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UNIT 2

TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

CONCEPT, TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS DIFFERENT TYPES OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL LEARNING NEEDS

MEANING OF SPECIAL EDUCATION

Special education may be defined as the educational service, over and above the regular school

programmed which is provided for an exceptional child to assist in the development of his potentialities and/or in removing or compensating his disabilities. Special education relates to the provision and organization of a system of education outside the ordinary school system.

"Tensely and Guilford" has defined special education “Pupils who, by reason of limited ability or other conditions resulting in educational retardation, require some specialized form of education, wholly or partly in substitution for the education normally given in ordinary schools”. Concept of special

education; Special education is a broad term used by the law (IDEA) to describe specially designed instruction that meets the unique needs of a child who has a disability. There services are provided by the public schools system and are free of charge. Services can include instruction in the classroom , at home, in hospitals and institutions learning disabilities cover a wide spectrum of disorders ranging from mild to severe. They include mental, physical behavioural and emotional disabilities.

There are 13 categories of special education as defined by the individuals with disabilities education Act (IDEA). In order to quality for special education. Children with special leaning needs. Which are as follows: I I

1. Autism 2. Blindness 3. Deafness

4. Emotional disturbance

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5. Hearing disturbance 6. Intellectual disabilities 7. Multiple disabilities 8. Orthopedic impairment 9. Specific learning disability 10. Speech or language impairment II. Other health impairment

12. Traumatic brain injury 13. Visual impairment

1. Autism: Characteristics: Autism is a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non verbal communication, social interaction and behaviour, generally evident before age 3, adversely (badly) affecting a child's educational performance.

2. .Deafness: Characteristics: Deafness means a hearing impairment so severe that the child's ability to process linguistic information through hearing, with or with outamplification (to increase voice) is limited, to the extent that is adversely affects his or her education programme.

The deaf are those who cannot hear even if spoken to very loudly. They require preparation in basic skills through special general schools. Hearing techniques before they are admitted in aids help them to Characteristics: Hearing impairment is hearing loss in one or both ears, that may be permanent or become more functional. Children with bearing impairment need hearing aid auditory training.

3. Hearing Impairment: fluctuating, that adversely affect educational performance, but is not included in the definition of deafness for such children education in generals schools in common with other children is not difficult. Deaf - Blindness: Characteristics: Deaf blindness is simultaneous), hearing and visual impairment, the contribution of which causes severe communication and other development, or educational needs that cannot be accommodated in special education programme solely for children with deafness or child with blindness.

5 Visual Impairment: Characteristics: Including blindness - means impairment in vision severe enough to adversely affect educational performance, even when corrected. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. The visual loss is measured with the help of snellenchart depending upon the degree of loss they may be partially sighted pr blind. The partially sighted are those who require large print or magnified print materials. Their visual acquity (sharpness of visual image) is very low (20/70 in the better eye) this means that the child can see at 20 ft. distance. What-á normal child sees at 70 ft.

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The blind are those who need to be taught through Braille or through aural method.

Their visual acquity (sharpness of visual image) may fall at 2] 20 such children must be prepared in pre- academic before they are admitted in general schools. They need orientation training, mobility training and more of oral instruction depending upon the degree of loss of vision.

6 Emotional disability: Characteristics: means a condition exhibiting one or more of the fallowing characteristics over a long period of time to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual sensory or health factor.

An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peer and teachers.

A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.

A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. The term called as schizophrenia.

7Intellectual disability: Characteristics: Intellectual disability means - significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior, and manifested during the development period, which adversely affected child's educational performance.

8. Multiple disability: Multiple disabilities means a child exhibit or more impairments simultaneously (such as intellectual disable blindness, orthopedic impairment etc) A child may be blind deaf, blind and orthopedically handicapped, mentally retarde orthopedically handicapped and so on. In case of multiple hand one handicap may be primary handicap and the other secondary one handicap may be more severe than the other handicaps. therefore, important to identify the primary medical care, sup instruction from the teacher and a little love and affection for parents and teacher.

9. Specific learning disabilities: Characteristics: Specific les disability is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychology processes involved in understanding or in using spoken or W language. A leaning disability may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematices calculations. Specific conditions include

Perceptual disabilities Brain injury

Minimal brain bys function

Dyslexia or developmental aphasią

10. Speech or language impairment: Characteristics: Speech language impairment is a communication disorder, such as stuttering impairment articulation, language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

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11. Traumatic Brain injury: Traumatic brain injury is an acquired in to the brain caused by an external physical force resulting in total partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both adversely affecting a child's educational performance.

Traumatic brain injury applies to open or closed head inj resulting in impairments in one or more areas of mental function as:

language and speech memory attention Reasoning abstract thinking judgment

problem solving

seusay perceptual and motor abilities Psychosocial behavior and

Information processing

12.Health impairment: Health impairment means having limited strength, vitality or alertness. Under this category we see children whose poor physical conditions makes them inactive and who require special health precautions in school and adequate medical checkups and support.

Problems such as asthama, attention deficit disorder, or attention deficit hyper activity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophillia, lead poisoning, leukemia, Rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, affects a child's educational performance.

13. Orthopaedic Impairment: orthopaedic impairment means a severe orthopaedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Impairment caused by congenital anomally, impairment caused by disease - eg: (poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis etc) and impairment from other causes eg:-(cerebral palsy, ampulations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures ). In some cases the problems arer, so severe that they require artificial limbs to compensate for their crippling

conditions.

Special education makes it possible for every child to achieve success in the least restrictive

environment despite their . The federal law governing the system is called the individuals disabilities Education act or (IDEA) entitles all children with disabilities to a free appropriate education (FAPE).

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CHILDREN WITH PHYSICAL CHALLENGES – VISUAL, HEARING, LOCO MOTOR AND NEUROLOGICAL

INTRODUCTION

A physical challenged child may be defined as a child who has disability of loco-motor and neurological origin which constitute disadvantages or restrictions in one or more aspects of daily activities. It may be physical, mental, sensory and emotional type. T disability may be congenital or acquired. A child may have one or mo than one disability. They disability may be visible like loss of limbs, hidden like epilepsy children having the same physical disability may ha! abilities different from each other and may require different intervention o Physical disability may effect other functions in the child like, speed

communication and language, sensory function as cognitive developers social and emotional development.

A. VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

Definition of visual impairment:

In the field of special education, visual impairment is the common term used to indicate any degree of vision loss. Therefore, visual impairment includes both blindness and low vision. However, blindness and low vision are different from each other in terms of lo and functions of vision. The various terms indicate the extent of visual loss.

Any term like legally blind or low vision, should be prescribe only after the possible corrections. In the eye. Therefore, intervention the first step immediately after finding out the eye problem of the individual Visual impairment: Visual impairments including blindness are defing as "vision that, even with correction, adversely (badly) affect a child ? educational performance. The term includes both low vision age blindness.”

Legal Blindness: The term legal blindness' is defined as central visu 2. acuity of 6/60 in the better eye after the best possible correction.

Blindness: The persons with Disabilities (equal opportunities protection frights and full participation) Act (PWD Act) ,1955 uses the terminology “Blindness” and efines it as:

Total absence of sight or

Visual acuity not exceeding 6/60 or 20/200 (snellen) in the better eye with correcting lenses, or Limitation of the field of vision subtending an angle of 20 degree or worse.)

Totally blind: No eyesight is available in both eyes of person with total blindness. Therefore, totally blind is defined as” complete absence of visual perception.

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Partially sighted: A person who has visual acuity of 6/21 (20/70) or less in the better eye after the best possible correction is known as sighted thus the remaining vision is useful most for learning. Low vision:

Low vision is defined as “markedly reduced functional vision.

Categories of visual impairment

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1. Rubs eyes excessively 2. Watery eyes

3 Eyelids are often red

Holds objects and book too close to the eyes.

Head very close to the book or reading material 6. Squints

7. Blink more frequently 8. Take help from peers 9 Regular headeches

10. Bumps into objects or people at distant objects II. Poor eye hand co-ordination

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12. Un comfortably moves head forwards and backward while look 13. Looses place while reading

14. Pressing through fingers on the eyeball to see 15. Pain and irritation in the eye

16. Not able to see in night

17. Depending to much on oral information 18. Not able to read in poor lighting condition 19. Poor performance in the class

20.,Poor hand writing - one cannot be prescribed as visually impair by finding one or two symptoms un less there is thorough medicine check - up and functional assessment.

Causes of visual impairment:

Common eye Diseases:

1 Cataract 2. Glaucoma

3. Age-related macular degeneration (break down of eye macula 4. Corneal ulcer

5. Diabetic retinopathy 6. Child hood blindness 7. Xerophthalmia 8. Conjunctivities

9. On chocerciasis (infections cause) 10. Retinal detachment

11. Albinism (defect in melanin)

12. Astigmatism

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13. Nystagmus (un controllable movements of eyes) Optic Atrophy

Trachoma (infection in eye)

Educational programmes for visually impaired:

1. Special schools 2. Integrated education Resouçce model Itinerant model . Combined model Cooperative model Dual teaching model Inclusive education Plus curriculum

Plus Curriculum;- the specific skills peculiar to blindness are called curriculum skills"

plus curriculum includes:

Braille reading Braille writing

Orientation and mobility Daily living skills

Sensory training

Use of mathematic device like Abacus The Braille cell configuration is as follows.

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By making various combination of the dots, we indicate letters itt Braille. The English alphabets in Braille format are as follows.

Diagram:

B. HEARING IMPAIRMENT

Definition of Hearing impairment: Hearing is measured in decibels (dB). Decibels are a measurement of sound. This is recorded on an audiogram. A person with normal hearing can detect sounds as quiet as 10 or 15 dB. Hearing impairment also called deafness or hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with or damage to one or more parts of the ear.

Hearing Impairment: has been described as "The loss of hearing, temporary or permanent, ranging from mild to profound and sometimes total" (ten si, 1996)

The persons with disabilities Act (1995) defines Hearing impairment as a loss of sixty decibels or more on the better in the conversational range of frequencies".

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Deaf: means hearing impairment which is so severe that the student is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, without amplification, which adversely affects education at performance.

Hard of hearing: means a hearing impairment, whether permanent or fluctuating, which unfavourably affects a student’s education.

Rehabilitation council of India considers hearing impairment as a loss of 70dB and above in the better ear or total loss of hearing in both ears.

Characteristics of Hearing Impairment:

The following are the characteristics of hearing impairment.

1) soft sounds can't be heard, such as some speech sound like 'S' and ‘P' and 'ch'.

2) Key parts of a particular speech sounds may not be audible, meaning sounds are mislead and words misunderstood.

3) Sounds are difficult to separate, so voices can become jumbled up with back ground nice.

4) Hearing - impaired child misses the tone of voice which conveys so much.

5) Hearing – impaired child suffers the humiliation of being thought stupid.

6) Participation in discussion, groups, meetings, conferences and lectures becomes impossible or difficult for hearing-impaired child,

7) Hearing-impaired child is unable to do two things at the same time (eating and lip reading at the sometime)

8) Hearing-impaired child does not understand the reasons for decision clearly and why they are excluded from decision-making.

9) , Child lacks stimulation of discussion and debate and the sharpness i of mind.

10) Hearing impaired child runs the risk of paranoia feelings and the reality of being left out causes depression.

Types of Hearing loss:

a) Conductive hearing loss – The futer and middle ear is affected

b) Perceptive or sensory neutral hearing loss: Perceptive hearing loss occurs due to error is cochlea or in nerve to the brain – nerve damages causes usually permanent hearing loss.

c) Congenital hearing loss: The new born baby gets hearing loss by birth itself.

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d) Adventitious hearing loss: The child get hearing loss after birth.

e) Pre – lingual hearing loss: Hearing loss occurs before language is developed period is between 0 and 2 years.

1) Post - Lingual hearing loss: Hearing loss occurs after language has begun to develop. Period start from 2 plus.

Based on the types of hearing loss, the following categorization as the degree of hearing loss is made:

Normal hearing - 10 - 15 dB HL Slight hearing loss - 16-25 dB HL Mild hearing loss - 26-40 dB HL Moderate Hearing loss -41 - 55 dB HL Moderate severe hearing loss - 56 - 70 dB HL Severe hearing loss -71 90 dB HL

Profound hearing loss -91 + dB HL Causes of hearing impairment:

1. Conductive loss: obstructions in the outer ear, due to excessiv wax or foreign bodies cause conductive hearing loss.

2. Sensor neural loss: examples of sensor neural loss.

Accidents Infections Environmental Hazards Medications Old age Diseases

Miscellaneous cause

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Prevention of hearing impairment national efforts for prevention 1) Immunization

i) National iodine deficiency disorder control programme. (NIDDC) Child survival and safe mother hood programme (CSSM)

iv) National nutritional policy programme.

Other agencies:

AYJNIHH-Ali Yavar Jung National institute for hearing handicapped A national level body of govt, of India, is actively involved in implementing primary preventive measures. It creates awareness by holding work shops, seminars and conferences through electronic and private media.

2. All India Institute of speech and hearing, Mysore.

3. Institute, of speech and hearing, Bangalore,

4.RCI rehabilitation council of India (RCD initiated a nationwide orientation programme for the primary health centre (PHC)

C.LOCO-MOTOR DISABILITIES Definition of loco motor disability:

Loco - motor disability is disability of the bones, joint or muscles leading to substantial restriction of the movement of the limbs or a usual form of cerebral palsy and autism. Some common conditions giving rise to loco-motor disability could be poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, autism, imputations injuries of spine, head, soft tissues, fractures, muscular dystrophies etc.

RCI act 1992 adopts the definition that loco-motor disability as a persons inability to execute distinctive activities associated with moving, both himself and objects, from place to place, and such inability resulting from affliction of musculoskeletal and or nervous system."

PWD Act 1995 takes up the definition of loco-motor disability as “a sability of the bones, joints or muscles leading to substantial restriction (the movement of the limbs or any form of cerebral palsy.

Classification of Loco-motor disability:

Loco-motor disability is broadly classified into 4 categories namely Neurological: Due to the problems in the central nervous system, brain and spinal cord.

Musculoskeletal: Due to the defects or diseases in the muscles and bones Congenital: Born with defect or malformation of any part of the body

d) Accidents/ infectors: Due to burns, automobile injuries and polio viral infection leading to paralysis.

Characteristics of Loco- motor disability:

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The pennons with loco-motor disability have various sufferings due to effect of disability conditions.

The following are the characteristics of loco - motor disability:

i. Motor weakness / paralysis: Common causes of motor weakness are stroke, cerebral palsy, polio and diseases of muscles. The pattern of motor weakness commonly seen are.

Monoplegia - weakness of one limb Paraplegia - weakness of both lower limbs Hemiplegia - weakness of one half of body

Quadriplegia - weakness of all four limbs including trunk

ii Spasticity: Muscle tone is a state of contraction or tension found in a normal muscles. Spasticity means increased tone in the muscles. If muscles are spastic there is loss of power and co-ordination.

This can head to imbalance, and development of deformities.

iii. Sensory loss: Sensory loss leads to motor weakness loss of sensations leads to loss fo sensory awareness. This leads to in coordination and loss of dexterity. Loss of sensation also cause injuries, pressure sores etc.

iv. Deformities and contractures: A deformity is defined as an abnormal position which is not passively correctible. Factors contributing to the development of deformity are faculty posture, muscular weakness, muscle imbalance, gravity faulty walking pattern etc.

v. Amputations: Loss of a limb in part or whole can be due to trauma or disease. Use of artificial limb usually restores functional independence in lower limb amputation.

vi. Neurogena Bladder and Bowel: Bladder problems are common in paraplegia and quadriplegia Page vii. Pain: pain is natures warning that there is some imminent damage to the system. Artheritis fractures, low back ache, spondylitis, soft tissue injuries etc produce pain.

Causes of loco - motor disability:

Causes 1. Polio

2. Burns and injury

3. Other illness and disease 4. Stroke

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5.Arthritis 6 Old age 7. Leprosy

8. Medical / surgical intervention 9. Cerebral palsy

10. ТВ.

11. Cancer 12. Amputation Intervention programs:

1. Medical intervention 2. Rehabilitation intervention 3. Educational intervention 1. Hands on therapy

2. Assistive derive (Braces and splints) usually made of molded plastic 3. Medication

4. Surgery

D: CHILDREN WITH NEUROLOGICAL DISORDER "

Neurological disorder” means neurological disorders are disorders of the nervous system. There diseases have connections to the nerve. Since the word 'neuro' means nerve.

Some children have health problems that interfere with their education. children with chronic illness are likely to be enrolled in any class

1. Alzhemimers disease 2. Schizophrenia 3. Parkinson's disease 4. OCD

5. ADHD

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6. Migraine 7. Epilepsy

1. Alzhemimes disease: alzhemimers disease (AD) is also known in medical literature as “Alzhemimers disease". It is the most commor form of dementia (a loss of brain function) that occurs with certain disease. If affects memory thinking, language, judgment an behaviour.

2. Schizophrenia: Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that makes it has for an individual to distinguish what is real and unreal. It also make it difficult to think clearly, manage emotions and relate to others.

Symptoms:

1. Delusions 2. Hallucinations 3. Disorganized speech 4. Dis-organized behavior 5. Negative symptoms

6. Absence of normal behaviour

3.Parkinson's disease: It is a disorder of brain that leads to shaki and difficulty with walking, movement, and co-ordination.

4. OCD :(stands for obsessive compulsive disorder) OCD is a type anxiety that happens when there is a problem with the way, brain deals with worrying and doubts.

5. ADHD: (Stands for attention deficit/hyper activity disorder)

Children with ADHD generally have problems paying attempt or concentrating. They can't seem to follow directions and are has bored or frustrated with tasks. They also tend to move constar and are impulsive, not stopping to think before they act Dong 2190

6. Migraine: Migraine is a chronic neurological disease characterized by recurrent moderate to severe headaches in association with a number of automatic nervous system symptoms Symptoms : like vomiting sensitivity to light sound/small The pain is generally made worse by physical activity. 7.

Epilepsy: Epilepsy is chronic condition produced by temporary changes in the electrical function of the brain, causing seizures which effect awareness, movement or sensation it is estimated that as many as 1/3 of individuals with autism spectrum disorder also have epilepsy.

Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in 1870 Jackson defined epilepsy as a group of disorders with paroxysmal and excessive neuronal discharge that cause a sudden discharge function,

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there is a sudden change intellectual, sensory, motor automatic or emotional activity: Which affects the child's alertness vitality and mental health of a child in a manner which severely affects his school life.

Educational provisions:

1. The regular class – room will provide most children with chronic medical problems with maximum educational opportunities.

2. The teacher should be aware of their specific health problems, therapeutic measures to be taken aud the necessary programmes alteration.

A comparative remedical program is necessary for this kind of children particularly with health impairment or disorder with remedical education.

4. Normally, health impairment children are placed in special class - according to their types and degree of illness.

Teachers should introduce the children to as many aspects of the school program as possible and encourage them to explore all the ways, in which they can prepare for participation with their own class and with other children in school.

The school curriculum, should also taken into consideration the child's need for adjusting to the pace of non- handicapped.

CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL CHALLENGES GIFTED, MENTALLY CHALLENGED, AUTISM (ASD) AND LEARNING DIFFICULTIES (LD) 2.3.1 CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL CHALLENGES

The term intellectual disability refers to lowered capacity or ability of the brain, intellectual disabilities that affect learning and over all development are experienced when mental functioning of the brain is affected such that the child shows limitations in daily living skills such as communicating, taking care of self and social skills.

Such as autism spectrum, intellectual impairments and learning difficulties are primarily associated with working of the brain and / or how brain processes the information received. The nature of cognitive, intellectual disabilities that can help in enhancing teaching practices to make class room approaches inclusive of different learning needs that arise due to developmental delays brains functioning and or capacities.

In this categories comprising the intellectually or exceptional children is thought from inte Hectual point of view these children derivate from average or normal.

There are different categories comprising the intellectually exceptional children like

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Gifted children Mentally challenged Autism and

Learning difficulties

Some psychologist mean by exceptional extra ordinary talented children, others may use the term exceptional for dull or back ward children with learning disabilities who lag being in academic achievement.

1. GIFTED CHILDREN

Meaning and definition of gifted children:

The term "giftedness" has been defined by the psychologist in various ways. They have stated the term with help of intelligent quotient, social important definitions of “giftedness" have been stated in the following by different psychologist. of gifted children:

L.M. Terman has stated I.Q. 140 as the lower limit of giftedness. “Witty" has described "gifted children are those whose performance consistently remarkable in music, art, social leader ship and other forms expression”.

According to Havighurst. The talented or gifted child is one who bows constantly remarkable performance or outstanding behavior is my worth while Endeavour”

Characteristics of Gifted children:

Gifted child is one who shows remarkable and outstanding performance any worthwhile task He possesses a superior central nervous system high degree of intellectual, creative and imagination.

A gifted child makes outstanding contribution to the welfare, quality of living and our society.

He is the problem solver, innovator and evaluator of cultural and educational experiences.

He shows creative and productive thinking.

5. A gifted child shows the following abilities General intellectual ability

Specific academic aptitude Leadership ability

Visual and performance arts

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Psychomotor ability following characteristics of gifted children are essential to :

Physical characteristics: gifted children posses better standard in physical and general health in

comparison to average children. They have good co-ordination and muscular control and their personal appearance is good.

2. 'Mental characteristics: Gifted children are superior in intellectual ability compared to average children

They speak and use words speedily and meaningfully at an easy age. They have high cognitive abilities They are capable of earning an IQ. Of 140 or higher They remember many things what other students forget. They are also known as creative children.

3. Personality traits: Gifted children are found to have a rich personality. They are more trust worthy and sincere. They are talkative and frank.

4. Academic achievement: They have superior scholastic ability they are more interested in abstract subjects such as literature, debate, ancient history.etc. They enter schools and colleges at an early age compared to average and dull! They possess a very large vocabularies and good linguistic abilities.

5. Social characteristics: Gifted children are better than the normal children in play, naturality, spontaneity, friendship and such other qualities. These children are kind honest and altruistic etc.

Educational provisions:

The following are some suggested programmers for the gifted children.

1. Acceleration: In acceleration programme the gifted children are given accelerated promotion through grades as rapidly as their mental growth persuits.

Acceleration, recommended by Goldberg & terman, provision for acceleration may include Early admission provision

Quick promotion

Non graded class Extra courses . MENTALLY CHALLENGED CHILDREN

Mental Retardation: (MR) is a generalized disorder appearing before adult hood, characterized by significantly impaired and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors. Mental retardation is not a disease or a medical problem. It is an education, psychological and social problem. Mental retardation is not just confined to intellectual retardation. It may influence all aspects of human functioning including speech, language development hearing and visual functioning as well as muscular coordinator. Mental retardation has historically been defined as an intelligence quotient score under 70. Definitions of mental Retardation:

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“Héber”According to Heber mental handicap or mental retardation refers to sub laverage general intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period and as associated with impairments in adaptive behaviour

Rosan, Fox and Gregory (1972). "mental retardation refers to a chronic condition present from birth or early childhood which is characterized by both impaired intellectual functioning as measured by standardised tests and impaired ad adaptation to the daily demands of the individuals social envitonment”

The children with mental deficiency lack in mental development and posses lees I.Q. Their, I. is less than 75 but more than 50. Characteristics of Mentally Retarded children:

The following are some important features of MR children

1. Mentally retarded child has low intelligence but his development is not adequate according to his mental level.

2. Mentally retarded children are of two types a) Educable mentally retarded and

b) Trainable mentally LQ(55-50) trainable retarded. LQ.(50–75) educable.

3. Mentally retarded children has poor adjustment due to several reasons - lack of motivation, feelings of insecurity.

4. Identification is difficult of such children. They lack in abstract thinking concept formation and process of generalization. 5

. Some specific features of MR children. 1 a) Slow reaction

b) Absence of clarity Inability to learn fast d) Inability to understand quickly

e) Inability to decide f) Lack of concentration g) Short temper

h) Inability to remember i) Lack of co-ordination and

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1 Delay in development

6. Sub average intelligence: They have sub-average mental skills.

7. Less Academic Achievement: Due to sub-average intellectual functioning, children with MR are likely to be slower in reaching levels of academic achievement equal to their peers.

8. Lack of-motivation:-Self motivation is lacking.

9. Delay language and speech: Due to reduced intellectual functioning and associated neurological disorders many children have delayed language and speech problems.

10. Slow physical development: Children with MR may have slower physical development.

11. Difficulty in Generalization: The inability to generalize is related to the inability to think abstractly.

12. Limitations in adaptive skills: Many areas of adaptation to daily activities require deliberation and decision making in which the children with MR have limitations.

Table-I Mental Classification in terms of IQ 1. 0-25 Idiots

2 25-30 Imbeciles

3 50-75 Feeble minded -moraines 4 75-90 Borderline or dull

5 90-110 Average 6 110-125 Superior 7 125-140 Very superior 8 140 and above Generals

The more current American view point is that the mentally retarded be better called as suffering from

"general bearing disabilities”. Like - Idiots, Imbeciles and moraines.

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3.AUTISM-AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD)

“Autism” is a life long developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non verbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three that adversely affects educational performance. It is a spectrum disorder autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are the same.

Definition of Autism:

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The national trust for welfare of person with Autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and multiple disabilities act (1999) defines autism as “A condition of uneven skill development primarily affecting the communication and social abilities of a person marked by repetitive and ritualistic behaviour."

Types of Autism:

There five types of autism spectrum disorder as given below:

i) Asperger syndrome: It is often considered as a high functioning form of autism. It can lead to difficulty in interacting socially, repeat behaviours, and clumsiness. age ten.

ii) Childhood disintegrative disorder: It is a developmental disorder. It is characterized by at least two years of normal development followed by loss of language, social skills, and motor skills before .

iii) Rett syndrome: It is a disorder of the nervous system that lead to development problems especially in the areas of expressive language use. It predominantly affects females.

iv) Pervasive Developmental disorder:It refers to a group of conditions that involve delays in the

development of many basic skills, most notably the ability to socialize with others, to communicate, and to use imagination. and hand

v) Classical Autism: This is a developmental disorder characterized by communication and social challenges, and unusual behaviours.

Characteristics of these types of autism include impaired social interaction and communication skills and a limited range of activities and interests.

Characteristics of Autism:

1. Limitations in social interactions:

No eye contact

3. Difficulty in understanding group interactions 2. Not initiating social interaction

S. Unable to understand the feelings of others 6. Talks excessively about one or two topics.

2. Limitations in language development:

1. Inappropriate pronunciation

2. In appropriate use of pitch, intonation or stress while speaking.

3. Use incomplete sentence

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4. Speak abnormally loud or quiet 5. Repetitiveness of last words or phrases

6. Difficultly in understanding directional terms like left or right front or back.

3. Limitations in Behaviours aspects:

1. Un-expected movements

2. Unusual expression of emotions like fear, frustration, anger.

3. Developmental lag in gross motor skills.

4. Developmental lag in five motor skills.

5. Switching over from one activity to another is difficult 6. Fascination with relation.

7. Inability to perceive potentially dangerous situations 8. Haphazard arrangement of things.

9. Causes injury to self(biting, banging head) 4. Limitations in Emotions:

1. Emotions can pass very suddenly or are drawn out for a long period of time.

2. Lack of sensitivity to sounds, textures (touch) tastes, smells or 3. Difficulty with load or sudden sounds light

4. Laughs, cries or throws a tantrum for no apparent reason.

5. May need to be left alone to release tension and frustration.

5. Limitations in school activity:

Short span of attention.

2. Expectationally high skills in some areas and very low in others.

Difficultly with reading comprehension a faculty with fine motor activities 5. Resistance or inability to fallow directions.

6. Difficulty in transitioning from one activity to another in school.

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6. Limitations in Health/movement:

1. Bumping into objects.

2. Poor in personal like combing, brushing 3. Walks on toes

4. Odd or un naturals posture

5. Walks with out swinging arms freely 6. Constipation

7. Seizure activity

8. Irregular sleep patterns Causes of autism:

Genetic influence in Autism Virus Environmental factors Drugs and medicines Diabetic Brain dysfunction Prevention of Autism:

Immunization Prevention of Brain Injuries Avoiding Drugs and medicines Prevention of Genetic causes Prevention of environmental causes

4. LEARNING DIFFICULTIES

Introduction: Learning disability (LD) is the hidden invisible impairment, which cannot be identified until a child enters the formal schooling. This is because school focuses on the various things that may be difficult for the child. Reading, writing, mathematics, listening. speaking and reasoning. In schools, a large number of children have normal or above. IQ. but they cannot get good marks in academic subjects. This discrepancy between the children's good intelligence and their poor academic performance is the nucleus of the matter in learning disability.

Kirk (1968) defines:

“A learning disability refers to a specific retardations or disorder in one or more of the processes of speech, language, perception, behaviour, reading, spelling, writing or arithmetic".

The learning disabilities act of 1969 (US) defines:

“Children with special (specific) learning disabilities exhibit a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using spoken or written language. These may be manifested in disorder of listening, thinking, talking, reading, writing, spelling, or árithmetic?

Therefore, learning disability is a neurological disorder in which a person's brain works differently in learning aspects. Learning disabilities can affect a persons ability to speak, listen, read, write, spell,

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reason, recall organize information, and do mathematics. By disabilities aren't contagious but they can be genetic.

Characteristics of LD The child

1. Finds it difficult to organize work and is often late in submitting class work.

2. Seem's dull and slow in responding to others.

3. Cannot correctly recall oral instruction when asked to repeat them.

4. Does not seem to listen or to understand instruction given at home or in the class-room.

5. Shows excessive in consistency in the quality of performance, from time to time seems to be bright in many ways, but still does poorly in school.

6. Gets so excited that he cannot sit still in the class room even for a short period.

7. While reading misses out lines or reads them twice.

8. Finds difficulty in synthesizing a word after spelling its component letters (eg, say “b/eg' but cannot say 'beg' or may say 'bag')

9. Makes wild guesses at words whether they make sense or not (eg ‘huge' for hurt ‘turned' for 'trainer")

10. Reads words backwards (eg – 'on' for 'no', 'saw' for 'was") "cat' as act) II. Puts letters in the wrong order (reading “felt as left"

12. Short terms words (“sumly' for suddenly') member for remember ) 13. Misreads words which look similar ('help' for 'held’ ‘house' for ‘horse') 14. Has difficulty in recollecting words automatically and correct sentences.

15. Misreads numbers (*6' as '9','3' as '8')

16. Writes litters in the wrong order ("time' for 'item') 18. Reverse letter (*b' as 'p' as 'q') 20. Omits letters (“limp’ as hip', 'went' as “wet') 21. Adds letters ('want as 'whart', 'what' as “whart)

17. Mirror writes (ʻram' for ‘mar')

19. Mirror writes the numbers ('6' as 'q''9' as 'p')

22. Does not write the appropriate letters when given the sounds.

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23. Doss not pick out better of the alphabet when the name of the letter is called out 24. Does not mater the letters when asked to do.

25. Finds difficulty in academic subjects.

Some times she/he is deficient in only one subject or a combination of subject. Types of LD:

Children with learning disabilities have been classified based on the specific leaning areas of impairment.

There are five types of learning disabilities which are as follows 1. Oral - language disability (dysphasia and aphasia)

Dysphasia means “The inability to speak, loss of or deficiency in the ability to use or understand language as a result of injury to or disease of the brain”.

Aphasia: is the absence of development or the loss or impairment of the power to use words in reading, writing, speaking, or understanding. This condition is usually the result of a brain injury.

2. Reading disabilities (dyslexia and alexia)

The term "Dysleria" is defined as a disorder in which a person fails to learn to read in spite of adequate intelligence and proper instruction, implies neurological dysfunction. It is an extremely slow acquisition of reading skills, 'Alexia' means a total inability to read.

3. Writing disabilities (Dysgraphia)

Dysgraphia means "difficulty in performing the motor movements needed for hand writing, often attributed to neurological dysfunction.

4. Spelling problems: Children may spell words as the sounds “nuf” for "enough”, “wol” for ‘wall” etc).

Even errors in spelling are inconsistent as the same word maybe spelt differently in different places on the same page.

5. Arithmetic disabilities (Dyscalculia)

Dyscalculia means "A deficit in the ability to manipulate mathematical symbol, usually as a result of neurological dysfunction"

CHILDREN WITH EMOTIONAL AND BEHA IOURAL DEVIATIONS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ADHD AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

Introduction: Behavior disorder are regarded as those behaviors that children sometimes exhibit that are inappropriate and unacceptable in the class room or school. Sometimes, student's exhibit

inappropriate behavior because of emotional disorders but it is often impossible to determine whether or not a student's behaviour is actually caused by an emotional disorder for practical reasons. Behavioral and emotional disorder can be grouped as one area of special – need.

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1. CHILDREN WITH BEHAVIOURAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVIATIONS

It is common for children to flout social rules or misbehave. Some children however shows patters of negativity, hostility and more frequent intense; and disruptive than the norms and they are considered to have behavioural disorder. The symptoms of behavioural disorder tend to emerge in the preschool and elementary school years. These are classified as behavioural disorder are more common ini boys than girls.

There are two types of behavioural disorders. (viz) oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Oppositional defiant disorder :(ODD)

The central feature of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) which occurs at rates of 2 to 16% is a recurrent pattern of negativistic defiant, disobedient and hostile behaviours towards authority figures, lasting for at least 6 months like aggression towards people or animals, destruction of property.

A. Attention defect hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

ADHD is a condition affecting 3%-5% of children, where the child shows symptoms of inattention that are not consistent with his or her development level. The essential features of ADHD is a persistent pattern of inattention and / or hyper active - impulsivity that is more frequent and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development. ADHD pattern often appear before the child starts school. ADHD frequently occurs together with learning disabilities, depression, anxiety, conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder so that the overall effects of the problem can be large.

DSM –IV distinguishes - 3 subtypes of ADHD Problems of attention

Over active behavior and

A combination of attention problems and hyperactivity The first subtype - is characterized primarily by difficulty in keeping attention focused on tasks, a problem that interferes not only with learning but also with correctly completing assignments in school and work because of failure to listen to instructions or pay attention to details. The second type (i.e.) over active behavior is marked by overactive and sometimes impulsive behavior.

The third type - The combined sub-1$pe, includes both difficulties,ADHD is the most frequently diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood.

CHILDREN WITH EMOTIONAL DEVIATIONS

Emotional problems involves subjective distress of the child without a disruption in his percéption of reality.

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The American psychiatric association (APA) defined emotional disturbance as follows

It is a type of psychiatric disturbances without clearly defined physical cause or without structure damage to the brain" The symptoms of these childhood disorder are similar to those seen in adult emotional disorder For example - Factures of inferiority

Self consciousness – Social withdrawal

Shyness, fear, sadness etc

Because of several emotional disorder of childhood bear a strong resemblance to those of adulthood.

1. Reactive Attachment disorder: This disorder begins before the age of 5 yrs. Children with reactive attachment disorder fail to show social attachments that are appropriate for their age. The cause of reactive attachment disorder includes child's early experiences such as serious neglect, outright abuse and inadequate care.

2 Separation Anxiety disorder: children with often panic, whenever they are separated from home or a parent they have trouble in travelling independently away from home and often refuse to visit friends' houses.

Phobias: At some point, every child. Experiences an unjustified fear so. Extreme that he or she is

immobilized the nature of fears varies with age. Fears become phobias. When they are out of proportion to the reality of the danger that an object presents.

School phobia is one of the most common and problematic child hood phobias. It creates great distress in both children and their parents.

Common child hood fears

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Childhood depression: Child hood depression includes behaviors such as with drawl crying avoidance of eye contact, physical complaints poor appetite and even aggressive behavior in some cases suicide.

The risk factors for depression in children include family history of depression stressful life events, low self-esteem and pessimistic attitudes. 5. Post-Traumatic stress disorder: (PTSD) can develop following exposure to an extremely traumatic event or series of events in child's life. Like intense fear,

helplessness, difficulty falling asleep, night mares persistent re-experiencing of the event.

6. Selective mutism: Occurs when a child or adolescent persistently fails to speak in specific social situation such as school/ with play mates where speaking is expected. Selective mutism if interferes with a child's educational achievement and social communication.

2. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

Introduction: If a particular child starts behaving in a way which is below the normal social standards and behavior, then he is called a delinquent thus delinquency is a special type of problem behavior which is very harmful for the progress of our society.

The incidences of juvenile anti-social behavior have tremendously increased in our country.

Delinquency: The term delinquency is used to denote certain behavior patterns which are socially disapproved the but the children who violate the social norms and behave in anti-social manner are called delinquents.

In law, a person in the age group of 15 and 17 who indulges himself in an anti-social activity is a juvenile delinquent. Normally a 17 years old adolescent is taken to be a juvenile delinquent in Indian laws 16 years is the maximum age limit prescribed for a juvenile delinquent. Definition of Juvenile Delinquent:

1. "A Child who deviates from the social norms of behavior is called delinquent children" - by Healy.

2. "A child is technically delinquent when his anti social tendencies appear so grave that be becomes or ought to become the subject of official action". - By Cyril Burt

3. “Delinquency may be defined as anti-social behavior" - By Head field. 4. “Delinquency implies from anti-social behavior involving personal and social-disorganization" - by Neumeyer

Characteristics of Delinquents :

1. A delinquent child posses anti social behavior 2. He break the laws

3. A delinquent, deviates from norms of social behavior and creates problems in society. and create indiscipline in school.

4. A delinquent child is aggressive and hostile behaviour.

5. He behaves in such away that it is harmful for himself and also for other.

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6. His ago is bent upon immediate pleasure without obey in the norms social behaviour 7. His immoral behaviour is not considered so serious that may be referred to court law.

8. His anxiety level is generally very high.

9. It is acquired behaviour by the child and not the innate.

10. The delinquents are emotional and maladjusted.

11. The economic conditions of his family is generally poor. The parents are unable to fulfill his needs.

12. Delinquency is an acquired behavior.

13. Delinquency is problem for every one.

14. Delinquency is not the abnormality in its true sense. Classification of Delinquency:

* Classification of delinquency by had field

1. Benign delinquency: Delinquency is a crime from the point of view of discipline and law but from the mental health point of view it is normal eg - truancy on some beautiful rainy day or for seeing some extra ordinary act in the city

2. Temperamental delinquency: Temperate mental delinquency of certain physiological activities eg: it is found that girls may steal the things during their M.C days.

3. Simple delinquency: simple delinquency is the result of the conflict between the need of child and the home, schools or society conditions. It is known as anti social behaviour. The main cause may be the poor environment is which the child is living.

4. Reaction Delinquency: Reaction delinquency, arise from the reactions of the children against the society when the child thinks that he is the victim of the society.

5. Psychoneurotic Delinquency: This type of delinquency is created on account of the expression in anti social manner of the repressed tendencies.

Example - Repression of sex urge or instinct may develop the tendency of truancy or telling lie or stealing etc.

6. Aggressive Tendency: The mode of attack may be physical aggression damaging school property torturing, committing suicide and forgery. with Google Docs

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CHILDREN WITH SOCIO-CULTURAL DEVIATIONS (SC, ST, MINORITIES) AND LINGUISTIC MINORITIES CHILDREN WITH SOCIO CULTURAL

DEVIATION (SC, ST, MINORITIES AND LINGUISTIC MINORITIES

Introduction: "Equalizing educational opportunities' was been one of the major objectives of successive five year plan. The right of each child to receive an education suited to its character and abilities has been recognized. An education It means that special attention is to be given to the under privileged, the disadvantaged like scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, women, physically and mentally handicapped and students from back ward classes.

Riessman (1962), the term culturally deprived, educationally deprived, under privileged lower class, and lower socio. Economic group, could all be used interchangeably. Meaning of children with socio-cultural deviation:

Socially disadvantage does not mean only a single group of people, rather they may be women, scheduled caste and scheduled tribe children, may be handicapped in any sort, minority group and people of other linguistic minorities and people of other educationally back ward sections areas.

UNESCO in its Indian report has specified 4 disadvantaged groups:

1. Scheduled castes 2. Scheduled tribes 3 Denitrified tribes 4 Nomadic tribes

A socially disadvantaged child is a deprived child from cultural point view, the cultural deprivation is the result of poverty for which a large number of children do not get opportunity for their educational development.

Frank Risesman" has defined "The term culturally deprived refers to those aspects of middle class culture such as

i) Formal language from which these groups have not benefited. However because it is the term is current usage, we will use culturally deprived inter changeably with educationally deprived" it refer to the members of lower socio-economic groups who have had limited access to education.

The following are the main characteristics of socially disadvantage children:

1. Poor academic performance Cognitive deficiences

3. Apathetic unresponsive and lack initiative

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5. Basic intelligence

6. Socially disadvantage and 7. Intellectual performance 8. Low level of aspiration

9. Differential personality pattern 11. Intellectual deficiency

12. Lack of social competence 13. Wastage and stagnation 14. Handicap in language

There are still another groups who are also educationally deprived or back ward. They are known as minorities like Muslims, Christians etc. Efforts will have to be made for the education of these groups in the interest of equality and social justice. Constitutional guarantees law help than to establish and administer their own educational institutions and to protect their language and culture.

All possible measures will have to be taken to promote an integration based on appreciation of common national goals, preparation of text books etc.

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