the internet & world wide web — a brief history

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the internet &

world wide web — a brief history

Sputnik launched by the Soviet Union

Shocked the world! Especially the USA, who was thinking about satellites, just not quite there.

ARPA (the Advanced Research Projects Agency)

•TheUSDepartmentofDefensecreatedARPA(nowDARPA)toresearch/develop

technology beyond current identified needs.

•TheirmostfamousprojectwasTHEINTERNET.

TheInternet

•ARPAsponsored/researched“internetting”tolinkresearchinstitutions’computers.

•Fouroriginalhost:UCLA,Stanford,UCBerkley,UofUtah

•Packets—datarequestsbeingsplitupintosmallchunkswhichcanbepro- cessedquicklywithoutblockingcommunicationfromotherparties.

•Everythingistext-basedatthispoint.

TCP/IP(TransmissionControlProgram/InternetProtocol)

•Anewstandardmaskingthedifferencesbetweenexistingnetworkprotocols

(whichhadbecomeaproblem).

•Thetrafficcop/rulesofthedigitalroadfortransmittingpacketsofdata.

•Easilyjoinedallnetworkstogether.

1957

1960’s

1974

—1971:emaildeveloped

—late70s:emoticons

 developed:)

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TheWorldWideWebDeveloped

•TimBurnersLeecreatedaninformationmanagementsystem

wheretextcouldcontainlinksandreferencestootherworks.

•Createdaserverforthehypertextdocs.andaprogramfor

readingthemcallingittheWorldWideWeb.

•Releasedthesourcecodetothepublicsoanyonecouldbuild

upon it.

•Mosaicreleased,beginningtheBrowserWars.

•Focusedonimplementingnewfeaturesratherthanonfixing

problemswithfeaturestheyalreadysupported.

•Lotsofincompatibility=developersnightmare.

WorldWideWebConsortium(W3C)

•TimBurnersLeefoundedtheW3C

•W3CVision:tostandardizetheprotocolsandtechnologies

usedtobuildthewebformaximumglobalaccessibility.

•Theyproduceasetofrecommendations,notrules,butguide- lines that we call Web Base Standards

•TheWebStandardsProjectwascreatedtopromoteW3CRec- ommendations

1990

1993

1994

—1984:DomainNameSystem

introduced.Firstregistered

domain:symbolics.com

—1994:Firstbanneradsappear

(Zima);Firstinternetradiosta- tions;PizzaHutinternetorder- ing;AOL,Prodigy,Compuserve

provide internet access.

—1997+:Streamingmedia,

Java,rapiddevelopmentof

interactive technologies

—1990:300,000hosts

—1989:Firstcommercialemail

service

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CurrentandFuture

•Expanded3Dcapabilities

•ForceFeedback

•Smell

•Improveaccessibilityfordisabled.

•StreamingcontentforinternetTV,etc

•RSS(livesharingofcontentfromothersites)

•Podcasts

•VOIP/InternetPhone

•MicroBlogs

•Mobileapps

•HTML5/CSS3

2000

THE FUTURE

1994

—2002+:Blogging,SocialNet- works,BroadbandDSL/Cable

becomesmorepopular/avail- able.

—2005:353,284,187host.80

millionsites

ADDITIONAL RESOURCE LINKS:

OperaWebCurriculum:HistoryoftheInternetandtheWeb

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internet vs www

internet

TheInternetisamassivenetworkofnetworks,anetworking

infrastructure.Itconnectsmillionsofcomputerstogether

globally,forminganetworkinwhichanycomputercancom- municatewithanyothercomputeraslongastheyareboth

connectedtotheInternet.Informationthattravelsoverthe

Internetdoessoviaavarietyoflanguagesknownasproto- cols.

•Asystemofcomputers,servers,routersandcablesthat

connectthem.

 •Informationistransferredinpacketsofinformationthatis

passedtotheappropriateTCP/IPaddress.

 •TheInternetisglobal,publiclyaccessibleandphysical.Non- global,privatenetworksareIntranetsorExtranets.

www

 TheWorldWideWeb,orsimplyWeb,isawayofaccessing

informationoverthemediumoftheInternet.Itisaninforma- tion-sharingmodelthatisbuiltontopoftheInternet.Web

services,whichuseHTTPtoallowapplicationstocommuni- cateinordertoexchangebusinesslogic,usetheWebtoshare

information.TheWebalsoutilizesbrowsers,suchasInternet

ExplorerorFirefox,toaccessWebdocumentscalledWeb

pages that are linked to each other via hyperlinks.

 •Avirtualspaceforstoring,representinginformationacross

theinternetusinghypertextaddresses/URL(universalre- source locator).

 •URLsarehypertextlinks—HTTP(hypertexttransferproto- col)—thatcanbesearchedandorganizedbyabrowser.

 •DataisgenerallydisplayedusingHTML(HyperTextMarkup

Language)andviewedinabrowser.

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client/server model

•Internetisbasedonclient/servermodelofnetworking.The

computeristheclientthatrequestsanddisplaysdatafrom

theserver.Browsersoftwareiswhatisgenerallyusedtodis- playthecontentsentfromtheserver.

 •Designingfortheclientsideofaprojectisoftenreferredto

as “front-end” design.Thecomputeryoudevelopaninter- activeprojectonisthelocalrootofyourproject.

 •Designingfortheserversideofaprojectidoftenreferredto

as “back-end”designordevelopment.Theserveryouhost

yourinteractiveprojectonistheremotelocation

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the browser

•Softwaredevelopedtopresentdata/contentsentfroma

serverinvisualmannerthroughaGraphical User Interface (GUI)

 •BrowsersfollowW3Cstandardsbutvarytosomedegreein

defaultpresentationsandvarymoresoinsupportforad- vancedfeaturesofCSS.

 •TheWeb Standards Project (WaSP) created a test, called theAcidTest,tohelpbrowsermanufacturersgaugethecom- plianceofthesoftwaretothelateststandards.

 •Opera,Chrome,SafariandFirefoxperformthebest.Internet

Explorerhistoricallylagsbehind.



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the language of web: xhtml

html

•HTMLwasdevelopedtoallowcommonformattingoftext

documentsforexchangeofscientific/researchinformation.

 •HTMLisnowdeprecated/obsoleteandwasreplacedbyXHT- ML.

xhtml

 •XHTMLisamuchstricterstandardthanHTMLtoensure

compatibilitywithnewbrowsersanddevices.

 •XHTMLwasalsostrippedofpresentationcodeleavingcode

that is structural and content-related in nature.

css

 •Cascading Style Sheets (CSS),aseparatemarkuplanguage,

wasdevelopedtohandlethepresentationofXHTMLcon- tent.TheseparationofcontentandappearanceintoXHTML

andCSSisreferredtoasStandards-Based Design.

TheWorldWideWebConsortium(W3C)isthegoverningbody

thatcontrolsandsetsthestandards/rulesofXHTMLandCSS.

xhtml + css = standards-based design

structure /

content

appearance /



presentation

Figure

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