George TchobanoglousProfessor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of California at Davis Davis, California
Frank KreithProfessor Emeritus of Engineering
University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado
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Contributors xi Preface xiii
Chapter 1. Introduction George Tchobanoglous, Frank Kreith, and Marcia E. Williams 1.1
1.1 Waste Generation and Management in a Technological Society / 1.1
1.2 Issues in Solid Waste Management / 1.2
1.3 Integrated Waste Management / 1.8
1.4 Implementing Integrated Waste Management Strategies / 1.11
1.5 Typical Costs for Major Waste Management Options / 1.13
1.6 Framework for Decision Making / 1.19
1.7 Key Factors for Success / 1.22
1.8 Philosophy and Organization of this Handbook / 1.24
1.9 Concluding Remarks / 1.25
Chapter 2. Federal Role in Municipal Solid Waste Management
Barbara Foster and Edward W. Repa 2.1
2.1 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act / 2.1
2.2 Clean Air Act / 2.22
2.3 Clean Water Act / 2.35
2.4 Federal Aviation Administration Guidelines / 2.38
2.5 Flow Control Implications / 2.38
Chapter 3. Solid Waste State Legislation Kelly Hill and Jim Glenn 3.1
3.1 Introduction / 3.1
3.2 Trends in Municipal Waste Generation and Management / 3.1
3.3 The Waste Reduction Legislation Movement / 3.3
3.4 The Effect of Legislation / 3.5
3.5 State Municipal Solid Waste Legislation / 3.8
3.6 State Planning Provisions / 3.8
3.7 Permitting and Regulation Requirements / 3.9
3.8 Waste Reduction Legislation / 3.9
3.9 Establishing Waste Reduction Goals / 3.10
3.10 Legislating Local Government Responsibility / 3.12
3.11 Making Producers and Retailers Responsible for Waste / 3.16
3.12 Advanced Disposal Fees / 3.18
3.13 Special Waste Legislation / 3.20
3.14 Market Development Initiatives / 3.21
3.15 State Funding / 3.25
3.16 Flow Control Legislation: Interstate Movement of Unprocessed and Processed Solid Waste / 3.25
References / 3.27
Chapter 4. Planning for Municipal Solid Waste Management Programs
James E. Kundell and Deanna L. Ruffer 4.1
4.1 State Solid Waste Management Planning / 4.1
4.2 Local and Regional Solid Waste Management Planning / 4.7
4.3 Conclusions / 4.13
References / 4.14
Chapter 5. Solid Waste Stream Characteristics Marjorie A. Franklin 5.1
5.1 Municipal Solid Waste Defined / 5.1
5.2 Methods of Characterizing Municipal Solid Waste / 5.2
5.3 Materials in Municipal Solid Waste by Weight / 5.3
5.4 Products in Municipal Solid Waste by Weight / 5.11
5.5 Municipal Solid Waste Management / 5.19
5.6 Discards of Municipal Solid Waste by Volume / 5.24
5.7 The Variability of Municipal Solid Waste Generation / 5.25
References / 5.30
Chapter 6. Source Reduction: Quantity and Toxicity
Part 6A. Quantity Reduction Harold Leverenz 6.1
6A.1 Introduction / 6.1
6A.2 Effects of Source Reduction / 6.2
6A.3 Involvement by Government / 6.6
6A.4 Developing a Source Reduction Plan / 6.15
6A.5 Strategies for Source Reduction / 6.17
References / 6.25
Part 6B. Toxicity Reduction Ken Geiser 6B.1 The Toxicity of Trash / 6.27
6B.2 Waste Management Policy / 6.30
6B.3 Product Management Policy / 6.33
6B.4 Production Management Policy / 6.37
6B.5 A Sustainable Economy / 6.39
References / 6.40
Chapter 7. Collection of Solid Waste Hilary Theisen 7.1
7.1 The Logistics of Solid Waste Collection / 7.1
7.2 Types of Waste Collection Services / 7.2
7.3 Types of Collection Systems, Equipment, and Personnel Requirements / 7.14
7.4 Collection Routes / 7.22
7.5 Management of Collection Systems / 7.25
7.6 Collection System Economics / 7.25
References / 7.27
Chapter 8. Recycling Harold Leverenz, George Tchobanoglous, and David B. Spencer 8.1
8.1 Overview of Recycling / 8.1
8.3 Development and Implementation of Materials Recovery Facilities / 8.10
8.4 Unit Operations and Equipment for Processing of Recyclables / 8.38
8.5 Environmental and Public Health and Safety Issues / 8.70
8.6 Recycling Economics / 8.74
References / 8.77
Chapter 9. Markets and Products for Recycled Material
Harold Leverenz and Frank Kreith 9.1
9.1 Sustainable Recycling / 9.1
9.2 Recycling Markets / 9.3
9.3 Market Development / 9.8
9.4 Trade Issues / 9.16
References / 9.17
Chapter 10. Household Hazardous Wastes (HHW)
David E.B. Nightingale and Rachel Donnette 10.1
10.1 Introduction / 10.1
10.2 Problems of Household Hazardous Products / 10.3
10.3 HHW Regulation and Policy / 10.16
10.4 Product Stewardship and Sustainability / 10.21
10.5 Education and Outreach / 10.26
10.6 HHW Collection, Trends, and Infrastructure / 10.29
References / 10.33
Chapter 11. Other Special Wastes
Part 11A. Batteries Gary R. Brenniman, Stephen D. Casper,
William H. Hallenbeck, and James M. Lyznicki 11.1
11A.1 Automobile and Household Batteries / 11.1
References / 11.14
Part 11B. Used Oil Stephen D. Casper, William H. Hallenbeck, and Gary R. Brenniman 11B.1 Used Oil / 11.15
Part 11C. Scrap Tires John K. Bell 11C.1 Background / 11.31
11C.2 Source Reduction and Reuse / 11.32
11C.3 Disposal of Waste Tires / 11.33
11C.4 Alternatives to Disposal / 11.34
References / 11.36
Part 11D. Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris George Tchobanoglous 11D.1 Sources, Characteristics, and Quantities of C&D Debris / 11.39
11D.2 Regulations Governing C&D Materials and Debris / 11.42
11D.4 Specifications for Recovered C&D Debris / 11.44
11D.5 Management of Debris from Natural and Humanmade Disasters / 11.46
References / 11.47
Part 11E. Computer and Other Electronic Solid Waste Gary R. Brenniman and William H. Hallenbeck
11E.1 Introduction / 11.49
11E.2 Hazardous Components in Computers and Electronic Waste / 11.50
11E.3 Disposing of Computers is Hazardous / 11.53
11E.4 Extended Producer Responsibility and Electronic Toxin Phaseouts / 11.55
11E.5 Can a Clean Computer Be Designed? / 11.57
11E.6 What Can You Do As a Computer Owner? / 11.58
11E.7 Contacts and Resources for Dealing with Computer Waste / 11.58
References / 11.60
Chapter 12. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes
Luis F. Diaz, George M. Savage, and Clarence G. Golueke 12.1
12.1 Principles / 12.3
12.2 Technology / 12.14
12.3 Economics / 12.27
12.4 Marketing Principles and Methods / 12.33
12.5 Environmental, Public, and Industrial Health Considerations / 12.40
12.6 Case Study / 12.45
12.7 Conclusions / 12.45
References / 12.47
Appendix 12A. Partial Listing of Vendors of Equipment and Systems for Composting MSW and Other Organic Wastes / 12.50
Appendix 12B. Costs for Composting MSW and Yard Wastes / 12.68
Chapter 13. Waste-to-Energy Combustion IntroductionFrank Kreith
Part 13A. Incineration Technologies Calvin R. Brunner 13.1
13A.1 Incineration / 13.3
References / 13.84
Part 13B. Ash Management and Disposal Floyd Hasselriis 13B.1 Sources and Types of Ash Residues / 13.85
13B.2 Properties of Ash Residues / 13.86
13B.3 Ash Management / 13.93
13B.4 Landfill Disposal / 13.95
13B.5 Regulatory Aspects / 13.97
13B.6 Actual Leaching of MWC Ash / 13.99
13B.7 Treatment of Ash Residues / 13.100
13B.8 Environmental Impact of Ash Residue Use / 13.101
13B.9 Ash Management Around the World / 13.102
13B.10 Beneficial Use of Residues / 13.104
13B.11 Analysis of Ash Residue Test Data / 13.109
Part 13C. Emission Control Floyd Hasselriis 13C.1 Introduction / 13.121
13C.2 Emissions from Combustion / 13.124
13C.3 Emission Standards and Guidelines / 13.126
13C.4 Emission Control Devices / 13.132
13C.5 Controlled and Uncontrolled Emission Factors / 13.154
13C.6 Variability of Emissions / 13.160
13C.7 Dispersion of Pollutants from Stack to Ground / 13.161
13C.8 Risk Assessment / 13.165
13C.9 Calculation of Municipal Waste Combustor Emissions / 13.168
13C.10 Conversions and Corrections / 13.171
References / 13.174
Chapter 14. Landfilling Philip R. O’Leary and George Tchobanoglous 14.1
14.1 The Landfill Method of Solid Waste Disposal / 14.2
14.2 Generation and Composition of Landfill Gases / 14.10
14.3 Formation, Composition, and Management of Leachate / 14.30
14.4 Intermediate and Final Landfill Cover / 14.47
14.5 Structural and Settlement Characteristics of Landfills / 14.54
14.6 Landfill Design Considerations / 14.58
14.7 Landfill Operation / 14.69
14.8 Environmental Quality Monitoring at Landfills / 14.77
14.9 Landfill Closure, Postclosure Care, and Remediation / 14.84
References / 14.88
Chapter 15. Siting Municipal Solid Waste Facilities David Laws, Lawrence Susskind,
and Jason Corburn 15.1
15.1 Introduction / 15.1
15.2 Understanding the Sources of Public Concern / 15.1
15.3 A Typical Siting Chronology / 15.4
15.4 Building Consensus on Siting Choices / 15.8
15.5 Conclusions / 15.16
References / 15.17
Chapter 16. Financing and Life-Cycle Costing of Solid Waste Management Systems Nicholas S. Artz, Jacob E. Beachey, and Philip R. O’Leary 16.1
16.1 Financing Options / 16.2
16.2 Issues in Financing Choices / 16.5
16.3 Steps to Secure System Financing / 16.8
16.4 Life-Cycle Costing / 16.10
16.5 Summary / 16.16
Nicholas S. Artz Franklin Associates, Ltd., 4121 W. 83rd Street, Suite 108, Prairie Village, KS 666208
Jacob E. Beachey Franklin Associates, Ltd., 4121 W. 83rd Street, Suite 108, Prairie Village, KS 66208
John K. Bell California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB), 8800 Cal Center Drive, Sacra-mento, CA 95826 (CHAP. 11C).
Gary R. Brenniman School of Public Health, University of Illinois, 2121 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612-7260(CHAPS. 11A, 11B, 11E).
Calvin R. Brunner Incinerator Consultant, Inc., 11204 Longwood Grove Drive, Reston, VA 22094 (CHAP. 13A).
Stephen D. Casper School of Public Health, University of Illinois, 2121 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612-7260(CHAPS. 11A, 11B).
Jason Corburn Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 77 Massachusetts Ave., RM 3-411, Cambridge, MA 02139 (CHAP. 15).
Luis F. Diaz CalRecovery, Inc., 1850 Gateway Boulevard, Suite 1060, Concord, CA 94520 (CHAP. 12).
Rachel Donnette Thurston County Environmental Health, 2000 Lakeridge Drive SW, Olympia, WA 98502(CHAP. 10).
Barbara Foster National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), 1560 Broadway, Suite 700, Denver, CO 80202 (CHAP. 2).
Marjorie A. Franklin Franklin Associates, Ltd., 4121 W. 83rd Street, Suite 108, Prairie Village, KS 66208
Ken Geiser Toxics Use Reduction Institute, University of Lowell, 1 University Avenue, Lowell, MA 01854
Jim Glenn BioCycle, 419 State Avenue, Emmaus, PA 18049 (CHAP. 3).
Clarence G. Golueke CalRecovery, Inc., 1850 Gateway Boulevard, Suite 1060, Concord, CA 94520
William H. Hallenbeck 1106 Maple Street, Western Springs, IL 60558 (CHAPS. 11A, 11B, 11E).
Floyd Hasselriis Engineering Consultant, 52 Seasongood Road, Forest Hills Gardens, New York, NY 11375(CHAPS. 13B, 13C).
Kelly Hill 105 Rosella Avenue, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (CHAP. 3).
Frank Kreith Engineering Consultant, 1485 Sierra Drive, Boulder, CO 80302 (CHAPS. 1, 9, 13).
James E. Kundell Vinson Institute of Government, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (CHAP. 4).
David Laws Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 77 Massachusetts Ave., RM 3-411, Cambridge, MA 02139 (CHAP. 15).
Harold Leverenz Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (CHAPS. 6A, 8, 9).
James M. Lyznicki School of Public Health, 2121 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612-7260 (CHAP.
David E. B. Nightingale Solid Waste and Financial Assistance Program, Washington State Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 47775, Olympia, WA 98504-7775 (CHAP. 10).
Philip R. O’Leary University of Wisconsin, 432 N. Lake Street, Madison, WI 53706 (CHAPS. 14, 16).
Edward W. Repa National Solid Waste Management Association (NSWMA), 1730 Rhode Island Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 (CHAP. 2).
Deanna K. Ruffer Vinson Institute of Government, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (CHAP. 4).
George M. Savage CalRecovery, Inc., 1850 Gateway Boulevard, Suite 1060, Concord, CA 94520 (CHAP. 12).
David B. Spencer WTE Corporation, 7 Alfred Circle, Bedford, MA 01730 (CHAP. 8).
Lawrence Susskind Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., RM 3-411, Cambridge, MA 02139 (CHAP. 15).
George Tchobanoglous Engineering Consultant, 662 Diego Place, Davis, CA 95616 (CHAPS. 1, 8, 11D).
Hilary Theisen Solid Waste Consultant, 2451 Palmira Place, San Ramon, CA 94583 (CHAP. 7).
PREFACE TO THE
The first edition of this handbook was an outgrowth of a two-day conference on integrated solid waste management in June 1989, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). At that time, the management of solid waste was considered a national crisis, because the number of available landfills was decreasing, there was a great deal of concern about the health risks associated with waste incineration, and there was growing opposition to siting new waste management facilities. The crisis mode was exacerbated by such incidents as the ship named Mobro,filled with waste, sailing from harbor to harbor and not being allowed to discharge its ever-more-fragrant cargo; a large number of landfills, built with insuffi-cient environmental safeguards, that were placed on the Superfund List; and stories about the carcinogenic effects of emissions from incinerators creating fear among the population.
In the 12 years that have intervened between the time the first edition was written and the preparation of the second edition, solid waste management has achieved a maturity that has removed virtually all fear of it being a crisis. Although the number of landfills is diminishing, larger ones are being built with increased safeguards that prevent leaching or the emission of gases. Improved management of hazardous waste and the emergence of cost-effective inte-grated waste management systems, with greater emphasis on waste reduction and recycling, have reduced or eliminated most of the previous concerns and problems associated with solid waste management. Improved air pollution control devices on incinerators have proven to be effective, and a better understanding of hazardous materials found in solid waste has led to management options that are considered environmentally acceptable.
While there have been no revolutionary breakthroughs in waste management options, there has been a steady advance in the technologies necessary to handle solid waste materials safely and economically. Thus, the purpose of the second edition of this handbook is to bring the reader up to date on what these options are and how waste can be managed efficiently and cost-effectively. These new technologies have been incorporated in this edition to give the reader the tools necessary to plan and evaluate alternative solid waste management systems and/or programs. In addition to updating all of the chapters, new material has been added on (1) the characteristics of the solid waste stream as it exists now, and how it is likely to develop in the next 10 to 20 years; (2) the collection of solid waste; (3) the handling of construction and demolition wastes; (4) how a modern landfill should be built and managed; and (5) the cost of various waste management systems, so as to enable the reader to make reasonable estimates and comparisons of various waste management options.
The book has been reorganized slightly but has maintained the original sequence of topics, beginning with federal and state legislation in Chapters 2 and 3. Planning municipal solid waste (MSW) programs and the characterization of the solid waste stream are addressed in Chapters 4 and 5, respectively. Methods for reducing both the amount and toxicity of solid waste are discussed in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 is a new chapter dealing with the collection and transport of solid waste. Chapters 8 and 9, which deal with recycling and markets for recycled products, have been revised extensively. Household hazardous waste is discussed in Chapter
10. Special wastes are considered in Chapter 11, with new sections on construction and demo-lition and electronics and computer wastes. Composting, incineration, and landfilling are doc-umented in Chapters 12, 13, and 14, respectively. Finally, siting and cost estimating of MSW facilities are discussed in Chapters 15 and 16, respectively. Many photographs have been added to the book to provide the reader with visual insights into various management strate-gies. To make the end-of-chapter references more accessible, they have been reorganized alphabetically.The glossary of terms, given in Appendix A, has been updated to reflect current practice, and conversion factors for transforming U.S. customary units to SI units have also been added.
George Tchobanoglous Davis, CA
ABOUT THE EDITORS
George Tchobanoglousis a professor emeritus of civil and environmental engineering at the University of California at Davis. He received a B.S. degree in civil engineering from the Uni-versity of the Pacific, an M.S. degree in sanitary engineering from the UniUni-versity of California at Berkeley, and a Ph.D. in environmental engineering from Stanford University. His princi-pal research interests are in the areas of solid waste management, wastewater treatment, wastewater filtration, aquatic systems for wastewater treatment, and individual onsite treat-ment systems. He has taught courses on these subjects at UC Davis for the past 32 years. He has authored or coauthored over 350 technical publications including 12 textbooks and 3 ref-erence books. He is the principal author of a textbook titled Solid Waste Management: Engi-neering Principles and Management Issues,published by McGraw-Hill. The textbooks are used in more than 200 colleges and universities throughout the United States, and they are also used extensively by practicing engineers in the United States and abroad.
Dr. Tchobanoglous is an active member of numerous professional societies. He is a core-cipient of the Gordon Maskew Fair Medal and the Jack Edward McKee Medal from the Water Environment Federation. Professor Tchobanoglous serves nationally and internationally as a consultant to governmental agencies and private concerns. He is a past president of the Asso-ciation of Environmental Engineering Professors. He is consulting editor for the McGraw-Hill book company series in Water Resources and Environmental Engineering. He has served as a member of the California Waste Management Board. He is a Diplomate of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers and a registered Civil Engineer in California.
Frank Kreithis a professor emeritus of engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder, where he taught in the Mechanical and Chemical Engineering Departments from 1959 to 1978. For the past 13 years, Dr. Frank Kreith served as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) legislative fellow at the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), where he provided assistance on waste management, transportation, and energy issues to legislators in state governments. Prior to joining NCSL in 1988, Dr. Kreith was chief of thermal research at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), now the National Renew-able Energy Laboratory (NREL). During his tenure at SERI, he participated in the presiden-tial domestic energy review and served as an advisor to the governor of Colorado. In 1983, he received SERI’s first General Achievement Award. He has written more than a hundred peer-reviewed articles and authored or edited 12 books.
Dr. Kreith has served as a consultant and advisor all over the world. His assignments included consultancies to Vice Presidents Rockefeller and Gore, the U.S. Department of Energy, NATO, the U.S. Agency for National Development, and the United Nations. He is the recipient of numerous national awards, including the Charles Greeley Abbott Award from the American Solar Energy Society and the Max Jakob Award from ASME-AIChE. In 1992, he received the Ralph Coates Roe Medal for providing technical information to legislators about energy conservation, waste management, and environmental protection, and in 1998 he was the recipient of the prestigious Washington Award for “unselfish and preeminent service in advancing human progress.”
Marcia E. Williams
Human activities generate waste materials that are often discarded because they are consid-ered useless. These wastes are normally solid, and the word wastesuggests that the material is useless and unwanted. However, many of these waste materials can be reused, and thus they can become a resource for industrial production or energy generation, if managed properly. Waste management has become one of the most significant problems of our time because the American way of life produces enormous amounts of waste, and most people want to preserve their lifestyle, while also protecting the environment and public health. Industry, private citi-zens, and state legislatures are searching for means to reduce the growing amount of waste that American homes and businesses discard and to reuse it or dispose of it safely and economi-cally. In recent years, state legislatures have passed more laws dealing with solid waste man-agement than with any other topic on their legislative agendas. The purpose of this chapter is to provide background material on the issues and challenges involved in the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) and to provide a foundation for the information on specific technologies and management options presented in the subsequent chapters. Appropriate ref-erences for the material covered in this chapter will be found in the chapters that follow.
WASTE GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT
IN A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Historically, waste management has been an engineering function. It is related to the evolution of a technological society, which, along with the benefits of mass production, has also created problems that require the disposal of solid wastes.The flow of materials in a technological soci-ety and the resulting waste generation are illustrated schematically in Fig. 1.1. Wastes are gen-erated during the mining and production of raw materials, such as the tailings from a mine or the discarded husks from a cornfield. After the raw materials have been mined, harvested, or otherwise procured, more wastes are generated during subsequent steps of the processes that generate goods for consumption by society from these raw materials. It is apparent from the diagram in Fig. 1.1 that the most effective way to ameliorate the solid waste disposal problem is to reduce both the amount and the toxicity of waste that is generated, but as people search for a better life and a higher standard of living, they tend to consume more goods and generate more waste. Consequently, society is searching for improved methods of waste management and ways to reduce the amount of waste that needs to be landfilled.
Sources of solid wastes in a community are, in general, related to land use and zoning. Although any number of source classifications can be developed, the following categories have been found useful: (1) residential, (2) commercial, (3) institutional, (4) construction and demolition, (5) municipal services, (6) treatment plant sites, (7) industrial, and (8) agricultural. Typical facilities, activities, or locations associated with each of these sources of waste are reported in Table 1.1. As noted in Table 1.1, MSW is normally assumed to include all commu-nity wastes, with the exception of wastes generated by municipal services, water and
water treatment plants, industrial processes, and agricultural operations. It is important to be aware that the definitions of terms and the classifications of solid waste vary greatly in the lit-erature and in the profession. Consequently, the use of published data requires considerable care, judgment, and common sense.
Solid waste management is a complex process because it involves many technologies and disciplines. These include technologies associated with the control of generation, handling, storage, collection, transfer, transportation, processing, and disposal of solid wastes (see Table 1.2 and Fig. 1.2). All of these processes have to be carried out within existing legal and social guidelines that protect the public health and the environment and are aesthetically and eco-nomically acceptable. For the disposal process to be responsive to public attitudes, the disci-plines that must be considered include administrative, financial, legal, architectural, planning, and engineering functions. All these disciplines must communicate and interact with each other in a positive interdisciplinary relationship for an integrated solid waste management plan to be successful. This handbook is devoted to facilitating this process.
ISSUES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
The following major issues must be considered in discussing the management of solid wastes: (1) increasing waste quantities; (2) wastes not reported in the national MSW totals; (3) lack of clear definitions for solid waste management terms and functions; (4) lack of quality data, (5) need for clear roles and leadership in federal, state, and local government; (6) need for even and predictable enforcement regulations and standards, and (7) resolution of intercounty, interstate, and intercountry waste issues for MSW and its components. These topics are con-sidered briefly in this section and in the subsequent chapters of this handbook.
Raw materials, products, and recovered materials Manufacturing
Consumer product use
TABLE 1.1 Sources of Solid Wastes in a Community
Typical facilities, activities, or
Source locations where wastes are generated Types of solid wastes
Residential Single-family and multifamily Food wastes, paper, cardboard, plastics,
dwellings; low-, medium-, and textiles, leather, yard wastes, wood, high-density apartments; etc. glass, tin cans, aluminum, other metal,
ashes, street leaves, special wastes (including bulky items, consumer electronics, white goods, yard wastes collected separately, batteries, oil, and tires), and household hazardous wastes
Commercial Stores, restaurants, markets, Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood,
office buildings, hotels, motels, food wastes, glass, metal wastes, print shops, service stations, ashes, special wastes (see auto repair shops, etc. preceding), hazardous wastes, etc.
Institutional Schools, hospitals, prisons, Same as for commercial
governmental centers, etc.
Industrial (nonprocess wastes) Construction, fabrication, light Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food and heavy manufacturing, wastes, glass, metal wastes, ashes, refineries, chemical plants, special wastes (see preceding), power plants, demolition, etc. hazardous wastes, etc.
Municipal solid waste* All of the preceding All of the preceding
Construction and demolition New construction sites, road Wood, steel, concrete, dirt, etc. repair, renovation sites, razing of
buildings, broken pavement, etc.
Municipal services (excluding Street cleaning, landscaping, Special wastes, rubbish, street sweepings, treatment facilities) catch-basin cleaning, parks and landscape and tree trimmings,
catch-beaches, other recreational basin debris; general wastes from
areas, etc. parks, beaches, and recreational areas
Treatment facilities Water, wastewater, industrial Treatment plant wastes, principally treatment processes, etc. composed of residual sludges and
other residual materials
Industrial Construction, fabrication, light Industrial process wastes, scrap and heavy manufacturing, materials, etc.; nonindustrial waste refineries, chemical plants, power including food wastes, rubbish, plants, demolition, etc. ashes, demolition and construction
wastes, special wastes, and hazardous waste
Agricultural Field and row crops, orchards, Spoiled food wastes, agricultural
vineyards, dairies, feedlots, farms, etc. wastes, rubbish, and hazardous wastes
* The term municipal solid waste(MSW) is normally assumed to include all of the wastes generated in a community, with the exception of waste generated by municipal services, treatment plants, and industrial and agricultural processes.
Increasing Waste Quantities
TABLE 1.2 Functional Elements of a Solid Waste Management System
Functional element Description
Waste generation Waste generation encompasses those activities in which materials are identified as no longer being of value and are either thrown away or gathered together for disposal. What is important in waste generation is to note that there is an identification step and that this step varies with each individual. Waste gen-eration is, at present, an activity that is not very controllable.
Waste handling and separation, Waste handling and separation involve the activities associated with managing storage, and processing at the source wastes until they are placed in storage containers for collection. Handling
also encompasses the movement of loaded containers to the point of collec-tion. Separation of waste components is an important step in the handling and storage of solid waste at the source. On-site storage is of primary impor-tance because of public health concerns and aesthetic considerations.
Collection Collection includes both the gathering of solid wastes and recyclable materials and the transport of these materials, after collection, to the location where the collection vehicle is emptied, such as a materials-processing facility, a transfer station, or a landfill.
Transfer and transport The functional element of transfer and transport involves two steps: (1) the transfer of wastes from the smaller collection vehicle to the larger transport equipment, and (2) the subsequent transport of the wastes, usually over long distances, to a processing or disposal site. The transfer usually takes place at a transfer station. Although motor vehicle transport is most common, rail cars and barges are also used to transport wastes.
Separation, processing, and The means and facilities that are now used for the recovery of waste materials transformation of solid waste that have been separated at the source include curbside collection and drop-off and buyback centers. The separation and processing of wastes that have been separated at the source and the separation of commingled wastes usu-ally occurs at materials recovery facilities, transfer stations, combustion facili-ties, and disposal sites.
Transformation processes are used to reduce the volume and weight of waste requiring disposal and to recover conversion products and energy. The organic fraction of MSW can be transformed by a variety of chemical and biological processes. The most commonly used chemical transformation pro-cess is combustion, used in conjunction with the recovery of energy. The most commonly used biological transformation process is aerobic composting.
Disposal Today, disposal by landfilling or landspreading is the ultimate fate of all solid wastes, whether they are residential wastes collected and transported directly to a landfill site, residual materials from MRFs, residue from the combustion of solid waste, compost, or other substances from various solid waste process-ing facilities. A modern sanitary landfill is not a dump. It is a method of dis-posing of solid wastes on land or within the earth’s mantel without creating public health hazards or nuisances.
Waste Not Reported in the National MSW Totals
In addition to the large volumes of MSW that are generated and reported nationally, larger quantities of solid waste are not included in the national totals. For example, in some states waste materials not classified as MSW are processed in the same facilities used for MSW. These wastes may include construction and demolition wastes, agricultural waste, municipal sludge, combustion ash (including cement kiln dust and boiler ash), medical waste, contam-inated soil, mining wastes, oil and gas wastes, and industrial process wastes that are not clas-sified as hazardous waste. The national volume of these wastes is extremely high and has been estimated at 7 to 10 billion tons per year. Most of these wastes are managed at the site
of generation. However, if even 1 or 2 percent of these wastes are managed in MSW facili-ties, it can dramatically affect MSW capacity. One or two percent is probably a reasonable estimate.
Lack of Clear Definitions
To date, the lack of clear definitions in the field of solid waste management (SWM) has been a significant impediment to the development of sound waste management strategies. At a fun-damental level, it has resulted in confusion as to what constitutes MSW and what processing capacity exists to manage it. Consistent definitions form the basis for a defensible measure-ment system. They allow an entity to track progress and to compare its progress with other entities. They facilitate quality dialogue with all affected and interested parties. Moreover, what is measured is managed, so if waste materials are not measured they are unlikely to receive careful management attention. Waste management decision makers must give signifi-cant attention to definitions at the front end of the planning process. Because all future legis-lation, regulations, and public dialogue will depend on these definitions, decision makers should consider an open public comment process to establish appropriate definitions early in the strategy development (planning) process.
Lack of Quality Data
It is difficult to develop sound integrated MSW management strategies without good data. It is even more difficult to engage the public in a dialogue about the choice of an optimal strat-egy without these data. While the federal government and some states have focused on col-lecting better waste generation and capacity data, these data are still weaker than they should be. Creative waste management strategies often require knowledge of who generates the waste, not just what volumes are generated.
The environmental, health, and safety (EHS) impacts and the costs of alternatives to land-filling and combustion are another data weakness. Landland-filling and combustion have been studied in depth, although risks and costs are usually highly site-specific. Source reduction, recycling, and composting have received much less attention. While these activities can often result in reduced EHS impacts compared to landfilling, they do not always. Again, the answer is often site- and/or commodity-specific.
MSW management strategies developed without quality data on the risks and costs of all available options under consideration are not likely to optimize decision making and may, in some cases, result in unsound decisions. Because data are often costly and difficult to obtain, decision makers should plan for an active data collection stage before making critical strategy choices. While this approach may appear to result in slower progress in the short term, it will result in true long-term progress characterized by cost-effective and environmentally sound strategies.
Need for Clear Roles and Leadership in Federal, State, and Local Government
tra-ditionally been regulated at the federal level, state and local governments have looked increasingly to product labeling and design as they attempt to reduce source generation and increase recycling of municipal waste.
Understandably, the current regulatory situation is becoming increasingly less efficient, and unless there is increased cooperation among all levels of government, the current trends will continue. However, a more rational and cost-effective waste management framework can result if roles are clarified and leadership is embraced. In particular, federal leadership on product labeling and product requirements is important. It will become increasingly unrealis-tic for multinational manufacturers to develop products for each state. The impact will be par-ticularly severe on small states and on small businesses operating nationally. Along with the federal leadership on products, state leadership will be crucial in permit streamlining. The cost of facility permitting is severely impacted by the time-consuming nature of the permitting process, although a long process does nothing for increased environmental protection. More-over, the best waste management strategies become obsolete and unimplementable if waste management facilities and facilities using secondary materials as feedstocks cannot be built or expanded. Even source reduction initiatives often depend on major permit modifications for existing manufacturing facilities.
Need for Even and Predictable Enforcement of Regulations and Standards
The public continues to distrust both the individuals who operate waste facilities and the reg-ulators who enforce proper operation of those facilities. One key contributor to this phe-nomenon is the fact that state and federal enforcement programs are perceived as being understaffed or weak. Thus, even if a strong permit is written, the public lacks confidence that it will be enforced. Concern is also expressed that governments are reluctant to enforce regu-lations against other government-owned or -operated facilities. Whether these perceptions are true, they are the crucial ones to address if consensus on a sound waste management strat-egy is to be achieved.
There are multiple approaches which decision makers can consider. They can develop internally staffed state-of-the-art enforcement programs designed to provide a level playing field for all facilities, regardless of type, size, or ownership. If decision makers involve the pub-lic in the overall design of the enforcement program and report on inspections and results, public trust will increase. If internal resources are constrained, decision makers can examine more innovative approaches, including use of third-party inspectors, public disclosure requirements for facilities, or separate contracts on performance assurance between the host community and the facility.
Resolution of Intercounty, Interstate, and Intercountry Waste Issues for MSW and Its Components
The movement of wastes across juristictional boundaries (e.g., township, county, and state) has been a continuous issue over the past few years, as communities without sufficient local capacity ship their wastes to other locations. While a few receiving communities have wel-comed the waste because it has resulted in a significant income source, most receiving com-munities have felt quite differently. These comcom-munities have wanted to preserve their existing capacity, knowing they will also find it difficult to site new capacity. Moreover, they do not want to become dumping grounds for other communities’ waste, because they believe the adverse environmental impacts of the materials outweigh any short-term financial benefit.
changed. At this writing, it is still expected that Congress will address the issue in the near future. However, this is a difficult issue in part because of the following concerns:
● Most communities and states export some of their wastes (e.g., medical wastes, hazardous
wastes, and radioactive wastes).
● New state-of-the-art waste facilities are costly to build and operate, and they require larger
volumes of waste than can typically be provided by the local community in order to cover their costs.
● Waste facilities are often similar in environmental effects to recycling facilities and
manu-facturing facilities. If one community will not manage wastes from another community, why should one community have to make chemicals or other products which are ultimately used by another community?
● While long-distance transport of MSW (over 200 mi) usually indicates the failure to
develop a local waste management strategy, shorter interstate movements (less than 50 mi) may provide the foundation for a sound waste management strategy. Congress should be careful to avoid overrestricting options.
INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT
Integrated waste management(IWM) can be defined as the selection and application of suit-able techniques, technologies, and management programs to achieve specific waste manage-ment objectives and goals. Because numerous state and federal laws have been adopted, IWM is also evolving in response to the regulations developed to implement the various laws. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified four basic management options (strategies) for IWM: (1) source reduction, (2) recycling and composting, (3) combustion (waste-to-energy facilities), and (4) landfills.As proposed by the U.S. EPA, these strategies are meant to be interactive, as illustrated in Fig. 1.3a.It should be noted that the state of Califor-nia has chosen to consider the management options in a hierarchical order (see Fig. 1.3b). For example, recycling can be considered only after all that can be done to reduce the quantity of waste at the source has been done. Similarly, waste transformation is considered only after the maximum amount of recycling has been achieved. Further, the combustion (waste-to-energy) option has been replaced by waste transformation in California and other states. Interpreta-tion of the IWM hierarchy will, most likely, continue to vary by state. The management options that comprise the IWM are considered in the following discussion. The implementa-tion of integrated waste management opimplementa-tions is considered in the following three secimplementa-tions. Typical costs for solid waste management options are presented in Sec. 1.5.
Source reduction focuses on reducing the volume and/or toxicity of generated waste. Source reduction includes the switch to reusable products and packaging, the most familiar example being returnable bottles. However, bottle bill legislation results in source reduction only if bottles are reused once they are returned. Other good examples of source reduction are grass clippings that are left on the lawn and never picked up and modified yard plantings that do not result in leaf and yard waste. The time to consider source reduction is at the product or process design phase.
can be cut back), initiate procedures which require the purchase of products with longer life spans, and cut down on the purchase of disposable products. The private sector can redesign its manufacturing processes to reduce the amount of waste generated in manufacturing. Reducing the amount of waste may require the use of closed-loop manufacturing processes, different raw materials, and/or different production processes. Finally, the private sector can redesign products by increasing their durability, substituting less toxic materials, or increasing product effectiveness. However, while everybody can participate in source reduction, doing so digs deeply into how people go about their business—something that is difficult to mandate through regulation without getting mired in the tremendous complex-ity of commerce.
Source reduction is best encouraged by making sure that the cost of waste management is fully internalized.Cost internalizationmeans pricing the service so that all of the costs are reflected. For waste management, the costs that need to be internalized include pickup and transport, site and construction, administrative and salary, and environmental controls and monitoring. It is important to note that these costs must be considered whether the product is ultimately managed in a landfill, combustion, recycling, or composting facility. Regulation can aid cost internalization by requiring product manufacturers to provide public disclosure of the costs associated with these aspects of product use and development.
Recycling and Composting
Recycling is perhaps the most positively perceived and doable of all the waste management practices. Recycling will return raw materials to market by separating reusable products from the rest of the municipal waste stream. The benefits of recycling are many. Recycling saves precious finite resources; lessens the need for mining of virgin materials, which lowers the environmental impact for mining and processing; and reduces the amount of energy
con-Combustion waste-to-energy Recycle
FIGURE 1.3 Relationships between the management options comprising integrated waste management: (a) interactive, and (b) hierarchical.
sumed. Moreover, recycling can help stretch landfill capacity. Recycling can also improve the efficiency and ash quality of incinerators and composting facilities by removing noncom-bustible materials, such as metals and glass.
Recycling can also cause problems if it is not done in an environmentally responsible man-ner. Many Superfund sites are what is left of poorly managed recycling operations. Examples include operations for newsprint deinking, waste-oil recycling, solvent recycling, and metal recycling. In all of these processes, toxic contaminants that need to be properly managed are removed. Composting is another area of recycling that can cause problems without adequate location controls. For example, groundwater can be contaminated if grass clippings, leaves, or other yard wastes that contain pesticide or fertilizer residues are composted on sandy or other permeable soils. Air contamination by volatile substances can also result.
Recycling will flourish where economic conditions support it, not where it is merely man-dated. For this to happen, the cost of landfilling or resource recovery must reflect its true cost—at least $40 per ton or higher. Successful recycling programs also require stable markets for recycled materials. Examples of problems in this area are not hard to come by; a glut of paper occurred in Germany in 1984 to 1986 due to a mismatch between the grades of paper collected and the grades required by the German paper mills. Government had not worked with enough private industries to find out whether the mills had the capacity and equipment needed to deal with low-grade household newspaper. In the United States, similar losses of markets have occurred for paper, especially during the period from 1994 through 1997. Prices have dropped to the point at which it actually costs money to dispose of collected newspaper in some parts of the country.
Stable markets also require that stable supplies are generated. This supply-side problem has been troublesome in certain areas of recycling, including metals and plastics. Government and industry must work together to address the market situation. It is crucial to make sure that mandated recycling programs do not get too far ahead of the markets.
Even with a good market situation, recycling and composting will flourish only if they are made convenient. Examples include curbside pickup for residences on a frequent schedule and easy drop-off centers with convenient hours for rural communities and for more special-ized products. Product mail-back programs have also worked for certain appliances and elec-tronic components.
Even with stable markets and convenient programs, public education is a crucial compo-nent for increasing the amount of recycling. At this point, the United States must develop a conservation, rather than a throwaway, ethic, as was done during the energy crisis of the 1970s. Recycling presents the next opportunity for cultural change. It will require moving beyond a mere willingness to collect discarded materials for recycling. That cultural change will require consumers to purchase recyclable products and products made with recycled content. It will require businesses to utilize secondary materials in product manufacturing and to design new products for easy disassembly and separation of component materials.
The third of the IWM options (see Fig. 1.2) is combustion (waste-to-energy). Combustion facilities are attractive because they do one thing very well—they reduce the volume of waste dramatically, up to ninefold. Combustion facilities can also recover useful energy, either in the form of steam or in the form of electricity. Depending on the economics of energy in the region, this can be anywhere from profitable to unjustified. Volume reduction alone can make the high capital cost of incinerators attractive when landfill space is at a premium, or when the landfill is distant from the point of generation. For many major metropolitan areas, new land-fills must be located increasingly far away from the center of the population. Moreover, incin-erator bottom ash has promise for reuse as a building material. Those who make products from cement or concrete may be able to utilize incinerator ash.
skeptical concerning their safety. The public is concerned about both stack emissions from incinerators and the toxicity of ash produced by incinerators. The U.S. EPA has addressed both of these concerns through the development of new regulations for solid waste combus-tion waste-to-energy plants and improved landfill requirements for ash. These regulacombus-tions will ensure that well-designed, well-built, and well-operated facilities will be fully protective from the health and environmental standpoints.
Landfills are the one form of waste management that nobody wants but everybody needs. There are simply no combinations of waste management techniques that do not require land-filling to make them work. Of the four basic management options, landland-filling is the only man-agement technique that is both necessary and sufficient. Some wastes are simply not recyclable, because they eventually reach a point at which their intrinsic value is dissipated completely, so they no longer can be recovered, and recycling itself produces residuals.
The technology and operation of a modern landfill can ensure protection of human health and the environment. The challenge is to ensure that all operating landfills are designed prop-erly and are monitored once they are closed. It is crucial to recognize that today’s modern landfills do not look like the old landfills that are on the current Superfund list. Today’s oper-ating landfills do not continue to take hazardous wastes. In addition, they do not receive bulk liquids. They have gas-control systems, liners, leachate collection systems, extensive ground-water monitoring systems, and perhaps most important, they are better sited and located in the first place to take advantage of natural geological conditions.
Landfills can also turn into a resource. Methane gas recovery is occurring at many landfills today and carbon dioxide recovery is being considered. After closure, landfills can be used for recreation areas such as parks, golf courses, or ski areas. Some agencies and entrepreneurs are looking at landfills as repositories of resources for the future—in other words, today’s landfills might be mined at some time in the future when economic conditions warrant. This could be particularly true for monofills,which focus on one kind of waste material, such as combustion ash or shredded tires.
Status of Integrated Waste Management
The U.S. EPA has set a national voluntary goal of reducing the quantity of MSW by 25 per-cent through source reduction and recycling. It should be noted that several states have set higher recycling (diversion) goals. For example, California set goals of 25 percent by the year 1995 and 50 percent by the year 2000. It is estimated that source reduction currently accounts for from 2 to 6 percent of the waste reduction that has occurred. There is no uniformly accepted definition of what constitutes recycling, and estimates of the percentage of MSW that is recycled vary significantly. The U.S. EPA and the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) have published estimates ranging from 15 to 20 percent. It is estimated that about 5 to 10 percent of the total waste stream is now composted. Today, 50 to 70 percent of MSW is landfilled. Landfill gas is recovered for energy in more than 100 of the nation’s larger landfills and most of it is burned with energy recovery.
IMPLEMENTING INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
which a truly integrated and optimized waste management plan has been developed. To achieve an integrated strategy for handling municipal waste, an optimization analysis com-bining all of the available options should be conducted. However, at present, there is no proven methodology for performing such an optimization analysis.
The most common combinations of technologies used to accomplish IWM are illustrated in Fig. 1.5. The most common in the United States is probably Strategy 4, consisting of curb-side recycling and landfilling the remaining waste. In rural communities, Strategy 3, consisting of composting and landfilling, is prevalent. In large cities, where tipping fees for landfilling sometimes reach and exceed $100 per ton, Strategy 5, consisting of curbside recycling with the help of a materials recovery facility (MRF), followed by mass burning or combustion at a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) facility and landfilling of the nonrecyclable materials from the MRF and ash from the incinerator, is the most prevalent combination. However, as men-tioned previously, each situation should be analyzed individually, and the combination of management options and technologies which fits the situation best should be selected. As a guide to the potential effect of any of the nine strategies in Fig. 1.5 on the landfill space and its lifetime, the required volume of landfill per ton of MSW generated for each of the nine com-binations of options is displayed in Fig. 1.6. Apart from availability of landfill volume and space, the cost of the option combinations is of primary concern to the planning of an inte-grated waste management scheme. Costs are discussed in the following section.
Materials recovery facility and/or transfer station
Drop-off and/or redemption
source or waste
waste Source-separatedwaste, including yard waste
Principal materials diverted
Paper Cardboard Plastic Aluminum Glass Ferrous metal
Compost Methane RDF Energy
Household hazardous wastes to an appropriate facility
Beverage redemption containers, aluminum cans Curbside
collection and/or generator
TYPICAL COSTS FOR MAJOR WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS
This section presents typical cost information for the various waste management technolo-gies. More detailed cost information, including the cost of individual components, labor, land, and financing, is presented in Chap. 16. At the outset, it should be noted that the only reliable way to compare the costs of waste management options is to obtain site-specific quotations from experienced contractors. It is often necessary to make some preliminary estimates in the early stages of designing an integrated waste management system.
To assist in such preliminary costing, cost data from the literature for many parts of the country were examined, and published estimates of the capital costs and operating costs for the most common municipal solid waste options (materials recycling, composting, waste-to-energy combustion, and landfilling) were correlated. All of the cost data for the individual options were converted to January 2002 dollars to provide a consistent basis for cost compar-isons. The cost data were adjusted using an Engineering News Record Construction Cost Index (ENRCCI) value of 6500.
In addition to the externalized costs presented in this chapter, there are also social costs associated with each of the waste management options. For example, recycling will generate
air pollution from the trucks used to pick up, collect, and distribute the materials to be recy-cled. Many steps in recycling processes, such as deinking newspaper, create pollution whose cost must be borne by society, since it is not a part of the recycling cost. Waste-to-energy com-bustion creates air pollution from stack emissions and water pollution from the disposal of ash, particularly if heavy metals are present. Landfilling has environmental costs due to leak-age of leachates into aquifers and the generation of methane and other gases from the land-fill. It has been estimated that 60 to 110 lb of methane will be formed per ton of wet municipal waste during the first 20 years of operation of a landfill. About 9 to 16 lb of that gas will not be recovered, but will leak into the atmosphere because of limitations in the collection system and the permeability of the cover. The U.S. EPA has estimated that about 12 million tons of methane are released from landfills per year in the United States. New regulations, however, will reduce the environmental impact of landfilling in the future.
It should be noted that capital cost data available in the literature vary in quality, detail, and reliability. As a result, the range of the cost data is broad. Factors which will affect the costs reported are the year when a facility was built, the interest rate paid for the capital, the regu-lations in force at the time of construction, the manner in which a project was funded (pri-vately or publicly), and the location in which the facility is located. Also, costs associated with ancillary activities such as road improvements, pollution control, and land acquisition greatly affect the results. Cost data on separation, recycling, and composting are scarce and, in many cases, unreliable. Therefore, it is recommended when comparing various strategies to manage MSW, costs for all systems should be built up from system components, using a consistent set of assumptions and realistic cost estimates at the time and place of operation. The most exten-sive and reliable data available appear to be those for the combustion option. Combustion is a controlled process that is completed within a short period of time and for which there is a good deal of recorded experience. Also, inputs and outputs can be measured effectively with techniques that have previously been used for fossil fuel combustion plants. Typical capital costs for collection vehicles and materials recovery facilities, and for composting, waste-to-energy combustion, and landfilling are presented in Tables 1.3 and 1.4, respectively.
Collection. Capital costs for collection vehicles are presented in Table 1.3.As reported, vehicle costs will vary from $100,000 to $140,000, depending on the functions and capacity of the vehicle.
Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs). The range of capital costs for existing low-tech and
high-tech MRFs that sort reusable materials, whether mixed or source-separated, varies from about $10,000 to $40,000 per ton of design capacity per day.
TABLE 1.3 Typical Capital Costs for Waste Collection Vehicles and Materials Recovery Systems
System Major system components Cost basis Cost,* dollars
Commingled waste Right-hand stand-up-drive $/truck 100,000–140,000
Mechanically loaded collection vehicle $/truck 115,000–140,000
Source-separated waste Right-hand stand-up-drive collection $/truck 120,000–140,000 vehicle equipped with four separate
Low-mechanical intensity† Processing of source-separated $/ton of capacity 10,000–20,000 materials only; enclosed building, per day
concrete floors, 1st stage hand-picking stations and conveyor belts, storage for separated and prepared materials for 1 month, support facilities for the workers
High-mechanical intensity‡ Processing of commingled materials $/ton of capacity 20,000–40,000 or MSW; same facilities as the low-end per day
system plus mechanical bag breakers, magnets, shredders, screens, and storage for up to 3 months; also includes a 2d stage picking line
* All cost data have been adjusted to an Engineering News-Record Construction Cost Index of 6500. †Low-end systems contain equipment to perform basic material separation and densification functions.
Composting. Published capital cost data for MSW composting facilities are limited. As reported in Table 1.4, capital costs for MSW composting facilities are in the range of $10,000 to $50,000 per ton of daily capacity. Further, investment costs show no scale effects (i.e., investment is a linear function of capacity within the capacity range of 10 to 1000 ton/d).
Mass Burn: Field-Erected. Most field-erected mass burn plants are used to generate
elec-tricity. The average size for which useful data are available is 1200 tons/day of design capac-ity (with a range of 750 to 3000 ton/d). The range of capital cost varies from $80,000 to $120,000 per ton per day. The mass burn facilities were not differentiated by the form of energy produced.
Mass-Burn: Modular. Modular mass-burn steam and electricity generating plants are
typi-cally in the range of 100 to 300 ton/d. The range of capital costs is from $80,000 to $120,000 per ton per day.
Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Facilities. The range of capital costs for operating RDF
pro-duction facilities with a processing capacity in the range of 100 to 300 ton/d varies from $20,000 to $30,000 per ton per day (see Table 1.4).
Landfilling. Landfilling capital costs are difficult to come by, because construction often
continues throughout the life of the landfill instead of being completed at the beginning of operations. Consequently, capital costs are combined and reported with operating costs. Cap-ital and operating costs of landfills can be estimated by using cost models, but such models are valid only for a particular region. The range of costs reported in Table 1.4 represents the start-up costs for a new modern landfill that meets all current federal regulations, with a capacity greater than 100 tons/day.
TABLE 1.4 Typical Capital Costs for Composting Facilities, Combustion Facilities, and Landfills
System Major system components Cost basis Cost,* dollars
Low-end Source-separated yard waste feedstock only; $/ton of capacity per day 10,000–20,000 system cleared, level ground with equipment to turn
High-end Feedstock derived from processing of commingled $/ton of capacity per day 25,000–50,000 system wastes; enclosed building with concrete floors, MRF
processing equipment, and in-vessel composting; enclosed building for curing of compost product
Mass burn, Integrated system of a receiving pit, furnace, boiler, $/ton of capacity per day 80,000–120,000 field-erected energy recovery unit, and air discharge cleanup
Mass burn, Integrated system of a receiving pit, furnace, boiler, $/ton of capacity per day 80,000–120,000 modular energy recovery unit, and air discharge cleanup
RDF Production of fluff and densified refuse-derived fuel $/ton of capacity per day 20,000–30,000 production (RDF from processed MSW)
Commingled Disposal of commingled waste in a modern landfill $/ton of capacity per day 25,000–40,000 waste with double liner and gas recovery system
Monofill Disposal of single waste in a modern landfill with $/ton of capacity per day 10,000–25,000 double liner and gas recovery system, if required