness be maintained?

The library does not guarantee correctness. It provides accounting mechanisms.

There will be sound theories and there might be experimental combinations of subtheories or individual results.

References

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