Analysis of the Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of the Water of the Amparihibe Lake Located in the District of Nosy-Be

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Analysis of the Physicochemical and Microbiological

Parameters of the Water of the Amparihibe Lake

Located in the District of Nosy-Be

Razafitsiferana Théophile*, Bruno Razanamparany, Mihasina Rabesiaka, Mahandrimana Andrianainarivelo

Antsiranana University, Faculty of Science, Mentions: Chemical Sciences, Path: Mineral Chemestry, Madagascar

Abstract

Lake Amparihibe is a large lake among the 12 sacred lakes that exist in the district of Nosy-Be, Its exploitation by the JIRAMA for addiction in drinking water for the population of Nosy-Be, to begin in 1975. The purpose of this work to know the concentrations of each physical, chemical, microbiological parameters and quality control of this water. The results of water analysis of Lake Amparihibe in Nosy-Be district are given in the following line. For the physical parameters: the temperature is 21.8°C, the turbidity is 1.70 NTU, the pH is 7.97, the conductivity is 218 μS / cm. So these results show that the conditions required for drinking water are verified. For chemical parameters: organic matter 9.24 mg / L, salinity is 0, TAC is 10.98°F, total hardness is 132.73 mg / L, nitrates is 0.36 mg / L, ammonium is 0.48 mg / L, Sodium is 18.36 mg / L, Potassium is 10.39 mg / L, Calcium is 24.23 mg / L, Magnesium is 17.55 mg / L, Aluminum is 0 copper is 0.068 mg / L, Lead is 0, and chloride is 149.5 mg / L. The concentration of organic matter is in excess of the limit value for drinking water, the total hardness times 2.5 for the limit value required for drinking water that is to say water is too much to say, the remainders meet the standards required for water intended for human consumption. For microbiological parameters: microorganism at 22°C is 120 Ufc / mL, microorganism at 36°C is 25Ufc / mL, coliform bacteria is 1Ufc / 100mL, Escherichia coli 1Ufc / 100mL, Intestinal Enterococci is 0.05 Ufc / 100mL and Spores of microorganisms is 0.5mg / L. the results show that the water is microbial. Disinfection by sodium hypochlorite is used to treat it's water before it is used.

Keywords

Water, Physical parameters, Chemical parameters, Microbiological parameters, Quality control and disinfection

1. Introduction

Lake AMPARIHIBE is the largest lake among the 12 large sacred lakes that exist in the District of Nosy-Be. It is located in the north-west of Madagascar, between 13° 11' and 13° 30' of the southern altitude and between 48° 8' and 48° 22' east longitude. It measures 30Km from south to north

and 19 km from east to west, so it covers 325 km2 of its

surface.

A 75% of the population of Nosy-Be who drink water from Lake Amparihibe, This water is operated by the Company named JIRAMA (JIro sy RAno MAlagasy), for water intended for consumption of this population.

* Corresponding author:

razafitsiferana87@gmail.com (Razafitsiferana Théophile) Published online at http://journal.sapub.org/re

Copyright©2018The Author(s).PublishedbyScientific&AcademicPublishing This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

The picture of Lake Amparihibe is given next:

The characteristics of Lake Amparihibe are given in the following table:

Table 1. The characteristics of Lake Amparihibe Lake Area

(ha)

Volume (m3)

Minimum depth (m)

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My work is divided into four parts: the first part is the bibliographic synthesis, the second is the analysis results for the physicochemical parameters, the third is the microbiological analysis followed by the interpretation and discussion of these results. Fourth part determining the dose needed for the disinfected, we will end with the conclusion.

2. Bibliographic Synthesis

Water is an abundant element in the life of man, his presence is very important for everyday life.

The chemical composition of water consists of oxygen-based dissolved gases, water contains several organic matters and their concentration is varied in dissolved form.

The three possible water structures are: liquid, solid and gaseous, cations and metals can exist as a trace.

The pollutions are in the water, their concentration in excess in the water is dangerous.

The standard of qualities is referenced by the recommendation of the European Union (EU), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Malagasy State (EM).

3. Analysis Parameters

To check the transparency of the water, the turbidity is measured, the water is an acid, basic and neutral the hydrogen potential (pH) for the verification is measured. To know the quality of salt dissolved in water, it is necessary to measure the conductivity. The estimation of the quality of organic matter that exists in water, it is necessary to measure the concentration of organic matter like COD, BOD and BOD5.

To know the basic salt content and the bicarbonate ion, the measurement of T.A.C will allow to check.

Total hardness is the determination of the calcium and magnesium content that exist in water.

The existence of the ammonium ion in the water indicates, the water is polluted.

The determination of total iron is the method for determining the concentration of iron in water, it is in the form of a trace.

Cations such as sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium are essential elements in water intended for human consumption, their insufficiencies in concentration cause the water to be of poor quality.

Chloride is a major ion contained in natural water. Heavy metals such as lead, copper and aluminum, the existence of higher concentration limit value is very dangerous in drinking water.

Microbiological analysis of water is very essential for human health, their existence in water indicates, that water is microbial, does not allow used to human life.

4. Results of Measures

I – Physical parmeters 1 – Temperature [6]

Table 2. Represents of the temperature

Sampling date Site Temperature (°C) Lake Amparihibe 21,8 23/03 /2018 OMS <25 EU <25 EM <25

Figure 1. Temperature measurement

The temperature found is 21.8°C, the limit value is <25°C so this value is admissible for drinking water.

2 – Turbidity [7]

Table 3. Represents the measurement of the turbidity Sampling date Site Turbidity (NTU)

Lake Amparihibe 1,70 23/03 /2018 OMS <5

EU <5 EM <5

Figure 2. Turbidity measurement 20.5 21

21.5 22 22.5 23 23.5 24

La

ke

Ampa

rih

ib

e

WHO

EU EM

23/03/2018

Temperature

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

La

ke

Ampa

rih

ib

e

WHO

EU EM

23/0/2018

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The value of the turbidity is 1.70 NTU, but the limit value is <5NTU, so the water of Lake Amparihibe is clear, drinkable.

3 – pH [6]

Table 4. Represents the measurement of the pH Sampling date Site pH

Lake Amparihibe 7,97 23/03 /2018 OMS 6,5 à 8,5

EU 6,5 à 9,5 EM 6,5 à 9

Figure 3. pH measurement

The pH of the lake water is 7.97, it is between 6.5 and 8.5, so the water is acceptable for international standards. 4 – Conductivity

Table 5. Represents the measurement of the conductivity Sampling date Site Conductivity (µS/cm)

Lake Amparihibe 218 23/03 /2018 OMS 180 – 1000

EU 180 – 1000 EM <3000

Figure 4. Results conductivity

The conductivity is 218μS / cm the value between 180 - 1000 for water intended for human consumption, so this

value is acceptable for drinking water standards. II - Chemical parameters

1 – Dissolved oxygen [8]

Table 6. Represents the concentration of dissolved oxygen Sampling date Site Dissolved oxygen (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 9,24 23/03 /2018 OMS 2

EU 2

EM 2

Figure 5. Measurement results for dissolved oxygen concentration

The organic matter represented by dissolved oxygen is 9.24 mg / L, the limit value for drinking water <2mg / L concentration, so we find that lake water in excess for the concentration of organic matter, the water is not good. 6 – The T.A.C

Table 7. Represents the concentration of T.A.C Sampling date Site T.A.C (°f)

Lake Amparihibe 10,98 23/03 /2018 OMS 11

EU 11

EM 11

Figure 6. Measurement results for T.A.C concentration 7.4

7.6 7.8 8 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8

La

ke

Ampa

rih

ib

e

WHO

EU EM

23/03/2018

pH

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

La

ke

Ampa

rih

ib

e

W

HO EU EM

23/03/2018

Conductivity

0 2 4 6 8 10

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

Dissolved oxygen

10.2 10.4 10.6 10.8 11

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

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The T.A.C is 10.98°f the limit value is <11°f, so this value is admissible for drinking water.

7 - The Nitrate

Table 8. Represents the concentration of nitrate Sampling date Site Nitrate (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 0,36 23/03 /2018 OMS 44

EU 50

EM 50

Figure 7. Measurement results for nitate concentration

The nitrate concentration is 0.36mg / L, the limit value is <44mg / L, the concentration found is acceptable.

8- Total hardness [9]

Table 9. Represents the concentration of total hardness Sampling date Site Total hardness (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 132,73 23/03 /2018 OMS 50

EU 50

EM 50

Figure 8. Measurement results for total hardness concentration

The concentration for the total hardness is 132,73mg / L, the limit value for drinking water is 50mg / L, so the lake

water is very hard compared to the standards required for drinking water.

8 - Total iron dosage [10]

Table 10. Represents the concentration of total iron dosage Sampling date Site Total iron dosage (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 0 23/03 /2018 OMS <0,2

EU 0,2

EM 0,2

Figure 9. Measurement results for total iron dosage concentration

The concentration of iron is zero, the limit value is <0,2mg / L, iron does not exist in the water of Lake Amparihibe. 9 – Ammonium [5]

Table 11. Represents the concentration of ammonium Sampling date Site Ammonium (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 0,48 23/03 /2018 OMS <0,5

EU 0,5

EM 0,5

Figure 10. Measurement results for ammonium concentration

0 10 20 30 40 50

Lake

Amp

ari

nibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

Nitrate

0 50 100 150

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

Total hardness

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

Total iron dosage

0.47 0.475 0.48 0.485 0.49 0.495 0.5

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

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The ammonium concentration is 0.48 mg / L, the limit value is <0.50 mg / L, so the value found is eligible for the standard required for water intended for human consumption.

10 – Sodium [2]

Table 12. Represents the concentration of sodium Sampling date Site Sodium (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 18,36 23/03 /2018 OMS 200

EU 200

EM 200

Figure 11. Measurement results for sodium concentration

The concentration of sodium is 18.36mg / L, the required value is <200mg / L, so this concentration is standard but it is insufficient for drinking water.

11 – Potassium [2]

Table 13. Represents the concentration of potassium Sampling date Site Potassium (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 10,39 23/03 /2018 OMS 12

EU 12

EM <12

Figure 12. Measurement results for potassium concentration

The concentration for potassium is 10,39mg / L, the limit value is <12mg / L, so this value is good for drinking water.

12 – Calcium [4]

Table 14. Represents the concentration of calcium Sampling date Site Calcium (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 24,23 23/03 /2018 OMS 100 - 140

EU 100

EM 100

Figure 13. Measurement results for calcium concentration

The calcium concentration is 24.23 mg / L, the required value is 100mg / L, so it is acceptable but the concentration is low compared to the standard required for water intended for human consumption.

13 – Magnesium [4]

Table 15. Represents the concentration of magnesium Sampling date Site Magnesium (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 17,55 23/03 /2018 OMS 50

EU 50

EM 50

Figure 14. Measurement results for magnesium concentration

0 50 100 150 200

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

Sodium

9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

Potassium

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

Calcium

0 10 20 30 40 50

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

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The magnesium concentration is 17,55mg / L, the limit value is 50mg / L, so this concentration is acceptable for international standards.

14 – Chlorides [12]

Table 16. Represents the concentration of chlorides Sampling date Site Chlorides (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 149,5 23/03 /2018 OMS 250

EU 250

EM 250

Figure 15. Measurement results for chlorides concentration

The concentration for chloride is 149.5 mg / L, the limit value is 250 mg / L, this concentration is good for water intended for human consumption.

15 – Aluminum

Table 17. Represents the concentration of aluminum Sampling date Site Aluminum (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 0 23/03 /2018 OMS <0,2

EU 0,2

EM <0,2

Figure 16. Measurement results for aluminum concentration

The aluminum concentration is zero, the limit concentration for drinking water is <0.2mg / L, therefore aluminum does not exist in the water of Lake Amparihibe 16 – Copper [11]

Table 18. Represents the concentration of copper Sampling date Site Copper (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 0,068 23/03 /2018 OMS <5

EU 5

EM 5

Figure 17. Measurement results for copper concentration

The copper concentration eixste but in low concentration in the form of a trace because this value is 0.068mg / L the standard requires that the concentration is <5mg / L, so the water is good for consumption.

17 – Lead [3]

Table 19. Represents the concentration of lead Sampling date Site Lead (mg/L)

Lake Amparihibe 0 23/03 /2018 OMS <0,5

EU 0,5

EM <0,5

Figure 18. Measurement results for Lead concentration

0 50 100 150 200 250

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

Chlorides

0 0.05 0.1 0.15

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

Aluminum

0 2 4 6

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

Copper

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

Lake

Amp

ari

hibe WHO EU EM

23/03/2018

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The lead concentration is zero, the limit concentration for drinking water is <0.5mg / L, the water is good for drinking.

III – Microbiological analysis

Table 20. Represents the concentration of the microbiological

Lake Amparihibe Results Unit WHO EU EM Reviviable microorganisms 22°C 120 Ufc/mL <100 <100 <100 Reviviable microorganisms 36°C 25 Ufc/mL <20 <10 <10

Coliform bacteria 1 Ufc/100mL 0 0 0 Escherichia coli 1 Ufc/100mL 0 0 0 Intestinal Enterococci 0,05 Ufc/100mL 0 0 0 Spores of microorganisms 0,5 Ufc/100mL 0 0 0

Figure 19. Measurement results for microbiological concentration

For microbiological concentrations, the values found are outside the value required for water intended for human consumption, so the water is microbial. This is where my work is done in treatment for disinfection.

VI- Disinfection by sodium hypochlorite [1]

The results of chlorine demand for disinfection is given by the following table.

Table 21. Measurement of the optimal dose for free chlorine after 30 minutes of contact

Residual chlorine 0 0,007 0,19 0,15 0,3 0,25 0,5 0,6 0,8 1,1 1,2 1,5 Added chlorine 0 0,25 0,5 0,75 1 1,25 1,5 1,75 2 2,25 2,5 2,75

Figure 20. Results of chlorine demand 0

20 40 60 80 100 120

revi

via

bl

e

micro

organ

isms 22

°C

revi

via

bl

e

micro

org

an

isms

36

Co

liform ba

cteria

esc

heric

hia

coli

Intestin

al

Entero

cocci

Spor

es

of

mic

roor

ganism

23/03/2018

Microbiological

Lake Amparihibe WHO EU EM

0 1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Demand chlorine

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1 to 3 mg / l: chlorine in the form of amine compounds 3 to 4 mg / L: destruction of chloramines by an increased dose of chlorine from 5mg / L: progressive increase of chlorine

zone A: 1 - 3mg / L, it is the rapid consumption of chlorine by very reactive compounds.

zone B: 3- 4mg / L, formation and destruction of the inorganic chloramines.

We note zone C: 4mg / L, "break-point" or "critical point" So we kept the chlorine content of 4mg / L in the sample and especially to avoid any risk of contamination.

5. Interpretation of Results and

Discussions

At the level of the physical parameter: temperature 21.8 °C the standard requires is 25°, turbidity 1.7 NTU the standard required for drinking water, pH and conductivity perfectly meets the requirement for drinking water. So for the physical parameter acceptable for intended for human consumption

The four physical parameters we are studying are perfectly suited to the standards required for drinking water.

For chemical parameters: organic matter is excluded for the value required for drinking water.

The total hardness the concentration is very high compared to the international recommendations for drinking water.

The ammonium concentration is very limited, but it is acceptable.

iron, lead and aluminum are zero for the water of Lake Amparihibe.

The concentration of sodium is low compared to the standard required for drinking water.

The concentration for potassium and magnesium are average when compared to the standard required for water intended for human consumption.

The calcium concentration is insufficient for drinking water.

The chloride concentration is good because the value found in the vicinity of the limit concentration for natural water to consumable.

For the chemical parameter: the results found meet almost 90% the standards required for water intended for human consumption, despite their inadequacies in the concentration. Lake Amparihibe water is microbial based on these analyzes, so treat before use.

Just after treatment this result indicates that water treated by the chlorination method is very effective in disinfecting microbial water. So it takes the repetition of analysis for the population to drink safely on everything during the rainy season.

6. Conclusions

Based on these analysis results, it can be concluded that: Physical parameters pH, temperature, turbidity and conductivity values found are perfectly meeting the standards required for drinking water.

The chemical parameters: with the exception of the total hardness, their concentration is very high compared to the limit concentration for drinking water, ie the quality of the water is very hard; On the other hand, concentrations for cations such as calcium, sodium, magnesium and potassium are low by the standards required for water intended for human consumption.

Metals such as copper, lead, aluminum and iron are absent in the water of Lake Amparihibe.

For the microbiological parameters, the concentrations found are excluded for international standards, that is to say that Lake Amparihibe's water is microbial. So that the water is microbial, I propose in my research the treatment mode to disinfect by the chlorination method, this method for determining the optimal dose of sodium hypochlorite used in this situation.

So after disinfection by chlorine dose at 4mg / L, the population of Nosy-Be Hell-city drink safely even in the rain season.

The other treatment at the next how increased insufficient cation rates in this.

REFERENCES

[1] M de ROUVILLE, J. RODIER, L. RODI (mars 1976). Possibilités et limites de la désinfection des eaux urbaines. Techniques de l’eau, 351, p.37-47.

[2] A.M. URE and R.L. MITCHELL (1975). Sodium et Potassium and Cesium. In J.A. Dean et T.C. Rans eds. Flame emission and atomic spectrometry, Dekker, new York, N.Y. p9: 823.

[3] NN. BASARGIN et al. (1998). Group concentration of zinc, plomb, and lead in the analysis of potable and natural water, Industrial Laboratory, 64: è-5.

[4] F. CANETE et al. (1987). Determination of analytical parameters in drinking water by flow injection analysis. Part 2. Simultaneaous determination of calsium and magnesium, Analyst, 112: 267.

[5] E. MUJINARI et L. OCOURTHAUDON (1992). Application to the analysis of ammonium nitrogen in waste, water, journal of Chromatography A, 592: 209.

[6] W.F. LANGELIER (1946). Effect of temperature on the pH natural waters J.A.W.W.A.38, p. 179.

[7] M.O. MIZIER (2005). La mesure de turbidité: un paramètre essentiel pour l’eau potable; L’eau l’industrie les nuisances, 284.

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[9] J. RODIER (1952). Détermination de la dureté dans les eaux par la méthode complexon III.

[10] N. OHNO et T. SAKAI (1972). Spectrophotometric determination of iron in boiler and well waters by flow injection analysis.

[11] P. BREUIL et al. (1998). Analyse du cuivre et de zinc dans les effluent industriels par spectrométrie UV-visible, Analysis, 26:8.

Figure

Table 1.  The characteristics of Lake Amparihibe

Table 1.

The characteristics of Lake Amparihibe . View in document p.1
Table 2.  Represents of the temperature

Table 2.

Represents of the temperature . View in document p.2
Table 3.  Represents the measurement of the turbidity

Table 3.

Represents the measurement of the turbidity. View in document p.2
Table 5.  Represents the measurement of the conductivity

Table 5.

Represents the measurement of the conductivity . View in document p.3
Table 4.  Represents the measurement of the pH

Table 4.

Represents the measurement of the pH . View in document p.3
Table 6.  Represents the concentration of dissolved oxygen

Table 6.

Represents the concentration of dissolved oxygen . View in document p.3
Table 7.  Represents the concentration of T.A.C

Table 7.

Represents the concentration of T A C . View in document p.3
Table 10.  Represents the concentration of total iron dosage

Table 10.

Represents the concentration of total iron dosage . View in document p.4
Table 9.  Represents the concentration of total hardness

Table 9.

Represents the concentration of total hardness . View in document p.4
Table 11.  Represents the concentration of ammonium

Table 11.

Represents the concentration of ammonium . View in document p.4
Table 8.  Represents the concentration of nitrate

Table 8.

Represents the concentration of nitrate . View in document p.4
Table 12.  Represents the concentration of sodium

Table 12.

Represents the concentration of sodium . View in document p.5
Table 14.  Represents the concentration of calcium

Table 14.

Represents the concentration of calcium . View in document p.5
Table 13.  Represents the concentration of potassium

Table 13.

Represents the concentration of potassium . View in document p.5
Table 15.  Represents the concentration of magnesium

Table 15.

Represents the concentration of magnesium . View in document p.5
Table 16.  Represents the concentration of chlorides

Table 16.

Represents the concentration of chlorides . View in document p.6
Table 18.  Represents the concentration of copper

Table 18.

Represents the concentration of copper . View in document p.6
Table 17.  Represents the concentration of aluminum

Table 17.

Represents the concentration of aluminum . View in document p.6
Table 20.  Represents the concentration of the microbiological

Table 20.

Represents the concentration of the microbiological . View in document p.7
Table 21.  Measurement of the optimal dose for free chlorine after 30 minutes of contact

Table 21.

Measurement of the optimal dose for free chlorine after 30 minutes of contact . View in document p.7