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EIGHTH ANNUAL TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL FISHERIES TECHNOLOGICAL CONFERENCE OF THE AMERICAS. January 11-15, TamPa, Florida

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EIGHTH ANNUAL

TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL

FISHERIES

TECHNOLOGICAL

CONFERENCE

OF THE AMERICAS

January 11-15, 1985

Admiral

Benbow Inn

TamPa, Florida

TKCHNICAI. PAPER NO. 26

Published

by the Florida Sea

Grant

College

Program,

with support

from the

(3)

The

Tropical

and

Subtropical

Fisheries

Technological

Society

of the

Americas

is a professional,

educational

association

of fishery

technologists

interested

in the application

of science

to the unique

problems

of production,

processing,

packaging,

distribution,

and

the

utilization of tropical and subtropical fishery species

~

Individual

abstracts

edited

by the authors

of the abstracts.

Prepared

by editors,

W.

Steven

Otwell

and

John

A. Koburger,

Department

of Food

Science

and

Human

Nutrition,

University

of Florida,

Gainesville,

Florida

and

MAP - Sea Grant Editorial Office

Florida Sea Grant Program

University of Florida

(4)

EIGHTH ANNUAL

TROPICAL

AND SUBTROPICAL

FISHERIES

TECHNOLOGICAL

CONFERENCE

OF THE AMERICAS

January 11-13, 1983

Admiral Benbow Inn Tampa, Florida

MONDAY January 10

6-8 p.m.

Registration Open

TUESDAY

- January 11 Boca Ciega Bay - Conference Room

8:00 a.m. Registration Open

WELCOME

W. Steven Otwell, Conference Co-chai~ran,

9:00 a.m.

OPENING Seafood Technology

National Aspects Robert J. White Vice-President Corporate Planning and

Development, ConAgra, Omaha, Nebraska

--- International

Aspects Southeastern Seafood

Ewart levelopeent Jeok Greenfield, Chief

of Fisheries Development Division, National

Marine Fisheries Service, St. Petersburg,

Florida

A Selection of Unsolved Problems W. Steven

Otwell, University of Florida, Gainesville,

Florida 10:00 a.m.

UPDATE

ON MANAGEMENT

ACTIVITIES Wayne Swingle,

Executive Director, Gulf of Mexico Fishery

Management

Council, Tampa, FL.

10:20 a.m.

(5)

10:40 a.m.

11:00 a.m.

11:20 a.m.

ll:40 a.m.

12:00 p.m.

WORLD SHRIMP PRODUCTION TRENDS AND THE U.S. IMPORT MARKET Fred J. Prochaska and Mauro

Suazo, Department of Food and Resource Economics,

University of' Florida, Gainesville, FL.

MARINE RESOURCE LIMITATIONS AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN David A. Olsen and

Richard Wood, Division of Fish and Wildlife,

St. Thomas, U.S, Virgin Islands.

WAYS OF IMPROVING COMMUNICATIONS EXTENSION!

BETWEEN THE FISHERIES INDUSTRY AND INSTITUTES IN LATIN AMERICA Hector M. Lupi.n, Fisheries

Development, FOA, Rome, italy.

SPINY LOBSTER IMPORTS AND THE W-VESSEL DH'a$""JD FOR FLORIDA SPINY LOBSTERS Fred J. Prochaska

and Walter R. Keithly, Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. LUNCH PAPER SESSION II 1:30 p.m. 1:50 p.m. 2:10 p.m. 2:30 p.m. 2:50 p.m.

- Chairman, Allison Perry, Gulf' Coast Research Laboratory, Ocean Springs, MS.

EXPERD1ENTAL OFT FOR HARVESTlNG DFEP-SEA CRAB

GERYON SP.! FROM TNE GULF OF MEXICO Donald E.

Sweat and W. Steven Otwell, Florida Sea Grant Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS FROM ON-BOARD HANDLING

DEEP-SEA CRABS GERYON SP.! HARVESTED FROM THE

GULF OF MEXICO Jeffrey J. Bellairs and W. Steven Otwell, Department of Food Science and Human

Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

PURSE SEINE FISHING FOR COASTAL PELAG1C SPECIES

IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO Charles M.

Roithmayr, National Marine Fisheries Service, Pascagoula, MS.

CLOSED SYSTEM SHEDDING OF BLUE CRABS: THE VIRGINIA EXPERIENCE Michael J. Oesterling

and William D. DuPaul, Marine Advisory Service,

Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA.

ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF INTERREGIONAL

PRICE-QUANTITY VARIABLES ON HARD BLUE CRAB PRICES

Garey B. Perkins, Food and Fiber Center, Mississippi

(6)

3:10 p.m.

ADDUCTOR

MUSCLE

PARASITES,

SULCASCARIS

SULCATA,

IN CALICO

SCALLOPS

FROM

THE SOU~~IRAS'r

COAST

OF

THE UNITED

STATES

Norman J. Blake, B.J. Barber,

G.E. Rodrick, and C.D. Burns, Department of

Marine Science, University of South Florida,

St. Petersburg, FL.

3:30 p.m.

CONSUMER

PERCEPTION

OF SULCASCARIS

SULCATA

IN

SCALLOP

ADDUCTOR

MUSCLE

W. Steven Qtwell and

Bridget Walker, Department

of Food Science and

Human

Nutrition,

University of Florida,

Gainesville, FL. 3:50 p.m.

DEVELOPMENT

QF MERGE!EN

FROM

THE

ATLANTIC

OCEAN

RREVOORTIA

TVRANNUS!

AND

GULF

OF MEXICO

BREVOORTIA

PATED!lUS!

AS A RESOURCE

FOR

PRODUCTION

QF SURIMI,

A FROZE%

SEAFOOD

INTERMEDIATE

Tyre C.

Lanier, R.W. Korhonen,

and T. Akahane,

Department

of Food Science, North Carolina State University,

Raleigh, NC.

4:10 p.m.

PREI.IMINARY

RESULTS

OF A STUDY

OF REGENERATION

AND

GROWTH

OF CUT

VS. HOOKED

CQMNtERCIAL

SPONGES

IN THE

FLORIDA

KEYS

- John M. Stevely and Donald

Sweat, Marine Advisory Program, Florida Sea

Grant Program, Palmetto, FL.

4:30 p.m. ADJOURN ATTITUDE AD JUSTMENT 5:QO p.m. 7:00 p.m. WEDNESDAY January 12

- Chairman, Tyre Lanier, Department of Food

Science, North Carolina State University,

Raleigh, NC. PAPER SESSION IV

FRESHNESS

QUALITY

QF FISHING

TQURNAMKNT

FISH

DETEIMINED

BY MICROSCOPIC

EXAMINATION

OF RED

BLOOD

CELLS

- R. Tillman, R. Nickelson, and

L. Jones, Texas

ALM

University, College Station, 'X.

8:30 a.m.

TEXTURAL

MKASUREMENTS

AS AN EVALUATION

OF FISH

FRESHNESS

E.A. Johnson, R.A. Seagars, and

J.G, Kapsalis, Food Engineering

Department,

University of Massachusetts,

Amherst,

MA.

8:50 a.m.

PAPER

SESSION

III Chairman, Keith Gates, Marine Extension

(7)

9:10 a.m.

9:30 a.m.

9:50 a.m.

10:10 a.m,

ENZYMATIC AMMONIA AND UREA DETERMINATION IN

FRESH SEAFOODS HFLD REFRIGERATED AND ON ICE-W,L, Cheuk, G. Finne, and R. Nickelson,

Seafood Technology, Texas A&M University,

College Station, TX.

DZTZCTION OF BONES IN WHITE FISH FlLETS USING ELECTRONIC CANDLING Lester F. Whitney

and Siraj Officewala,

Food Engineering

Department, University of Massachusetts,

Amherst, MA.

THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY ON THE

FLAVOR CHARACTERISTICS OF PENAEID SHRIMP V. Oberlender and G. Finne, Seafood Technology,

Texas ARM University, College Station, TX.

PAPER SESSION V 10:20 a.m. 10:40 a.m. ll:00 a.m. ll:20 a.m. ll:40 a.m. 12:00 p.m.

Chairman, John A. Koburger, Department of

Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

THE INCIDZNCZ OF SALMONELLAE IN FOUR SEAFOODS HARVESTED IN FLORIDA M.B. Fraiser and John A.

Koburger, Department of Food Science and Human

Nutrition, University of Florida, GainesvilLe, FL.

EVALUATION OF THE ELEVATED TEMPERATURE INCUBATION PROCEDURE FOR THE RECOVERY OF SAIMONZLLAE FROM

OYSTERS

- Mary L. Miller and John A. Koburger,

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition,

University of Florida, Gainesville,

FL.

ISOLATION OF lNDOLE-PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM WHITE

SHRIMP,

PENAEUS

SETIFERUS!

R.L. Smith, R. Nickelson,

and G. Firms, Seafood Technology, Texas AQUI

University,

College Station, TX,

ON THE

RELATIONSHIP

BETWEEN

TBOD! AND

BOD!

IN INDUSTRIAL FISHERY LIQUiD EFFLUENTS - M.A. Parin,

E. Civit, and Hector M. Lupjn, CITEP,

Argentina!

and Fisheries Department FAO, Rome, Italy.

TEMPORAL CHANGES IN FISH COMMUNITY STRUCTURE

NEAR A MARINE SEWER OUTFALL, MOKAPU, HAWAII

Anthony R. Russo, Science Division, Univeristy

of Hawaii, Pearl City, HI.

(8)

PAPER SESSION VI 1:30 p.m, 1: 50 p.m. 2:10 p.m. 2:lO p.m. 3:OQ p.m. THURSDAY January 13

PAPER SESSION VII

8:30 a.m.

8:50 a.m.

3:20 p.m.

7:QO p.iQ.

8:OO p.iIi.

- Chairman, James

R. Kirk, Chairman,

Department

of Food Science and Human

Nutrition, University

of Flori.da, Gainesville,

FL.

NATURALLY

OCCURRING

PATHQGENS

AND

TOXINS

IN

THE MARINE

ENVIRONtKNT

- PRIORITIES FQR

RESEARCH

Rita R. Colwell, Department of

Microbiology, University of Maryland, College

Park, MD.

TOXIC

DINOFLAGELLATES

AND

THZIR IMPACT

ON

FISHZRIES: A REVIEW

Karen A. Steidinger,

Florida Department, of Natural Resources,

Bureau of Marine Research, St. Petersburg, FL.

THE VAGARIES

OF CIGUATOXIN

DETEIIMINATZON-Thomas

B, Higerd, National Marine Fisheries

Service and Medical University of' South

Carolina, Charleston, SC,

ELIMINATION

OF ZNTERIC

BACTERIA

AND

VIRUSES

FROM

OYSTERS

AFTER

RELAYING

TO APPROVED

AREAS

David W. Cook and R.D. Ellender,

Gulf Coast, Research Laboratory, Ocean

Springs, MS.

DETERMINATION

OF THE THERMAL

DEATH

TIME OF

VIBRIO

CHOLERAE

IN SHRIMP

PENAEUS

SETIFERUS

}

Arthur Hint, on, Jr. and Robert M. Grodner,

Department

of Food

Science,

Louisiana

State

University,

Baton Rouge, LA,

ADJOURN

ATTITUDE ADJUSTMENT

DINNER

FOR CONFERENCE

REG1STRANTS

Chairman, Roy Martin, National Fisheries

Institute, Washington, D.C.

TEXTURAL

VARIATION

WITHIN

COOKED

F1SH

FILLETS

Ronald A. Segars, Ernest A. Johnson,

and J, hn G,

Kapsalis, U.S. Argy Natick RLD

Laboratories,

Natick, MA.

INSTRUMENTAL

EVALUATION

QF THE

TEXTURE

OF

FINFISH

FOR

AN FDIBILITY

DATA

BANK

Malcolm B.

Hale, National Marine Fisheries Service,

(9)

PROGRESS

ON SENSORY

TESTING

OF FINFISH AS IT

RELATES

TO THE NATIONAL

NOMENCLATURE

PROJECT'-Beth M. Elsey, National Marine Fisheries

Service, Charleston, SC.

DESCRIPTIVE

SENSORY

EVALUATION

OF MACROBRACHIUM

RQSENBERGII

VERSUS

THREE

TRADITIONAL

PRlN~E

SPEC1ES

- D. Ellis,

D. Simsg R, Nickelson, and

B. Rovrland, Texas ARM

University and Red Lobst;er

Inns of' Americal

TEXTURE

ANALYSIS

OF TAIL FLESH IN MACROBRACii

UM

ROSENBERGI1

- R. Tillman and G. Finne, Seafood

Technology, Texas AQ University, College

Station, TX.

(10)

ABSTRACTS of' the

EIGHTH ANNUAL TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL

FISHERIES TECHNOLOGICAL CONFERZNCZ OF THE AMERICAS

January 1983

Abstracts are arranged in the order of presentation,

Individual abstracts edited by the authors of the respective

(11)

WORLD SHRIMP PRODUCTION TRENDS AND THE U,S, IMPORT MARKET

Fred J. Prochaska and Mauro Suazo Food and Resource Economics

University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

World shrimp and prawn production,

increased from 376,000

metric tons

in 1950 to a high of 1,699,000

metric tons in 1978. The average

annual

rate of increase was 69,000 metric tons. Since 1977 total world landings

have appeared

to have leveled out at annual of 1,650,000

metric tons.

The cumulative share of total world production accounted for by the

top ten producing

coun.

tries has declined

from

83 percent.

in 1960

to 71

percent

in 1980. The

U.S. was

the leading

producer

in 1960

with 22.5

percent

of total world shrimp

production

but declined

to third in relative

importance

with 9.4 percent

in 1980. India has been

the leading

producing

country

since 1973. Mexico

dropped

from third to eighth in share

of world

production between 1960 and 1980.

Between

1971 and 1980 shrimp imports exceeded

domestic landings in

seven of the ten years. Sources of U.S. shrimp imports have become

more

diversified;

the top ten suppliers accounted

for 94 percent of U.S.

imports in 1960

but only 74 percent by 1980. Throughout

the past two

decades Mexico has been the major supplier to the U.S. Volume of Mexican

shrimp

imports

has remained

relatively stable while her share of total

U.S. shrimp

imports has declined. Volume

and share of shrimp

imports from

(12)

MARINE RESOURCE LIMITATION AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN

David A. Olsen and Richard Wood

Division of Fish and Wildlife

St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 00801

Despite their insular setting almost every Eastern

Caribbean island has little, if any, potential for expansion for harvest of shelf resources. Some islands' fisheries

produce significant landings of pelagic xesources, but

seasonality and year-to-year variability provide problems

in prediction of available yield.

In addition to limitations of available yield ciguateric

fish poisoning provides serious obstacles to development of

Eastern Caribbean resources. U.S. Virgin Islands attempts to locate altexnative resources have provided some indication

of crab, shrimp, and deepwater snapper-grouper stocks with potential as supplements to the shallow water reef fish

currently being exploited. Exploration for pelagic resources

(13)

WAYS OF IMPROVING COMMUNICATION EXTENSION! BETWEEN THE FISHERIES INDUSTRY AND INSTITUTES IN LATIN AMERICA

Hector M. Lupi.n

Fish Utilization and Marketing Service Fisheries Department, FAO

00100 Rome, Italy

The problems that hinder a good communication between the

fisheries

industry and institutes

engaged in research in Latin

America are reviewed. Past experience is taken into account

to suggest steps toward a better communication. The improvement

of extension activities will improve the role of the institutes

in their own country and it could help to improve the quality

of the products, give a better knowledge of the processes,

prevent public health problems and could lead to a more active

participation in government

progranmes, e.g. by helping artisanal

(14)

SPINY LOBSTER IMPORTS AND THE EX-VESSEL DEMAND FOR FLORIDA SPINY LOBSTERS

Fred J. Prochaska and Walter R. Keithly

Food and Resource Economics

University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

Annual imports of spiny lobsters average over 90 percent of apparent. U.S.,spiny lobster consumption. Florida lobster prices are shown to be highly dependent on price of imported lobsters. F1orida domestic !end-ings also influence ex-vessel prices but to a lesser economic extent.

(15)

EXPERIMENTAL GEAR FOR HARVESTING DEEP-SEA CRAB GERYON SP.! FROM

THE GULF OF MEXICO Donald E. Sweat

Marine Advisory Program

Largo, Florida 33540

and

W. Steven Otwell

Department of Food Science and Human

Nutrition

University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

Bottom longlines with traps have been used to harvest

deep-sea

arabs ~Ger

on sp.! from the eastern Gn|f oZ Mexico.

Four basic trap designs have been investigated with variable

sizes, shapes, entrances and baits.

Crabs were caught at

depths ranging from 210 to 310 fathoms. A higher proportion

of male crabs were caught in deeper water.

Trap performance

was related to soaktimes which range from 12 to 42 hours.

Average

crab size was not significantly different across all

trap designs, depths and soaktime. Male body weight ranged

from 1.3 to 3.7 pounds .59 to 1.68 kg.! and averaged 2.4

pounds

.09 kg.!. Smaller females

ranged

from 0.6 to 1.6 pounds

(16)

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS FROM ON-BOARD HANDLING

DEEP-SEA CRABS GERYON SP.! HARVESTED FROM

THE GULF OF MEXICO

Jeffrey J. Bellairs and W. Steven Otwell Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition

University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

On-board handling procedures for the deep-sea crab Geryon sp.! were investigated. Survival studies were carried out in

which crabs were either: directly iced, packed in moist burlap

bags and iced, or packed in baskets and held at 50~F. High

mortality rates for each storage method were encountered indi-cating that butchering at sea may be necessary. Butchered male crabs were found to yield 23K total meat when the body parts were steamed and picked. The basic chemical composition of

raw and cooked crab meat were compared.

A black discoloration, probably caused by a polyphenol

oxidase enzyme system, became apparent on the flesh of iced crabs after 2 3 days of storage. Although the discoloration

was found to be more severe than in similar New England fisheries,

some success in controlling the discoloration was achieved with

(17)

PURSE SEINE FISHING FOR COASTAL PELAGIC SPECIES IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

Charles M. Roithmayr

National Marine Fisheries Service

Pascagoula, Mississippi 39567

Two harvest systems using power blocks and power drums to

retrieve the nets are described for the single boat purse seine

fishery for coastal pelagic fishes in the north central Gulf of

(18)

CLOSED SYSTEM SHEDDING OF BLUE CRABS:

THE VIRGINIA EXPERIENCE

Michael J. Oesterling and William D. DuPaul Marine Advisory Service

College of William and Nary

Virginia Institute of Marine Science Gloucester Point, Virginia 23062

Virginia has consistently been a leader in the production of soft shell crabs. For the period 1977-1981, the average

production of soft crabs has exceeded 317,520 kg 00,000 lb.!,

valued at over $735,000.

Traditionally, this production has been achieved using methods little changed from the early beginnings of the ind«stry. The use of the "standard" in-water floating box also known as "floats"! is sti.ll an important means of shedding crabs. During the 1950's on-shore, flow-through shedding tanks were introduced.

Today, many producers have switched entirely

to on-shore shedding,

or rely on a combination of floats and tanks. Over the past

several years a great deal of interest has been expressed

regard-ing the sheddregard-ing of ~rabs in closed, recirculatregard-ing water syst~~s.

In Virginia,

the closed systems used vary in design and

complexity. Currently, there are 3 basic facility designs in production. Each of these will be briefly discussed as to

advantages or disadvantages.

Additionally,

one facility

will

be high lighted as to its success.

A direct comparison between an open-flow and a closed system within a single soft crab production facility was conducted during

the soft crab season of 1982. Despite high levels of

(19)

ANALYSIS 07 THE IMPACT OF INTERREGIONAL PRICE-QUANTITY

VARIABLES ON HARD BLUE CRAB PRICES

Garey B. Perkins

Food and Fiber Center

Mississippi State University

Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762

This paper decribes the results of a regression analysis

of price and quantity variables on ex vessel values of. hard blue

crab by geographical region.

Primary emphasis in on the Gulf of Mexico region.

Reported

prices of hard blue crabs in the Gulf lagged U.S. average prices

until 1974. Since then, Gulf prices have been higher than in other geographical regions.

Impacts of landings in each region on Gulf ex-vessel prices are examined. Landings in each Gulf state are also analyzed for impact on ex-vessel prices in the Gulf and in each state.

(20)

ADDUCTOR MUSCLE PARASITES, SULCASCARIS SULCATA, IN

CALICO SCALLOPS FROM THE SOUTHEAST COAST OF THE UNITED STAIES N.J. Blake, B.J. Barber, G.E. Rodrick, and C.D. Burns

Department of Marine Science University of South Florida

St. Petersburg, Florida 33701

In late l981 and 1982 the value of the calico scallop

Ar~oyecten

~ibbus! industry, centered off the east coast of

Florida, was endangered as a result

of the occurrence and

recognition of parasites, presumably Sulcascaris sulcata, in

the adductor muscle. In order to determine the geographic

distribution

of the parasites along the southeast coast of the

United States, scallops were collected in June 1982 from a

total of 16 stations ranging from South Carolina to Stuart,

Florida.

Occurrence of at least one parasite per muscle ranged from 28 to 68K with a mean of 45.5X. Both third and fourth stage

larvae were present.

A latitudinal

pattern of parasite occurrence

was not observed; neither were levels of parasite occurrence

(21)

CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF SULCASCARIS SULCATA

IN SCALLOP ADDUCTOR MUSCLE

W. Steven Otwell and Bridget L. Walker

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition

University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

Recent concern for parasitic nematode cysts, Sulcascaris

sulcata in the adductor muscle of calico scallops, Arg~o ecten

~ibbus has culminated in a 20 percent limi.t specified by U.S.

Food and Drug Administrative

guidelines.

FDAs laboratory work

has indicated this infestation does not pose a health hazard,

yet the presence constitutes adulteration.

Subjective tests

were designed to determine consumer perception of the cyst as

an asethically displeasing attribute. Paired comparisons

using various combinations of 0 to 100 percent infestation

in

raw scallops indicated average consumers could not detect the

presence of parasi.tes in concentrations up to 40 percent. In

raw scallops with levels of 50, 75, and 100 percent infestation,

only 4.7, 8.6, and 20 percent of the consumers respectively

noted presence of spots, blemishes, or dots.

Cooking enhanced

consumer perception.

Multiple comparison tests with trained

panelists indicated consumers could perceive levels as low as

20 percent infestation

only after experiencing levels in excess

(22)

DEVELOPMENT OF MENHADEN FROM THE ATLANTIC OCEAN

BREVOORTIA-TYRANNUS! AND GULF OF MEXICO BREVOORTIA PATRONUS! AS A RESOURCE FOR PRODUCTION OF SURINI,

A FROZEN SEAFOOD INTERMEDIATE

T.C. Lanier, R.W. Korhanen, and T. Akahane Department of Food Science

North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina 27650

Laboratory and commercial trials were conducted to assess the suitability of menhaden for production of a high grade surimi, suitable for further processing into restructured seafood products.

High levels of dark muscle, fat, and protein-degrading enzyme

activity were initially identified as deterrents to utilization

of menhaden as surimi. Suitable processing techniques have been

(23)

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A STUDY OF REGENERATION AND GROWTH OF CUT VS. HOOKED COMMERCIAL SPONGES IN THE

FLORIDA KEYS

John M. Stevely Marine Advisory Program Palmetto, Florida 33561

and Donald Sweat

Narine Advisory Program Largo, Florida 33540

The Florida Sea Grant Program has funded a study to monitor

regeneration and growth of cut vs. hooked commercial sponges

~Hi

pos~onI

ia lachne! in the Florida Keys. The purpose is to

help determine if cutting of sponges by divers as opposed to

tearing the sponge free from the bottom! is an ecologically

sound harvesti~g technique.

Presently certain areas of Florida

State territorial waters are closed to sponge diving operations.

The possibility

of opening these waters to sponge diving operations

has raised concerns about the possibility of overfishing occuring.

Preliminary results demonstrate that either cut or hooked sponges

can survive to regenerate.

However, survivorship of cut sponges

90/! is significantly

higher than survivorship of hooked sponges

0/!.

Additional work is currently underway to determine growth

(24)

FRESHNESS QUALITY OF FISHING TOURNAMENT PISH

DETERMINED BY MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF RED BLOOD CELLS R. Tillman, R. Nickelson, and L. Jones

Seafood Technology and Veterinary Pathology

Texas ASM University

College Station, Texas 77803

A fast objective determination of fish storage history by

microscopic examination of red blood cells was developed. Blood

smears, taken from the hearts of fish stored on ice, without ice

temperature abused!, and frozen, were stained and examined

microscopically. Intact red blood cell membranes

were observed

from non-frozen fish, while cell membranes from frozen fish were

not present and the nuclei appeared swollen.

The entire

(25)

TEXTURAL MEASUREMENTS AS AN EVALUATION

OF FISH FRESHNESS

Ernest A. Johnson

Food Engineering Department University of Massachusetts

Amherst, Massachusetts 01003

and

Ronald A. Segars and John Kapsalis

U.S. Army Natick R&D Laboratories

Natick, Massachusetts 01760

Compression

testing was investigated as a means

of

evalu-ating fish freshness. Studies

on whole

raw fish during storage

measured

rate and degree of recovery of compressed

flesh with

an Instron testing device. Parameters evaluated include:

deformation force, applied energy, recovered energy, recovered

(26)

ENZYMATIC AMMONIA AND fREA DETERMINATIONS

IN FRESH SEAFOODS HELD REFRIGERATED AND ON ICE

W.L. Cheuk, G. Finne, and R, Nickelson Seafood Technology

Texas ARM University

College Station, Texas 77843

A sensitive and specific enzymatic determination of ammonia and urea in seafood products is described. The method is based on the NADH coupled transmination of or-keto-glutamate either

directly

by ammonia in the product or from urea by treatment with

urease. The method is rapid and requires only a uv

spectrophoto-meter. When using the enzymatic assay, ammonia and urea were found to increase uniformly in shrimp, flounder and crabmeat

held under controlled conditions. A good correlation between

traditional spoiIage tests and ammonia and urea as assayed

(27)

DETECTION OF BONES IN WHITE FISH FILETS

USING ELECTRONIC CANDLING

Lester F. Whitney and Siraj Officewala

Food Engineering Department

University of Massachusetts

Amherst, Massachusetts 01003

Fish filets for human

consumption

have generally been

obtained from ground fish such as haddock,

codfish or flounder.

In addition such underutilized species as whiting and herring

are being considered. The main objection to their use concerns

the nature of their bone structure. Such

bones can be detected

and ejected automatically

from mechnically

fileted fish, using

(28)

THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SALINITY ON THE

FLAVOR CHARACTERISTICS OF PENAEXD SHRIMP V. Oberlender and G. Finne

Seafood Technology Texas ARM University

College Station, Texas 77843

This study was conducted to determine the effect of

environmental salinity on the free amino acid composition of penaeid shrimp, the rate of change in composition, and the

effect of these changes on flavor. Shrimp were placed in

six 50 gallon aquaria and allowed to acclimate at 35 parts per thousand ppt! for three days. Each of the tanks was then

changed gradually to one of the following salinities:

10, 20,

30, 40, 50, or 60 ppt.

Samples were taken at 24 hour intervals

for seven days and analyzed for free amino acid nitrogen

concentration, Amino acid profiles were performed on selected

samples. Based on the results of these analyses, shrimp from

different salinities were selected for triangle taste tests to determine whether flavor differences could be detected among

(29)

THE INCIDENCE OF SALMONKLLAE IN FOUR SEAFOODS HARVESTED IN FLORIDA

M.B. Praiser and J.A. Koburger

Department of Food Science and Human

Nutrition

University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

Sixty samples each of oysters Crassostrea virginica!,

clams Mercenaria mercenaria!, striped mullet Mull ~ce

halus!,

and blue crabs Callinectes sapidus! were analyzed for the

presence

of salmonellae

within four hours of harvesting from

east and west coast locations in Florida. The highest percentage

of seafoods positive for salmonellae was clams from the west

coast of Florida with 43X of the clams sampled containing salmonellae.

Mullet was the only seafood in which salmonellae were not recovered.

There appeared to be no correlation between salmonellae and

aerobic plate counts, total coliforms, or fecal coliforms.

In

quantitative MPN

studies, the number

of salmonellae

present in

west coast oysters was found to be 2.2 organisms per 100 grams

oyster. Eleven serotypes of Salmonella

were recovered from the

seafoods with the majority of the serotypes being the less commonly

reported serotypes responsible for foodborne

salmonellosis. The

high number of serotypes isolated, coupled with consistent

recoveries, suggest that salmonellae may represent natural

back-ground flora in these seafoods

rather than recent single-source

(30)

EVALUATION OF THE ELEVATED TEMPERATURE INCUBATION PROCEDURE FOR

THE RECOVERY OF SALMONELLAE FROM OYSTERS

Nary L. Miller and John A Koburger

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition

University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

Seven composite

samples

of oysters Crassostrea

virginica!

were prepared and analyzed for salmonellae in triplicate using

three methods: a! Lactose broth preenrichment for 24 hours at

35C followed by selective enrichment in Selenite Cystine and

Tetrathionate broths at temperatures of 35, 41, and 43C, for

24 hours, b! direct selective enrichment in Selenite Cystine

broth at the three temperatures for 24 and 48 hours and c!

direct selective enrichment in Tetrathionate broth at the three

temperatures

for 24 and 48 hours. The highest recoveries of

salmonellae were obtained following enrichment at the elevated

temperatures. Of the 21 aliquots analyzed by each of the three

procedures, 18 were positive for salmonellae

at 43C, 15 at 41C

and 11 at 35C. Direct enrichment of samples in Selenite Cystine

broth appeared to be the method of choice. Elevated tempera ures

reduced the number of competing organisms allowing for the more

efficient growth and isolation of the salmonellae

present in

(31)

ISOLATION OF INDOLE-PRODUCING BACTERIA

FRON WHITE SHRIHP PENAEUS SETIFERUS!

R.L. Smith, R. Nickelson, and G. Finne Seafood Technology

Texas ASH University

College Station, Texas 77843

Homogenized,

heads-on,

~hite shrimp Penaeus

setiferus!

were held at 22 C, 12 C, and 4 C until complete putrefactive

spoilage had occurred, Repetitive bacterial sampling was

performed and 1647 bacterial isolations were made from the

shrimp homogenates.

Of these, 42 isolates .6X! were found

to be positive for indole production. The indole-positive

isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Flavobacterium

2.4X!, Aeromonas

3.8X!, Proteus .1X!, and Yersinia .5X! .

The indole-positive

isolates were found to grow over a temperature

range of 2 22 C and to produce indole over that temperature

range. Sixteen of the indole-positive isolates, which had

exhibited proteolytic activity, were able to produce indole in

(32)

ON THE RELATIONSHIP BET@KEN TBQD! AND BOD! IN

INDUSTRIAL FISHERY LIQUID EFFLUENTS

M.A. Parin and E. Civit

Centro de Investigaciones de Tecnologia Pesquera CITEP!

INTI

Marcelo T. de Alvear 1168

7600 Mar del Flats, Argentina and

Hector M. Lupin

Fish Utilization and Marketing Service Fisheries Department, FAO

00100 Rome, Italy

Treatment of liquid effluents from the fisheries industry has become a matter of interest to many countries. Since these

effluents usually contain large quantities of organic matter,

they present special problems when pursuing the planning and

operation of biological treatment.

This paper deals with the evaluation of the biodegradable

organic matter present in such effluents. The method proposed by Nullis and Schroeder 971! to determine the total biochemical oxygen demand TBOD! was applied to effluents from fish filleti ng and fish meal plants. A relationship was found between TBOD and

the biochemical oxygen demand BOD! . The difficulties of applying

(33)

TEMPORAL CHANCES IN FISH COMMUNITY STRUCTURE NEAR A MARINE SEWER OUTFALL, MOKAPU, HAWAII

Anthony R. Russo

Science Division

University of Hawaii

Pearl City, Hawaii 96782

The results of a study performed before and after the construction of an ocean outfall off Mokapu Point, Oahu, Hawaii from 1975 to 1979 show large increases in the number of species and abundance of fish around the outfall site . These fish,

mostly the blue lined snapper L~ut

'anus kasmira!, are conmerciatly

valuable and it is reasonable to imply this area may become a

site of local large scale fishing in the future.

The fishing

of the blue lined snapper is imperative since it seems to be

reducing the diversity of the fish community

around the outfall

due to its feeding on juvenile fish of other species.

According

to other workers it also seems to be a strong competitor with

other carnivorous fish species.

The construction of the outfall afforded new rock substrat.~ma

for the attachment of algae and sessile animals which attracted

large aggregations of herbi~orous and plankton feeding fish.

During a lg year period there were no significant

changes in

fish community structure 1-5 kms from the outfall

when measured

by similarity indices. No significant changes in algal biomass

(34)

NATURALLY OCCURRING PATHOGENS AND TOXINS IN THE

MARINE ENVIRONMENT PRIORITIES FOR RESEARCH

Rita R. Colwell

Department of Microbiology University of Maryland

College Park, Maryland 20742

Recently a workshop was held to assess the significance of naturaLly occurring toxins and pathogens in the marine enviro.:,::ent. A group of virologists, bacteriologists, and specialists in

paralytic, neurotoxic, or diarrhetic shellfish poison PSP, NSP,

DSP! met in Mashington, D.C, to assess the current status of

research and to develop priorities for the immediate and

long-range future. It was obvious that there is a need for

epidemiological/ecological studies of pathogens in the marine

environment. Processing methods are required for those seafood products where pathogens impede or cause loss of resource

utilization. Basic research on the fundamental mechanisms of

virulence and pathogenic properties, as well as regulation and control in marine organisms, were identified as areas of research

requiring attention.

A significant barrier to the optimal utilization of many shellfish resources stems from the sporadic blooms of a variety

of toxic dinoflagellates. The blooms, as well as the nature of the toxic dinoflagellate problem requires a multidisciplinary

approach, with studies needed on resource/toxin interactions,

the. toxins themselves, and the organisms that produce the toxins. Techniques are required for isolating viruses that are

naturally occurring in the environment, as well as allochthonous

viruses entering via sewage and other waste discharges which persist in the environment.

The unifying theme throughout the workshop was a need for

the understanding of naturally occurring pathogens and toxins

in the environment, coupled with improved understanding, asses

(35)

TOXIC DINOFLAGELLATES AND THEIR IMPACT

ON FISHERIES: A REVIEW

Karen A. Steidinger

Florida Department of Natural Resources

Bureau of Marine Research

St. Petersburg, Florida 33701

Dinoflagellates are common

microscopic algea in mari~e

waters. About 20 of over 1,000 species are know to produce

non-proteinaceous

toxins which can cause

marine

animal or bird

kills, or accumulate

in certain living seafood

products

and

cause human

illness.

Additional species are suspect, Illnesses

associated with these accumulated or blomagnified toxins are

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning,

Neurotoxic She1lfish Poisoning,

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, and Ciguatera, a tropical and

subtropical fish poisoning.

Outbreaks

or incidents of such

poi,sonings

can cause

severe

economic

losses and

public health

(36)

THE VAGARIES OF CIGUATOXIN DETERMINATION

Thomas B. Higerd

Dept. of Basic and Clinical Immunology and Microbilogy

Medical University of South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina 29425

and

Nati.onal Mari.ne Fi.sheries Service

Charleston Laboratory

Charleston, South Carolina 29412

Ciguatera is a human illness acquired by the ingestion of

a wide vareity of tropical reef fish that occasionally accumulate

a poison, termed ci guatoxin, through their diet. The fish may

be any one of a wide variety of tropical or subtropical reef

fish including those of comDLercial importance e.g., snappers,

groupers, etc.!. The toxin is heat-stable and its presence does

not appear to affect the fish's appearance or behavior. However,

when a trace amount of the toxin is inadvertently consumed by man, it elici.ts a wide range of striking symptoms and occasionally may be fatal. The notoriety associated with ciguatera outbreaks

has had a strong negative impact on tropical fisheries affecting

utilization of island stocks including their exportation.

Unfortunately, there is no practical method to predict or monitor fish stock for the presence of the toxin.. A variety of

popular tests are used by islanders, including the discoloration

of silver coins cooked inside the fish, but none of these methods

have been validated. Although several laboratories are currently

engaged in designing practical, market-place tests, none of the proposed procedures have replaced the mouse bioassay. Ironically, the mouse is highly tolerant to the effects of the toxin; the use of other animals has been tried, but none have been universally

accepted. Progress toward a "chemical" assay has been hampered because the complete chemical structure of ciguatoxin has not

been elucidated and because only a very trace amount of the toxin

is present in fish flesh, The most promising approach to developing

a specific, yet sensitive ciguatoxin test rests with immunolog-.'=al

methods. However, specific anti-ciguatoxin antibody, the res~nt

paramount to any ciguatoxin immunoassy, has not yet been produced. Hopefully, conditions for successfully immunizing animals will

be forthcoming, and a useful market-place test will be available

(37)

ELIMINATION OF ENTERIC BACTERIA AND VIRUSES FROM OYSTERS AFTER RELAYING TO APPROVED AREAS

David W. Cook

Gulf Coast Research Laboratory

Ocean Springs, Mississippi 39564

and

R.D. Ellender

University of Southern Mississippi

Hattiesburg, Mississippi 39401

Oysters experimentally contaminated

with indicator bacteria

coliforms and fecal coliforms!,

salmonellae and enteroviruses

polio, echo or coxsackie! were used in relaying studies to measure

the elimination of those microorganisms from the oysters under a

(38)

DETERMINATION OF THE THERMAL DEATH TINE OF

VIBRIO CHOLERAE IN SHRIMP PENAEUS SETIFERUS!

Arthur Hinton, Jr. and Robert M. Grodner Department of Food Science

Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station

Center for Agricultural

Sciences & Rural Development

Louisiana State University

Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803

The time required to kill

10 Vibrio cholerae/g of shrimp

meat homogenate, heated at temperatures of 48.9C, 54.4C, 60.0C,

65.5C, 71.1C, 76.7C, and 82.2C, was determined. V. cholerae was

not recovered from inoculated homogenates heated at temperatures

from 54.4C to 82.2C for 1 minute after reaching these

tempera-tures.

It was recovered from inoculated homogenates heated at

48.9C for Less than 69 minutes after r'caching that temperature.

D values of the organism in the homogenate were calculated at

each temperature. D values in minutes were 9.17 at 48.9C,

< 0.43 at 54.4C, < 0.39 at 60.0C, < 0.32 at 65.5C, < 0.31 at

71.1C, < 0.30 at 76.7C, < 0.28 at 82.2C. Shrimp inoculated with

10 V. cholerae/g were cooked in stea~ or in boiling water for

10 minutes.

V. cholerae was not isolated from the shrimp cooked

(39)

TEXTURAL VARIATION WITHIN COOKED FISH FILLETS

Ronald A. Segars and John Kapsalis U.S. Army Natick R&D Laboratories

Natick, Massachusetts 01760

and

Ernest A. Johnson

Food Engineering Department University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01003

Texture maps of cooked fillets

by Instron "Punch and Die"

testing showed that dorsal sections were firmer than central

or ventral with the mid-length being most tender. Magnitude

of variations,

location of "tough" and "tender" regions and

identification of uniform areas will have significant bearing

(40)

INSTRUMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE TEXTURE OF

FINFISH FOR AN EDIBILITY DATA BANK

Malcolm B. Hale

National Marine Fisheries Service

Charleston, South Carolina 29464

Standard instrumental and sensory methods for the measurement

of finfish edibility characteristics have been developed under

contract by Natick Laboratories. Work has been initiated at the

National Marine Fisheries Service Technology Laboratories to utilize

the standard methods to collect data on the edibility characteristics of regional species for inclusion in a national data bank. A punch and die shear cell, which operates on small samples and avoids

variability due to flake orientation, is being used for the collection

of data on Southeastern species. The instrumental system and

procedures are described, some preliminary results are reported,

and comparisons are made with the more conventional Kramer shear

(41)

PROGRESS ON SENSORY TESTING OF FINFISH AS IT RELATES

TO THE NATIONAL NOMENCLATURE PROJECT Beth M. Elsey

National Marine Fisheries Service Charleston, South Carolina 29464

The Charleston Laboratory's efforts to develop edibility characteristics data on SE finfish for the National Nomenclature

Pro!ect NMP! is well underway. Two staff members

were trained

at the U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Laboratories

in techniques to assess texture and flavor characteristics af

species varying widely in sensory

attributes. Subsequently,

eight additional laboratory personnel have been trained and

the panel's performance evaluated by Natick research personnel.

A number

of problems with terminology and description of attributes

have surfaced and are being resolved. Similar problems were

experienced by other NMFS

Laboratory personnel involved in the

prospect.

Collaborative testing between NMFS Laboratories, using two

traditional species, has begun to determine uniformity in testing

methods. Several methods of data analysis will be evaluated to

develop information useful to processors in preparing products

(42)

DESCRIPTIVE SENSORY EVALUATION OF NACROBRACHIUN

ROSENBERGII VERSUS THREE TRADITIONAL PENAEUS SPECIES

D. Ellis, R. Nickelson, and B. Rowland

Texas A&M University

College Station, Texas 77843

and

D. Sims

Red Lobster Inns of America

Orlando, Florida 32859

The organoleptic properties of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

were analyzed relative

to those of traditional

Penaeus species

to evaluate its potential as an acceptable and interchangeable

shrimp for seafood restaurants.

A trained descriptive

taste panel evaluated cold boiled

40-count Nacrobrachium

rosenbergii Penaeus vannamei cultured!,

P. aztecus wild!,

and P. setiferus.

From their evaluation of

flavor,

aroma, texture, and color it was shown that there is a

significant difference in the organoleptic properties of

Macrobrachium relative to those of traditional species as well

as differences within the penaeid group. Total amino acid

concentration, salt concentration, Instron texture!, and Gardener

color meter evaluations performed on each species showed

objective

(43)

TEXTURE ANALYSIS OP TAIL FLESH IN MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII

R. Tillman and G. Finne Seafood Technology

Texas ASM University

College Station, Texas 77843

Softening in tail flesh of Macrobrachium

rosenbe~r

ii was

determined

to be caused

by proteolytic activity in tails that

progressed

toward

the anterior portion of the tails. The

proteolytic activity, measured

by casein-agar

gel diffusion

and colormetric techniques, appears to begin with enzymes

present

in the hepatopancreas

which

migrate at refrigerated temperature

toward

the end of the tail. Frozen

storage -25 C! inhibited

this proteolytic

activity but prawns

thawed

for 24 and

48 hours

showed

significant signs of tail softening and proteolytic

activity. The

softness

was

measured

by sensory

panels

and Instron

(44)

References

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