School of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Doctor of Philosophy in Criminology and Criminal Justice. Criminology Comprehensive Exam

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School of Criminology and Criminal Justice

Doctor of Philosophy in Criminology and Criminal Justice Criminology Comprehensive Exam

Reading List and Instructions

Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Nebraska Omaha refers to the scientific study of the causes of and societal responses to crime and deviant behavior. The reading list for the criminology comprehensive examination provides students with a substantive knowledge base pertaining to the causes of crime and deviant behavior. Although the list is not intended to be exhaustive in any area, it identifies readings deemed by the faculty as essential knowledge for students who graduate from the University with the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in

Criminology and Criminal Justice.

The criminology comprehensive examination assesses students’ ability to critically evaluate extant literature, to integrate knowledge drawn from different scholars and perspectives, and to demonstrate a solid understanding of central issues facing the field.

The purpose of the reading list for the criminology comprehensive examination is threefold: 1)Aid students in passing the exam.

The list is inclusive of the readings with which you must be familiar to pass the exam. However, the reading list should not be viewed as exhaustive but rather as a very good starting point. You also should be familiar with relevant literature published in the major journals of the field in the past five years and/or covered in your coursework, even if these readings do not appear on the list. Major journals include Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Crime and Delinquency, Justice Quarterly, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Law and Society Review, American Sociological Review, American Journal of Sociology, Social Problems, and Social Forces.

A successful examination demonstrates an ability to apply understanding of the criminological literature to broad questions facing the field. Rarely is the inclusion or exclusion of a single article or book sufficient to warrant a “pass” or “fail.” Instead, you must demonstrate intimate familiarity with relevant issues and the extant literature, the idea being that you possess the knowledge base to produce an informed and well thought out answer to each question posed by the examining committee. Thus, rather than simply memorize what the authors of the items on the list say, you will need to focus on synthesizing the literature in a way that shows you understand it and have thought about how individual readings might fit together.


2)Aid students in thinking about their research interests more broadly.

In conducting research, criminologists often fall victim to overspecialization and fail to think about the relevance of broader criminological research to their own research interest(s). As you read through the materials on this list, you should think about how they could be used to develop your own research agenda. Regardless of whether you know what you want to study or whether you are still figuring it out, you will (or should) learn that grounding your research in broader theoretical and methodological traditions in criminology and criminal justice will help you become a more successful researcher and scholar (e.g., publications in major journals, securing extramural grants). The readings on this list will provide you with the knowledge base to do just that.

3)Aid students in preparing their courses.

In a perfect world, all Ph.D. graduates would obtain a job at a university that only requires them to teach in their specific area(s) of interest. Unfortunately, this rarely is the case. It is highly likely that you will be required to prepare and teach a variety of courses within criminology and criminal justice, both within and outside of your specific area(s) of interest. The readings on this list will provide you with the background knowledge to teach a number of criminological courses. Taking thorough notes and/or preparing detailed summaries of the readings on this list will not only aid you in passing the exam, but will also provide you with a wealth of knowledge from which to draw when preparing to teach courses you are assigned in your eventual academic appointment.


The exam will be given on one day in both the fall and the spring semester. The exam will have two sessions (a morning session and an afternoon session). Each session will be 4 hours long. During each session you will be asked to answer two of three questions prepared by the grading committee.


There is no advice that will ensure a passing grade on the comprehensive examination. However, below are a few general suggestions regarding those factors likely to be considered by the

committee in the grading each examination.

In order to pass, your answer must respond to the test questions. You should expect to write a detailed, thorough, and well-integrated answer to each question you address. A successful answer will not only refer specifically to the relevant literature, but also demonstrate an understanding of the material. Generally speaking, in writing a well-structured answer, you should first tell the grading committee how you plan to answer the question, then tell the


If a question requires knowledge of a criminological theory or theories, it is essential that you demonstrate such knowledge. An answer that demonstrates only surface knowledge is not acceptable, answers that show scholarly depth will be more likely to pass, and answers that are filled with broad statements that are not supported with appropriate citations to the literature do not show convincingly that a student truly knows the subject matter. Remember this simple but important point: only what is written on the exam can be graded. Members of the examining committee cannot “fill in the blanks” or “assume you know the answer.”

Related to the discussion above, citations to textbooks are not recommended. Textbooks or readers that contain overviews or summaries of theories may be useful in helping to organize main points about different theories and/or learning about a given theory’s empirical status. However, in no way should these works be considered as replacements for reading the original theoretical or empirical contributions of the authors in your reading list. In your answers, you should cite the original theoretical works and research studies.

With all of the above in mind, you should take a moment to reflect on what you are about to do. Although preparing for and eventually taking comprehensive examinations is a stressful and very time-consuming endeavor, it is also the only time in your academic career that you will be

afforded the opportunity to immerse yourself in the criminological and criminal justice literatures. Faculty members are here to guide you if needed, but this is also the time during which you will train yourself to 1) read literature and pick out relevant points; 2) think about a large body of literature and how different works may or may not fit together; and, 3) develop ideas that can be used to answer questions on a comprehensive examination or in your future research.


A. Theoretical perspectives 1. Anomie/strain theory

1.1.Anomie, Institutional anomie, and other macro-level perspectives

(Durkheim’s anomie fro m Cullen & Agn ew)

Chamlin, Mitchell B. and John K. Cochran. (1995). Assessing Messner and Rosenfeld’s institutional anomie theory: A partial test. Criminology, 33(3): 411-429.

Cloward, Richard A. (1959). Illegitimate means, anomie, and deviant behavior. American Sociological Review, 24(2): 164-176.

Merton, Robert K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review, 3(5): 672-682.

Messner, Steven F. (1988). Merton’s ‘social structure and anomie’: The road not taken. Deviant Behavior, 9(1): 33-53.

Messner, Steven F. and Richard Rosenfeld. (1997). Political restraint of the market and levels of criminal homicide: A cross-national application of institutional-anomie theory. Social

Forces, 75(4): 1393-1416.

Messner, Steven and Richard Rosenfeld. (2007). Crime and the American Dream. 3rd Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Messner, Steven F., Helmut Thome, and Richard Rosenfeld. (2008). Institutions, anomie, and violent crime: Clarifying and elaborating institutional-anomie theory. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 2(2): 163-181.

Savolainen, Jukka. (2000). Inequality, welfare state, and homicide: Further support for the institutional anomie theory. Criminology, 38(4):1021-1042.

1.2 Strain theory/individual level perspectives

Agnew, Robert and Helene Raskin White. (1992). An empirical test of general strain theory.

Criminology, 30(4): 475-499.

Agnew, Robert S. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency.

Criminology, 30(1): 47-87.

Agnew, Robert. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38(4): 319-361.


Agnew, Robert, Timothy Brezina, John Paul Wright, and Francis T. Cullen. (2002). Strain, personality traits, and delinquency: Extending general strain theory. Criminology, 40(1): 43-71.

Agnew, Robert. (2006). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Cary, NC: Roxbury Publishing Company.

Bernard, Thomas J. (1984). Control criticisms of strain theories: An assessment of theoretical and empirical adequacy. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 21(4): 353-372. Burton, Velmer S., Jr. and Francis T. Cullen. (1992). The empirical status of strain theory.

Journal of Crime and Justice, 15(2): 1-30.

Farnworth, Margaret and Michael Leiber. (1989). Strain theory revisited: Economic goals, educational means, and delinquency. American Sociological Review, 54: 263-274.

2. Control theory and social disorganization 2.1Social bonding theories

Catalano, R. F. and J. D. Hawkins. (1996). The social development model: A theory of antisocial behavior. In J. D. Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp. 149- 197). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hawkins, J. D., R. F. Catalano, R. Kosterman, R. Abbott and K. G. Hill. (1999). Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 153(3): 226-234.

Hirschi, Travis. (1969). Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press. Huang, B., R. Kosterman, R. F. Catalano, J. D. Hawkins, J. D. and R. D. Abbott. (2001).

Modeling mediation in the etiology of violent behavior in adolescence: A test of the social development model. Criminology, 39(1): 75-108.

Krohn, Marvin D. and James L. Massey. (1980). Social control and delinquent behavior: An examination of the elements of the social bond. The Sociological Quarterly, 21(4): 529- 544.

Reiss, Albert J. (1965). Delinquency as the failure of personal and social controls. American Sociological Review, 16(2): 196-207.

Wiatrowski, Michael D., David B. Griswold, and Mary K. Roberts. (1981). Social control theory and delinquency. American Sociological Review, 46(5): 525-541.


2.2Self-control/general theory

Benson, Michael L. and Emily Moore. (1992). Are white-collar and common offenders the same? An empirical and theoretical critique of a recently proposed general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 29(3): 251-272.

Burt, Callie H. and Ronald L. Simons. (2013). Self-control, thrill seeking, and crime: Motivation matters. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 40(11): 1326-1348.

Goode, Erich (Ed.). (2008). Out of Control: Assessing the General Theory of Crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Gottfredson, Michael R. and Travis Hirschi. (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Grasmick, Harold G., Charles R. Tittle, Robert J. Bursik, and Bruce K. Arneklev. (1993). Testing the core empirical implications of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime.

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30(1): 5-29.

Hay, Carter. (2001). Parenting, self-control, and delinquency: A test of self-control theory.

Criminology, 79(3): 707- 736.

Hay, Carter and Walter Forrest. (2006). The development of self-control: Examining self- control’s stability thesis. Criminology, 44:739-774.

Hirschi, Travis. (2004). Self-Control and Crime. Pp. 538-553 in Handbook of Self-Regulation: Research, Theory, and Applications, edited by Roy F. Baumeister and Kathleen D. Vohs. New York: Guilford Press.

Muraven, Mark, Greg Pogarsky, and Dikla Schmueli. (2006). Self-control depletion and the general theory of crime. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 22(3): 263-277.

Na, C. and R. Paternoster. (2012). Can self-control change substantially over time? Rethinking The relationship between self- and social control. Criminology, 50(2): 427-462.

Pratt, Travis C. and Francis T. Cullen. (2000). The empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime: A meta-analysis. Criminology, 38(3): 931-964.

Sellers, Christine S. (1999). Self-control and intimate violence: An examination of the scope and specification of the general theory of crime. Criminology, 37(2): 375-404.

Tittle, Charles R., David A. Ward, and Harold G. Grasmick. (2003). Self-control and

crime/deviance: Cognitive vs. behavioral measures. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 19(4): 333-365.


2.3 Social disorganization and collective efficacy

 Shaw & McKay covered in Cullen & Agnew

Bellair, Paul E. (1997). Social interaction and community crime: Examining the importance of neighbor networks. Criminology, 35(4): 677-703.

Bellair, Paul and Christopher Browning. (2010). Contemporary disorganization research: An assessment and further test of the systemic model of neighborhood crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 47(4): 496-521.

Browning, Christopher R., Seth L. Feinberg, and Robert D. Dietz. (2004). The paradox of social organization: Networks, collective efficacy, and violent crime in urban neighborhoods.

Social Forces, 83(2): 503-534.

Bursik, Robert. (1988). Social disorganization and theories of crime and delinquency: Problems and prospects. Criminology, 26(4): 519-551.

Kubrin, Charis and Ronald L. Weitzer. (2003). New directions in social disorganization theory.

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(4): 374-402.

Maimon, David and Christopher R. Browning. (2010). Unstructured socializing, collective efficacy, and violent behavior among urban youth. Criminology, 48(2): 443-474. Morenoff, Jeffrey D., Robert J. Sampson, and Stephen W. Raudenbush. (2001). Neighborhood

inequality, collective efficacy, and the spatial dynamics of urban violence. Criminology, 39(3): 517-559.

Sampson, Robert J., and W. Byron Groves. (1989). Community structure and crime: Testing social disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology, 94(4):774-802.

Sampson, Robert J., Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Fenton Earls. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277(5328): 918-924. Sampson, Robert J. and Stephen W. Raudenbush. (1999). Systematic social observation of public

spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Sociology, 105(3): 603-651.

Warner, Barbara D. and Pamela W. Rountree. (1997). Local social ties in a community and crime model: Questioning the systemic nature of informal social control. Social Problems, 44(4): 680-706.


3. Social learning/differential association and cultural perspectives

Akers, Ronald L., Marvin D. Krohn, Lonn Lanza Kaduce, and Marcia Rodosevich. (1979). Social learning and deviant behavior: A specific test of a general theory. American Sociological Review, 44(4): 636-655.

Akers, Ronald L. (1996). Is differential association/social learning cultural deviance theory?

Criminology, 34(2): 229-247.

Anderson, Elijah. (1999). Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City. New York: W.W. Norton.

Burgess, Robert L. and Ronald L. Akers. (1966). A differential association-reinforcement theory of criminal behavior. Social Problems, 19(2): 101-113.

Kirk, David S. and Andrew V. Papachristos. (2011). Cultural mechanisms and the persistence of neighborhood violence. American Journal of Sociology, 116(4): 1190-1233.

Matsueda, Ross. (1982). Testing control and differential association: A causal modeling approach. American Sociological Review, 47: 489-504.

Matsueda, Ross L. and Karen Heimer. (1987). Race, family structure, and delinquency: A test of differential association and social control theories. American Sociological Review, 52: 826-840.

Matsueda, Ross L. (1988). The current state of differential association theory. Crime and Delinquency, 34(3): 277-306.

Matsueda, Ross. (1997). Cultural deviance theory: The remarkable persistence of a flawed term.

Theoretical Criminology, 1(4): 429-452.

Nisbett, Richard E. and Dov Cohen. (1996). Culture of Honor: The Psychology of Violence in the South. Westview.

Pratt, Travis C., Francis T. Cullen, Christine S. Sellers, L. Thomas Winfree, Jr., Tamara D. Madensen, Leah E. Daigle, Noelle E. Fearn, and Jacinta M. Gau. (2010). The empirical status of social learning theory: A meta-analysis. Justice Quarterly, 27(6): 765-802. Sampson, Robert J. and Dawn J. Bartusch. (1998). Legal cynicism and (subcultural?) tolerance

of deviance: The neighborhood context of racial differences. Law and Society Review, 32(4): 777-804.

Stewart, Eric A. and Ronald L. Simons. (2006). Structure and culture in African American adolescent violence: A partial test of the ‘code of the street’ thesis.” Justice Quarterly, 23(1): 1-33.


4. Rational choice, opportunity, and situational theories 4.1Rational choice, offender decision-making, deterrence

Clarke, Ronald V. and Derek B. Cornish. (1985). Modeling Offenders’ Decisions: A Framework for Research and Policy. Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, Vol. 6 (pp. 147-185). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Cornish, Derek B. and Ronald V. Clarke. (1986). “Introduction” in The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Offending. New York: Springer-Verlag. Note: only the

Introduction by Cornish and Clarke is required!

Matsueda, Ross, David Huizinga, and Derek A. Kreager. (2006). Deterring delinquents: A rational choice model of theft and violence. American Sociological Review, 71(1): 95- 122.

Nagin, Daniel S. (1998). Criminal Deterrence Research at the Outset of the Twenty-First

Century. Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, Vol. 23 (pp. 1-42). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Paternoster, Raymond and Greg Pogarsky. (2009). Rational choice, agency and thoughtfully reflective decision making: The short and long-term consequences of making good choices. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25(2): 103-127.

Piliavin, Irving, Rosemary Gartner, Craig Thornton, and Ross Matsueda. (1986). Crime, deterrence, and rational choice. American Sociological Review, 51: 101-119. Piquero, Alex and Raymond Paternoster. (1998). An application of Stafford and Warr’s

reconceptualization of deterrence to drinking and driving. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35(1): 3-39.

Piquero, Alex R. and Greg Pogarsky. (2002). Beyond Stafford and Warr’s reconceptualization of deterrence: personal and vicarious experiences, impulsivity, and offending behavior.

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 39(2): 153-186.

Stafford, Mark C. and Mark Warr. (1993). A reconceptualization of general and specific deterrence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30(2): 123-135.

Van Gelder, J. L. and R. E. De Vries. (2012). Traits and states: Integrating personality and affect into a model of criminal decision-making. Criminology, 50(3): 637-671.


4.2Routine activities, opportunity, and lifestyle theories

Anderson, Amy L. and Lorine A. Hughes. (2009). Exposure to situations conducive to delinquent behavior: The effects of time use, income, and transportation. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 46(1): 5-34.

Barnes, Grace M., Joseph H. Hoffman, John W. Welte, Michael P. Farrell, and Barbara A. Dintcheff. (2007). Adolescents’ time use: Effects on substance use, delinquency and sexual activity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(5): 697-710.

Bernburg, Jon Gunnar, and Thorolfur Thorlindsson. (2001). Routine activities in social context: A closer look at the role of opportunity in deviant behavior. Justice Quarterly, 18(3):543- 567.

Cohen, Lawrence E. and Marcus Felson. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44(4): 588-608.

Cross, Amanda B., Denise Gottfredson, Denise Wilson, Melissa Rorie, and Nadine Connell. (2009). The impact of after-school programs on the routine activities of middle-school students: Results from a randomized, controlled trial. Criminology and Public Policy, 8(2): 391-412.

Felson, Marcus and Michael Gottfredson. (1984). Social indicators of adolescent activities near peers and parents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46(3): 709-714.

Felson, Marcus and Rachel Boba. (2010). Crime and Everyday Life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Felson, Richard B., Jukka Savolainen, Mark T. Berg, and Noora Ellonen. (2013). Does spending

time in public settings contribute to the adolescent risk of violent victimization? Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29(2): 273-293.

Flannery, Daniel J., Laura L. Williams, and Alexander T. Vazsonyi. (1999). Who are they with and what are they doing? Delinquent behavior, substance use, and early adolescents’ after-school time. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69(2): 247-253.

Maimon, David, and Christopher R. Browning. (2010). Unstructured socializing, collective efficacy, and violent behavior among urban youth. Criminology, 48(2): 443-474. Osgood, D. Wayne, Janet K. Wilson, Patrick M. O’Malley, Jerald G. Bachman, and Lloyd D.

Johnston. (1996). Routine activities and individual deviant behavior. American Sociological Review, 61(4): 635-655.

Osgood, D. Wayne and Amy L. Anderson. (2004). Unstructured socializing and rates of delinquency. Criminology, 42(3): 519-550.


Roncek, Dennis and Pamela Maier. (2006). Bars, blocks, and crimes revisited: Linking the theory of routine activities to the empiricism of hot spots. Criminology, 29(4): 725-753. Sampson, Robert J. and John D. Wooldredge. (1987). Linking the micro- and macro-level

dimensions of lifestyle-routine activity and opportunity models of predatory victimization. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3(4): 371-393.

Sherman, Lawrence W., Patrick Gartin, and Michael D. Buerger. (1989). Hot spots of predatory crime: Routine activities and the criminology of place. Criminology, 27(1): 27-56. Thorlindsson, Thorolfur, and Jon Gunnar Bernburg. (2006). Peer groups and substance use:

Examining the direct and indirect effect of leisure activity. Adolescence 41:321-39.

4.3Situational-interactional perspectives

Becker, Howard. (1953). Becoming a Marijuana user. American Journal of Sociology, 59(3): 235-242.

Black, Donald. (1983). Crime as social control. American Sociological Review, 48(1): 34-45.

Felson, Richard B. and Henry J. Steadman. (1983). Situational factors in disputes leading to criminal violence. Criminology, 21(1): 59-74.

Felson, R. B. (1992). Kick’em when they’re down. The Sociological Quarterly, 33(1): 1-16. Jacobs, Bruce and Richard Wright. (2006). Street Justice: Retaliation in the Criminal

Underworld. Cambridge.

Luckenbill, David F. (1977). Criminal homicide as a situated transaction. Social Problems, 25(2): 176-186.

Matsueda, Ross. (1992). Reflected appraisals, parental labeling, and delinquency: Specifying a symbolic interactionist theory. American Journal of Sociology, 97(6): 1577-1611. Wikstrom, Per-Olof (2006). Linking Individual, Setting, and Acts of Crime. Situational

Mechanisms and the Explanation of Crime. Pp. 61-107 in The Explanation of Crime: Contexts, Mechanisms, and Development, edited by Per-Olof Wikstrom and Robert J. Sampson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wikström, Per-Olof H., Vania Ceccato, Beth Hardie, and Kyle Treiber. (2010). Activity fields and the dynamics of crime. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 26(1): 55-87.


5. Labeling theory, critical theory, feminist theory

Bernburg, Jon Gunnar, Marvin D. Krohn, and Craig J. Rivera. (2006). Official labeling, criminal embeddedness, and subsequent delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and

Delinquency, 43(1): 67-88.

Britton, Dana M. (2000). Feminism in criminology: Engendering the outlaw. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 57: 57-76.

Chesney-Lind, Meda. (1989). Girls’ crime and women’s place: Toward a feminist model of female delinquency. Crime and Delinquency, 35(1): 5-29.

Chesney-Lind, Meda. (2003). The Female Offender: Girls, Women, and Crime. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chesney-Lind, Meda. (2006). Patriarchy, crime, and justice: Feminist criminology in an era of backlash. Feminist Criminology, 1(1): 6-26.

Colvin, Mark, and John Pauly. (1983). A critique of criminology: Toward an integrated

structural-Marxist theory of criminal production. American Journal of Sociology, 89(3): 513-581.

Daly, Kathleen and Meda Chesney-Lind. (1988). Feminism and criminology. Justice Quarterly 5(4): 497-538.

Simpson, Sally. (1989). Feminist theory, crime, and justice. Criminology, 27(4): 605-632. 6. Life course and developmental perspectives

Blumstein, Alfred, Jacqueline Cohen, and David P. Farrington. (1988). Criminal career research: its value for criminology. Criminology, 26(1): 1-35.

Farrington, David P. (2003). Developmental and life course criminology: Key theoretical and empirical issues. Criminology, 41(2): 221-255.

Giordano, Peggy C., Stephen A. Cernkovich, and Jennifer L. Rudolph. (2002). Gender, crime, and desistance: Toward a theory of cognitive transformation. American Journal of Sociology, 107(4): 990-1064.

Gottfredson, Michael and Travis Hirschi. (1986). The true value of lambda would appear to be zero: An essay on career criminals, criminal careers, selective incapacitation, cohort studies, and related topics. Criminology, 24(2): 213-234.


Horney, Julie, D. Wayne Osgood, and Ineke Haen Marshall. (1995). Criminal careers in the short term: Intra-individual variability in crime and its relation to local life circumstances.

American Sociological Review, 60(5): 655-673.

Kirk, David S. (2009). A natural experiment on residential change and recidivism: Lessons from hurricane Katrina. American Sociological Review, 74(3): 484-505.

Laub, John H. and Robert J. Sampson. (1993). Turning points in the life course: Why change matters to the study of crime. Criminology, 31(3): 301-325.

Laub, John H. and Robert J. Sampson. (2003). Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives: Delinquent Boys to Age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Moffitt, Terrie E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4): 674-701.

Nagin, Daniel S. and Raymond Paternoster. (1991). On the relationship of past to future participation in delinquency. Criminology, 29(2): 163-189.

Nagin, Daniel S. and David P. Farrington. (1992). The stability of criminal potential from childhood to adulthood. Criminology, 30(2): 235-260.

Sampson, Robert J. and John H. Laub. (1990). Crime and deviance over the life course: The salience of adult social bonds. American Sociological Review, 55: 609-627.

Sampson, Robert J., and John H. Laub. (1993). Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points through Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Siennick, Sonja E. and D. Wayne Osgood. (2008). A review of research on the impact on crime of transitions into adult roles. In The Long View of Crime: A Synthesis of Longitudinal Research, ed. Akiva Liberman. New York: Springer.

Simons, Ronald L., Christine Johnson, Rand D. Conger, and Glen Elder, Jr. (1998). A test of latent trait versus life-course perspectives on the stability of adolescent antisocial behavior. Criminology, 36(2): 217-244.

Simons, Ronald, Leslie Gordon Simons, Callie H. Burt, Gene H. Brody, and Carolyn Cutrona. (2005). Collective efficacy, authoritative parenting, and delinquency: A longitudinal test of a model integrating community and family-level processes. Criminology, 43(4): 989- 1030.

Warr, Mark. (1998). Life-course transitions and desistance from crime. Criminology, 36(2):183- 216.

Wolfgang, Marvin, Robert M. Figlio, and Thorsten Sellin. (1972). Delinquency in a Birth Cohort. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.



Wright, Bradley R. Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E. Moffitt, and Phil A. Silva. (1999). Low self control, social bonds, and crime: Social causation, social selection, or both? Criminology, 37(3): 479-514.

Wright, Bradley R., Avshalom Caspi, and Terrie E. Moffitt. (2001). The effects of social ties on crime vary by criminal propensity: A life-course model of interdependence. Criminology, 39(2): 321-352.

B. Correlates of Crime 1. Demographic correlates


Hirschi, Travis and Michael Gottfredson. (1983). Age and the explanation of crime. American Journal of Sociology, 89(3): 552-584.

Greenberg, David F. (1985). Age, crime and social explanation. American Journal of Sociology, 91(1): 1-21.

Tittle, Charles R. (1988). Two empirical regularities (maybe) in search of an explanation: Commentary on the age/crime debate. Criminology, 26(1): 76-86.

Steffensmeier, Darrell J., Emilie A. Allan, Miles D. Harer, and Cathy Streifel. (1989). Age and the distribution of crime. American Journal of Sociology, 94(4): 803-831.

Sweeten, Gary, Alex R. Piquero, and Laurence Steinberg. (2013). Age and the explanation of crime, revisited. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(6): 921-938.


Broidy, Lisa and Robert Agnew. (1997). Gender and crime: A general strain theory perspective.

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 34(3): 275-306.

Burgess-Proctor, Amanda. (2006). Intersections of race, class, gender, and crime future directions for feminist criminology. Feminist Criminology, 1(1): 27-47.

Caspi, Avshalom, Donald Lynam, Terrie E. Moffitt, and Phil A. Silva. (1993). Unraveling girls' delinquency: Biological, dispositional, and contextual contributions to adolescent misbehavior. Developmental Psychology, 29: 19-30.

De Coster, Stacey, Karen Heimer, and Samantha R. Cumley. (2012). Gender and Theories of Delinquency. Pp. 313-332 in The Oxford Handbook of Criminological Theory, edited by Francis Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. New York: Oxford University Press.


Felson, Richard B. (1996). Big people hit little people: Sex differences in physical power and interpersonal violence. Criminology, 34(3): 433-452.

Hagan, John, A. R. Gillis, and John Simpson. (1985). The class structure of gender and

delinquency: Toward a power-control theory of common delinquent behavior. American Journal of Sociology, 90(6): 1151-1178.

Heimer, Karen and Stacy De Coster. (1999). The gendering of violent delinquency. Criminology, 37(2): 277-318.

Lauritsen, Janet L., Karen Heimer, and James P. Lynch. (2009). Trends in the gender gap in violent offending: New evidence from the National Crime Victimization Survey.

Criminology, 47(2): 361-400.

Miller, Jody. (1998). Up it up: Gender and the accomplishment of street robbery. Criminology, 36(1): 37-66.

Moffitt, Terrie E., Avshalom Caspi, Michael Rutter, and Phil A. Silva. (2001). Sex Differences in Antisocial Behavior: Conduct Disorder, Delinquency, and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Mullins, Chandra W. and Richard Wright. 2003. “Gender, Social Networks, and Residential Burglary.” Criminology 41(3): 813-840.

Schwartz, Jennifer, Darrell Steffensmeier, Hua Zhong, and Jeff Ackerman. (2009). Trends in the gender gap in violence: Reevaluating NCVS and other evidence. Criminology, 47(2): 401-424.

Simpson, Sally S. and Lori Elis. (1995). Doing gender: Sorting out the caste and crime conundrum. Criminology, 33(1): 47-81.

Steffensmeier, Darrell and Emilie Allan. (1996). Gender and crime: Toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annual Review of Sociology, 22: 459-487.

Steffensmeier, Darrell and Dana L. Haynie. (2000). Gender, structural disadvantage, and urban crime: Do macrosocial variables also explain female offending rates? Criminology, 38(2): 403-438.

Steffensmeier, Darrell, Jennifer Schwartz, Hua Zhong, and Jeff Ackerman. (2005). An

assessment of recent girls’ violence using diverse longitudinal sources: Is the gender gap closing? Criminology, 43(2): 355-406.

Zimmerman, Gregory M. and Steven Messner. (2010). Neighborhood context and the gender gap in adolescent violent crime. American Sociological Review, 75(6): 958-980.


1.3Race and ethnicity

Chiricos, Ted, Michael Hogan, and Marc Gertz. (1997). Racial composition of neighborhood and fear of crime. Criminology, 35(1): 107-132.

Harer, Miles D. and Darrell Steffensmeier. (1992). The differing effects of economic inequality on Black and White rates of violence. Social Forces, 70(4): 1035-1054.

Hindelang, Michael J. (1978). Race and involvement in common law personal crimes. American Sociological Review, 43(1): 93-109.

Krivo, Lauren J. and Ruth D. Peterson. (2000). The structural context of homicide: Accounting for racial differences in process. American Sociological Review, 65(4): 547-559. McNulty, Thomas L. and Paul E. Bellair. (2003). Explaining racial and ethnic differences in

serious adolescent violent behavior. Criminology, 41(3): 709-747.

Messner, Steven F. and Reid M. Golden. (1992). Racial inequality and racially disaggregated homicide rates: An assessment of alternative theoretical explanations. Criminology, 30(3): 421-448.

Paschall, Mallie J., Robert L. Flewelling, and Susan T. Ennett. (1998). Racial differences in violent behavior among young adults: Moderating and confounding effects. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35(2): 148-165.

Patillo, Mary. (1998). Sweet mothers and gangbangers: Managing crime in a Black middle-class neighborhood. Social Forces, 76(3): 747-774.

Ousey, Graham C. (1999). Homicide, structural factors, and the racial invariance assumption.

Criminology, 37(2): 405-426.

Sampson, Robert J. (1985). Race and criminal violence: A demographically disaggregated analysis of urban homicide. Crime and Delinquency, 31(1): 47-82.

Sampson, Robert J. (1987). Urban Black violence: The effect of male joblessness and family disruption. American Journal of Sociology, 93(2): 348-382.

Sampson, Robert J., Jeffrey D. Morenoff, and Stephen W. Raudenbush. (2005). Social anatomy of racial and ethnic disparities in violence. American Journal of Public Health, 95(2): 224-232.

Shihadeh, Edward S. and Nicole Flynn. (1996). Segregation and crime: The effect of Black social isolation on the rates of Black urban violence. Social Forces, 74(4): 1235-1352.


Steffensmeier, Darrell, Jeffery Ulmer, Ben Feldmeyer and Casey Harris. (2010). Scope and conceptual issues in testing the race-crime invariance thesis: Black, White, and Hispanic comparisons. Criminology, 48(4): 1133- 1169.

2. Family factors: family structure, parenting, maltreatment, etc. 2.1Family, parent and parenting effects

Barber, Brian K. (1992). Family, personality, and adolescent problem behaviors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 54(1): 69-79.

Brezina, Timothy. (1998). Adolescent maltreatment and delinquency: The question of intervening processes. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35(1): 71-99. Burke, Jeffrey D., Dustin A. Pardini, and Rolf Loeber. (2008). Reciprocal relationships between

parenting behavior and disruptive psychopathology from childhood through adolescence.

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 36(5): 679-692.

Cernkovich, Stephen A. and Peggy C. Giordano. (1987). Family relationships and delinquency.

Criminology, 25:295-319.

Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. (2004). Family structure, family processes, and adolescent delinquency: The significance of parental absence versus parental gender.

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41(1): 58-81.

Hoeve, Machteld, Judith Semon Dubas, Veroni I. Eichelsheim, Peter H. van der Laan, Wilma Smeenk, and Jan R. M. Gerris. (2009). The relationship between parenting and

delinquency: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(6): 745-779. Loeber, Rolf and Magda Stouthamer-Loeber. (1986). Family Factors as Correlates and Predictors

of Juvenile Conduct Problems and Delinquency. Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, Vol. 7 (pp. 29-129). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Rankin, Joseph H. and Roger M. Kern. (1994). Parental attachments and delinquency.

Criminology, 32(4): 495-515.

Rebellon, Cesar J. (2002). Reconsidering the broken homes/delinquency relationships and exploring its mediating mechanism(s). Criminology, 40:103-135.

Schroeder, Ryan D. and Thomas J. Mowen. (2014). Parenting style transitions and delinquency.

Youth and Society, 46(2): 228-254.

Simons, Ronald L., Leslie Gordon Simons, Callie Harbin Burt, Gene H. Brody, and Carolyn Cutrona. (2005). Collective efficacy, authoritative parenting and delinquency: A longitudinal test of a model integrating community-and family-level processes.


Smith, Carolyn and Terence P. Thornberry. (1995). The relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent involvement in delinquency. Criminology, 33(4): 451-477.

Unnever, James D., Francis T. Cullen, and Robert Agnew. (2007). Why is bad parenting criminogenic? Implications from rival theories. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4(1): 3-33.

Warr, Mark. (2007). The tangled web: Delinquency, deception, and attachment to parents.

Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(5): 607-622.

Widom, Cathy S. (1989). The cycle of violence. Science, 244(4901): 160-166.

Wright, John Paul and Francis T. Cullen. (2001). Parental efficacy and delinquent behavior: Do control and support matter? Criminology, 39(3): 601-629.

2.1 Marriage, family transitions, and desistance

Bersani, Bianca E., and Elaine Eggleston Doherty. (2013). When the ties that bind unwind: examining the enduring and situational processes of change behind the marriage effect.

Criminology, 51 (2):399-433.

Blokland, A. A. J. , and P. Nieuwbeerta. (2005). The effects of life circumstances on longitudinal trajectories of offending. Criminology, 43(4):1203-1240.

Carlsson, Christoffer. (2012). Using 'turning points' to understand processes of change in offending. Notes from a Swedish study of life courses and crime. British Journal of Criminology, 52 (1):1-16.

Duncan, Greg J., Bessie Wilkerson, and Paula England. (2006). Cleaning up their act: The effect of marriage and cohabitation on licit and illicit drug use. Demography, 43(4):691-710. Giordano, P. C., P. M. Seffrin, W. D. Manning, and M. A. Longmore. (2011). Parenthood and

crime: The role of wantedness, relationships with partners, and ses. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39(5): 405-416.

King, Ryan D., Michael Massoglia, and Ross Macmillan. (2007). The context of marriage and crime: Gender, the propensity to marry, and offending in early adulthood. Criminology, 45 (1):33-65.

Kreager, D. A., R. L. Matsueda and E. A. Erosheva. (2010). Motherhood and criminal desistance in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Criminology, 48(1):221-258.


Laub, John H., Daniel S. Nagin, and Robert J. Sampson. (1998). Trajectories of change in criminal offending: Good marriages and the desistance process. American Sociological Review, 63(2): 225-238.

Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde, and Torbjørn Skardhamar. (2013). Changes in criminal offending around the time of marriage. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50(4):608- 615.

Piquero, Alex R., David P. Farrington, and Alfred Blumstein. (2007). Key Issues in Criminal Career Research: New Analysis of the Cambridge study in Delinquent Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sampson, R. J., J. H. Laub and C. Wimer. (2006). Does marriage reduce crime? A

counterfactual approach to within-individual causal effects. Criminology, 44(3): 465-508. Savolainen, J. .( 2009). Work, family and criminal desistance: Adult social bonds in a Nordic

welfare state. British Journal of Criminology, 49: 285-304.

Skardhamar, Torbjørn, Christian W. Monsbakken and Torkild Hovde Lyngstad. (2014). Crime and the transition to marriage: The role of the spouse’s criminal involvement. British Journal of Criminology, au011.

Theobald, D. and D. P. Farrington. (2011). Why do the crime-reducing effects of marriage vary with age? British Journal of Criminology, 51: 136-158.

3. Social class, inequality, and poverty 3.1SES, poverty, and crime

Blau, Judith R. and Peter M. Blau. (1982). The cost of inequality: Metropolitan structure and violent crime. American Sociological Review, 47: 114-129.

Braithwaite, Jon. (1981). The myth of social class and criminality reconsidered. American Sociological Review, 46(1): 36-57.

Cullen, Francis T. (1994). Social support as an organizing concept for criminology: Presidential address to the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Justice Quarterly, 11(4): 527-559. Dunaway, Gregory R., Francis Cullen, Velmer S. Burton, Jr. and T. David Evans. (2000). The

myth of social class and crime revisited: An examination of class and adult criminality.

Criminology, 38(2): 589-632.

Elliott, Delbert S. and Suzanne S. Ageton. (1980). Reconciling race and class differences in self- reported and official estimates of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 45(1): 95- 110.


Hsieh, Ching-Chi and M.D. Pugh. (1993). Poverty, income inequality, and violent crime: A meta-analysis of recent aggregate data studies. Criminal Justice Review, 18(2): 182-202. Patterson, E. Britt. (1991). Poverty, income inequality, and community crime rates. Criminology,

29(4): 755-776.

Tittle, Charles R., Wayne J. Villemez and Douglas A. Smith. The myth of social class and criminality: An empirical assessment of the empirical evidence. American Sociological Review, 43(5): 643-656.

Wright, Bradley R. Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E. Moffitt, Richard A. Miech and Phil A. Silva. (1999). Reconsidering the relationship between ses and delinquency: Causation but not correlation. Criminology, 37(1): 175-194.

4. Social institutions and crime 4.1. Schools and education

Arum, R. and I. R. Beattie. (1999). High school experience and the risk of adult incarceration.

Criminology, 37(3): 515–540.

Cernkovich, Stephen A. and Peggy C. Giordano. (1992). School bonding, race, and delinquency.

Criminology, 30(2): 261-291.

Felson, R. B. and J. Staff. (2006). Explaining the academic performance-delinquency relationship. Criminology, 44(2), 299–320.

Hirschfield, P. J. and J. Gasper. (2011). The relationship between school engagement and delinquency in late childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,

40(1): 3-22.

Liska, A. E. and M. D. Reed.(1985). Ties to conventional institutions and delinquency: Estimating reciprocal effects. American Sociological Review, 50: 547–560.

Lochner, L. and E. Moretti. (2004). The effect of education on crime: Evidence from prison inmates, arrests, and self-reports. The American Economic Review, 94(1): 155–189. Maguin, Eugene and Rolf Loeber. (1996). Academic Performance and Delinquency. Crime and

Justice: An Annual Review of Research, Vol. 20 (pp. 145-264). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Sweeten, G., S. D. Bushway and R. Paternoster. (2009). Does dropping out of school mean dropping into delinquency? Criminology, 47(1): 47–91.


Wiatrowski, Michael D., Stephen Hansell, Charles R. Massey and David L. Wilson. (1982). Curriculum tracking and delinquency. American Sociological Review, 47: 151-160.

4.2Work, employment, unemployment

Apel, Robert, Shawn D. Bushway, Raymond Paternoster, Robert Brame and Gary Sweeten. (2008). Using state child labor laws to identify the causal effect of youth employment on deviant behavior and academic achievement. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 24(4): 337-362.

Bushway, Shawn D. and Peter Reuter. (2001). Labor markets and crime. In Crime: Public Policies for Crime Control (3rd ed), eds. Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia (pp. 183-209). Oakland, CA: ICS Press.

Bushway, Shawn D. (2011). Labor markets and crime. In Crime and Public Policy, eds. James Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Bushway, Shawn D. and Robert Apel. (2012). A signaling perspective on employment-based reentry programming. Criminology & Public Policy, 11: 21–50.

Cantor, David, and Kenneth C. Land. (1985). Unemployment and crime rates in the post-world war II United States: A theoretical and empirical analysis. American Sociological Review, 50: 317-32.

Carlsson, Christoffer. (2012). Using turning points to understand processes of change in offending. British Journal of Criminology, 52:1-16.

Crutchfield, Robert D. and Susan R. Pitchford. (1997). Work and crime: The effects of labor stratification. Social Forces, 76(1): 93-118.

Fagan, Jeffrey and Richard B. Freeman. (1999). Crime and work. Crime and Justice: Review of Research, 25: 225-290.

Farrington, David P., Bernard Gallagher, Lynda Morley, Raymond J. St. Ledger and Donald J. West. (1986). Unemployment, school leaving, and crime. British Journal of Criminology, 26(4): 335-356.

Freeman, Richard B. (1991). Crime and the employment of disadvantaged youths. National

Bureau of Economic Research, No.w3875.

Skardhamar, Torbjorn and Jukka Savolainen. (2014). Changes in criminal offending around the time of job entry: A study of employment and desistance. Criminology, 52(2): 263-291. Uggen, Christopher. (2000). Work as a turning point in the life course of criminals: A duration


Uggen, Christopher and Sara Wakefield. (2008). What have we learned from longitudinal studies of work and crime? In The Long View of Crime: A Synthesis of Longitudinal Research, ed. Akiva Liberman. New York: Springer.

Van der Geest, Victor R., Catrien C. Bijleveld and Arjen A. J. Blokland. ( 2011). The effects of employment on longitudinal trajectories of offending: A follow-up of high-risk youth from 18 to 32 years of age. Criminology, 49:1195-1234.

Visher, Christy A., Laura Winterfield and Mark B. Coggeshall. (2005). Ex-offender employment programs and recidivism: A meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1:295-316.

4.3Religion, spirituality, and morality

Antonaccio, Olena and Charles R. Tittle. (2008). Morality, self-control, and crime. Criminology, 46(2): 479-510.

Brauer, Jonathan R., Charles R. Tittle and Olena Antonaccio. (2013). Does religion suppress, socialize, soothe, or support? Exploring religiosity’s influence on crime. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 52(4): 753-774.

Evans, T. David, Francis T. Cullen, R. Gregory Dunaway and Velmer S. Burton. (1995). Religion and crime reexamined: The impact of religion, secular controls, and social ecology on adult criminality. Criminology, 33(2): 195-224.

Geyer, Anne L. and Roy F. Baumeister. (2005). Religion, Morality, and Self-control: Values, Virtues, and Vices. Pp. 412-432 in Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and

Spirituality, edited by Raymond F. Paloutzian and Crystal L. Park. New York: Guilford. Jang, Sung Joon and Aaron B. Franzen. (2013). Is being spiritual enough without being

religious? A study of violent and property crimes among emerging adults. Criminology, 51(3): 595-627.

Johnson, Byron R., Sung Joon Jang, David B. Larson and Spencer De Li. (2001). Does

adolescent religious commitment matter? A reexamination of the effects of religiosity on delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38(1): 22-44.

Regnerus, Mark. (2003). Moral communities and adolescent delinquency: Religious contexts and community social control. Sociological Quarterly, 44(4): 523-554.

Tittle, Charles R., Olena Antonaccio, Ekaterina Botchkovar and Maria Kranidiotis. (2010). Expected utility, self-control, morality, and criminal probability. Social Science Research, 39(6): 1029-1046.


Topalli, Volkan, Timothy Brezina and Mindy Bernhardt. (2013). With God on my side: The paradoxical relationship between religious belief and criminality among hardcore street offenders. Theoretical Criminology, 17(1): 49-69.

5. Peer processes

Giordano, Peggy C., Stephen A. Cernkovich and M. D. Pugh. (1986). Friendships and delinquency. American Journal of Sociology, 91(5): 1170-1202.

Harding, David J. (2009). Violence, older peers, and the socialization of adolescent boys in disadvantaged neighborhoods. American Sociological Review, 74(3): 445-464. Haynie, Dana L. (2001). Delinquent peers revisited: Does network structure matter?

American Journal of Sociology, 106(4): 1013-1057.

Haynie, Dana and Wayne Osgood. (2005). Reconsidering peers and delinquency: How do peers matter? Social Forces, 84(2): 1109-1130.

Haynie, Dana L., Peggy C. Giordano and Wendy D. Manning. (2005). Adolescent romantic relationships and delinquency involvement. Criminology, 43(1): 177-210.

Kreager, Derek A.( 2007). Unnecessary roughness? School sports, peer networks, and male adolescent violence. American Sociological Review, 72(5): 705-724.

Kreager, Derek A., Kelly Rulison and James Moody. (2011). Delinquency and the structure of adolescent peer groups. Criminology, 49(1): 95-127.

Matsueda, Ross L. and Kathleen Anderson. (1998). The dynamics of delinquent peers and delinquent behavior. Criminology, 36(2): 269-308.

McGloin, Jean M. (2009). Delinquency balance: Revisiting peer influence. Criminology, 47(2): 439-477.

Paternoster, Ray, Jean M. McGloin, Holly Nguyen and Kyle J. Thomas. (2013). The causal impact of exposure to deviant peers: An experimental investigation. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50(4): 476-503.

Patterson, Gerald R. and Thomas J. Dishion. (1985). Contributions of families and peers to delinquency. Criminology, 23(1): 63-79.

Rebellon, Cesar J. (2006). Do adolescents engage in delinquency to attract the social attention of peers? An extension and longitudinal test of the social reinforcement hypothesis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43(4): 387-411.


Thornberry, Terence, Alan J. Lizotte, Marvin D. Krohn, Margaret Farnsworth and Sung Joon Jang. (1994). Delinquent peers, beliefs, and delinquent behavior: A longitudinal test of interactional theory. Criminology, 32(1): 47-83.

Warr, Mark and Mark Stafford. (1991). The influence of delinquent peers: What they think or what they do? Criminology, 29(4): 851-865.

Warr, Mark. (1993). Age, peers, and delinquency. Criminology, 31(1): 17-40. Warr, Mark. (1993). Parents, peers, and delinquency. Social Forces, 72(1): 247-264. Warr, Mark. (2002). Companions in Crime. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Weerman, Frank M. (2011). Delinquent peers in context: A longitudinal network analysis of selection and influence effects. Criminology, 49(1): 253-286.

Young, Jacob T.N., Cesar J. Rebellon and J.C. Barnes. (2014). Unpacking the black box of peer similarity in deviance: Understanding the mechanisms linking personal behavior, peer behavior, and perceptions. Criminology, 52(1): 60-86.

6. Bio-psychological factors

6.1Psychological characteristics

Beaver, K. M. and J. P. Wright. (2011). The association between county-level IQ and county- level crime rates. Intelligence, 39(1): 22-26.

Beaver, K. M., J. A. Schwartz, J. L. Nedelec, E. J. Connolly, B. B. Boutwell and J. C. Barnes. (2013). Intelligence is associated with criminal justice processing: Arrest through incarceration. Intelligence, 41: 277-288.

Bellair, Paul E. and Thomas L. McNulty. (2010). Cognitive skills, adolescent violence, and the moderating role of neighborhood disadvantage. Justice Quarterly, 27 (4): 538-559. Caspi, Avshalom, Terrie Moffitt, Phil Silva, Magda Stouthamer Loeber, Robert Krueger and

Pamela Schmutte. (1994). Are some people crime prone? Replications of the personality crime relationship across countries, genders, races, and methods. Criminology, 32(2): 163-195.

Caspi, A., R. M. Houts, D. W. Belsky, S. J. Goldman-Mellor, H. Harrington, S. Israel, and T. E. Moffitt. (2014). The p factor one general psychopathology factor in the structure of psychiatric disorders? Clinical Psychological Science, 2: 119-137.

DeLisi, M. (2009). Psychopathy is the unified theory of crime. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 7: 256-273.


Hare, R. D. (1996). Psychopathy a clinical construct whose time has come. Criminal justice and Behavior, 23: 25-54.

Hodgins, Sheilagh. (1992). Mental disorder, intellectual deficiency, and crime: evidence from a birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(6): 476-483.

Menard, Scott and Barbara J. Morse. (1984). A structuralist critique of the IQ-delinquency hypothesis: Theory and evidence. American Journal of Sociology, 89(6):1347-1378. Moffitt, T. E. (1990). Juvenile delinquency and attention deficit disorder: Boys' developmental

trajectories from age 3 to age 15. Child Development, 61(3): 893-910.

Moffitt, T. E. (1990). Neuropsychology of juvenile delinquency: A critical review. Crime &

Just., 12:99.

Moffitt, T. E. (1993). The neuropsychology of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5(1-2): 135-151.

Moffitt, Terrie E., Donald R. Lynam and Phil A. Silva. (1994). Neuropsychological tests predicting persistent male delinquency. Criminology, 32(2): 277-300.

Ogilvie, J. M., A. L. Stewart, R. C. Chan and D. H. Shum. (2011). Neuropsychological measures of executive function and antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Criminology, 49: 1063- 1107.

Raine, Adrian, Terrie E. Moffitt, Avshalom Caspi, Rolf Loeber, Magda Stouthamer-Loeber and Don Lynam. (2005). Neurocognitive impairments in boys on the life-course persistent antisocial path. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(1): 38-49..

6.2Genetic and other biological processes

Beaver, K. M. (2008). Nonshared environmental influences on adolescent delinquent involvement and adult criminal behavior. Criminology, 46: 341-369.

Beaver, K. M. (2013). Biosocial Criminology: A Primer. (2nd Ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Belsky, J. and M. Pluess. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to

environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135(6): 885-908.

Caspi, A., J. McClay, T. E. Moffitt, J. Mill, J. Martin, I. W. Craig, A. Taylor, R. Poulton. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297: 851-854.


Ferguson, C. J. (2010). Genetic contributions to antisocial personality and behavior: A meta- analytic review from an evolutionary perspective. The Journal of Social

Psychology, 150(2): 160-180.

Guo, Guang, Michael E. Roettger and Tianji Cai. (2008). The integration of genetic propensities into social-control models of delinquency and violence among male youths. American Sociological Review, 73(4): 543-568.

Harris, J. R. (1995). Where is the child's environment? A group socialization theory of development. Psychological Review, 102: 458-489.

Johnson, W., E. Turkheimer, I. I. Gottesman and T. J. Bouchard. (2009). Beyond heritability twin studies in behavioral research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(4): 217-220.

Moffitt, Terrie E. (2005). The new look of behavioral genetics in developmental

psychopathology: Gene-environment interplay in antisocial behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 131(4): 533-554.

Raine, A. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behaviors in children and adolescents: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30: 311-326. Raine, A. (2008). From genes to brain to antisocial behavior. Current Directions in

Psychological Science, 17: 323-328.

Rowe, D. C. and D. W. Osgood. (1984). Heredity and sociology theories of delinquency: A reconsideration. American Sociological Review.

Rowe, D. C. (1994). The limits of family influence: Genes, experience, and behavior. New York: Guilford Press.

Scarr, S. and K. McCartney. (1983). How people make their own environments: A theory of genotype → environment effects. Child Development, 54: 424-435.

Simons, Ronald L., Man Kit Lei, Steven R.H. Beach, Gene H. Brody, Robert A. Philibert and Frederick X. Gibbons. (2011). Social environment, genes, and aggression: Evidence supporting the differential susceptibility perspective. American Sociological Review, 76(6): 883-912.


Tielbeek, J. J., S. E. Medland, B. Benyamin, E. M. Byrne, A. C. Heath, P. A. Madden and K. J. Verweij. (2012). Unraveling the genetic etiology of adult antisocial behavior: A genome- wide association study. PloS One, 7(10): e45086.

Turkheimer, E. (2000). Three laws of behavior genetics and what they mean. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9: 160-164.

Turkheimer, E. and M. Waldron. (2000). Nonshared environment: A theoretical, methodological, and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 126(1): 78-108.

Udry, J. R. (1995). Sociology and biology: what biology do sociologists need to know? Social Forces, 73: 1267-1278.

Wright, J. P. and K. M. Beaver. (2005). Do parents matter in creating self-control in their children? A genetically informed test of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s theory of low self- control. Criminology, 43: 1169-1202.

7. Historical and cross-national research 7.1Historical studies, crime trends

Baumer, E., J. L. Lauritsen, R. Rosenfeld, R. and R. Wright. (1998). The influence of crack cocaine on robbery, burglary, and homicide rates: A cross-city, longitudinal analysis.

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35(3): 316-340.

Blumstein, A. and J. Wallman, (Eds.). (2006). The crime drop in America. Cambridge University Press.

Cohen, L. E. and M. Felson. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 588-608.

Donohue, John and Steven D. Levitt. (2001). The impact of legalized abortion on crime.

Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(2): 379-420.

Dugan, Laura, Daniel S. Nagin and Richard Rosenfeld. (1999). Explaining the decline in intimate partner homicide: The effects of changing domesticity, women's status, and domestic violence resources. Homicide Studies, 3(3): 187-214.

Eisner, M. (2001). Modernization, self‐control and lethal violence: The long‐term dynamics of European homicide rates in theoretical perspective. British Journal of Criminology, 41(4): 618-638.


LaFree, Gary. (1999). Declining violent crime rates in the 1990s: Predicting crime booms and busts. Annual Review of Sociology, 25(1): 145-168.

Levitt, S. D. (2004). Understanding why crime fell in the 1990s: Four factors that explain the decline and six that do not. Journal of Economic perspectives, 163-190.

Pinker, Steven. (2011). Decline of violence: Taming the devil within us. Nature, 478(7369): 309- 311.

7.2 Cross-national and international criminology

Antonaccio, Olena, Charles R. Tittle, Ekaterina Botchkovar and Maria Kranidiotis. (2010). The correlates of crime and deviance: Additional evidence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 47(3): 297-328.

De Souza, E. and J. Miller. (2012). Homicide in the Brazilian Favela: Does opportunity make the killer? British Journal of Criminology, 52(4): 786-807.

Eisner, Manuel. (2002). Crime, problem drinking, and drug use: Patterns of problem behavior in cross-national perspective. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 580(1): 201-225.

Felson, Richard, Jukka Savolainen, Thoroddur Bjarnason, Amy L. Anderson and I. Tusty Zohra. (2011). The cultural context of drinking and violence: A comparative study of

adolescents from 30 European countries. Criminology, 49(3): 699-728.

LaFree, Gary D. and Tseloni, Andromachi. (2006). Democracy and crime: A multilevel analysis of homicide trends in forty-four countries, 1950-2000. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 605: 25-49.

Lynch, James P. and William Alex Pridemore. (2011). Crime in international perspective. Crime and Public Policy, 5-52.

Messner, Steven F. and Richard Rosenfeld. (2001). Crime and the American Dream, 3rd Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Messner, Steven F., Lawrence E. Raffalovich, Gretchen M. Sutton.( 2010). Poverty, infant mortality, and homicide rates in cross-national perspective: Assessments of criterion and construct validity. Criminology, 48(2): 509-537.

Neumayer, Eric. (2003). Good policy can lower violent crime: Evidence from a cross-national panel of homicide rates, 1980-97. Journal of Peace Research, 40: 619-640.

Nivette, A. E. (2011). Cross-national predictors of crime: A meta-analysis. Homicide Studies,


Ouimet, Marc. (2012). A world of homicides: The effect of economic development, income inequality, and excess infant mortality on the homicide rate for 165 countries in 2010.

Homicide Studies, 16: 238-258.

Pratt, Travis C. and Timothy W. Godsey. (2003). Social support, inequality, and homicide: A cross-national test of an integrated theoretical model. Criminology, 41(3): 611-643. Pridemore, W. A. (2008). A methodological addition to the crosssocial structure and homicide: A first test of the povertyhomicide thesis. ‐national empirical literature on Criminology,

46(1): 133-154.

Stamatel, Janet. (2009). Correlates of national-level homicide variation in post-communist east- central Europe. Social Forces, 87: 1424-1448.

Steffensmeier, Darrell, Emilie Allan and Cathy Streifel. (1989). Development and female crime: A cross-national test of alternative explanations. Social Forces, 68(1): 262-283.

8. Neighborhood-level factors

Eck, John E. and David Weisburd. (1995). Crime places in crime theory. Crime and Place: Crime Prevention Studies, 4: 1-34.

Hipp, John R. (2007). Blocks, tracts, and levels of aggregation: Neighborhood structure and crime and disorder as a case in point. American Journal of Sociology, 72(5): 659-680. Hipp, John R., George E. Tita and Lindsey N. Boggess. (2009). Intergroup and intragroup

violence: Is violent crime an expression of group conflict or social disorganization?

Criminology, 47(2): 521-564.

Kling, Jeffrey R., Jens Ludwig and Lawrence F. Katz. (2005). Neighborhood effects on crime for female and male youth: Evidence from a randomized housing voucher experiment.

Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120(1): 87-130.

Krivo, Lauren J. and Ruth D. Peterson. (1996). Extremely disadvantaged neighborhoods and urban crime. Social Forces, 75(2): 619-648.

Kubrin, Charis E. and Ronald Weitzer. (2003). Retaliatory homicide: Concentrated disadvantage and neighborhood culture. Social Problems, 50(2): 157-180.

Wikström, Per-Olof H. and Rolf Loeber. (2000). Do disadvantaged neighborhoods cause well- adjusted children to become adolescent delinquents? A study of male juvenile serious offending, individual risk and protective factors, and neighborhood context. Criminology, 38(4): 1109-1142.


Wright, Emily M. and Abigail A. Fagan. (2013). The cycle of violence in context: Exploring the moderating roles of neighborhood disadvantage and cultural norms. Criminology, 51(2): 217-249.

Zimmerman, Gregory M. and Steven F. Messner. (2010). Neighborhood context and the gender gap in adolescent violent crime. American Sociological Review, 75(6): 958-980.

Zimmerman, Gregory M. and Steven F. Messner. (2011). Neighborhood context and nonlinear peer effects on adolescent violent crime. Criminology, 49(3): 873-903.

C. Crime problems or topics 1. Gangs and street offenders

Battin, Sara R., Karl G. Hill, Robert D. Abbott, Richard F. Catalano and J. David Hawkins. (1998). The contribution of gang membership to delinquency beyond delinquent friends.

Criminology, 36(1): 93-116.

Brantingham, P. Jeffrey, George E. Tita, Martin B. Short and Shannon E. Reid. (2012). The ecology of gang territorial boundaries. Criminology, 50(3): 851-885.

Decker, Scott H. (1996). Collective and normative features of gang violence. Justice Quarterly, 13(2): 243-264.

Decker, Scott H., Chris Melde and David C. Pyrooz. (2013). What do we know about gangs and gang members and where do we go from here? Justice Quarterly, 30(3): 369-402.

Gordon, Rachel A., Benjamin B. Lahey, Ericko Kawai, Rolf Loeber, Magda Stouthamer-Loeber, and David P. Farrington. (2004). Antisocial behavior and youth gang membership: selection and socialization. Criminology, 42(1): 55-87.

Hughes, Lorine A. (2013). Group cohesiveness, gang member prestige, and delinquency and violence in Chicago, 1959-1962. Criminology, 51(4): 795-832.

Jacobs, Bruce and Richard T. Wright. (1999). Stick-up, street culture, and offender motivation.

Criminology, 37(1): 149-173.

Jacobs, Bruce A. and Richard Wright. (2006). Street Justice: Retaliation in the Criminal Underworld. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Krohn, Marvin D., Jeffrey T. Ward, Terence P. Thornberry, Alan J. Lizotte and Rebekah Chu. (2011). The cascading effects of adolescent gang involvement across the life course.


Melde, Chris and Finn-Aage Esbensen. (2011). Gang membership as a turning point in the life course. Criminology, 49(2): 513-552.

Melde, Chris and Finn-Aage Esbensen. (2013). Gangs and violence: Disentangling the impact of gang membership on the level and nature of offending. Journal of Quantitative

Criminology, 29(2): 143-166.

Papachristos, Andrew V. (2009). Murder by structure: Dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide. American Journal of Sociology, 115(1): 74-128.

Papachristos, Andrew V., David M. Hureau and Anthony A. Braga. (2013). The corner and the crew: The influence of geography and social networks on gang violence. American Sociological Review, 78(3): 417-447.

Pyrooz, David C., Gary Sweeten and Alex R. Piquero. (2013). Continuity and change in gang membership and gang embeddedness. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50(2): 239-271.

Venkatesh, Sudhir. (1997). The social organization of street gang activity in an urban ghetto.

American Journal of Sociology, 103(1): 82-111.

Warr, Mark. (1996). Organization and instigation in delinquent groups. Criminology, 34(1): 11-37.

2. Interpersonal violence

2.1Intimate partner and family violence

Archer, John. (2000). Sex differences in aggression between heterosexual partners: A meta- analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 126(5): 651-680.

Carbone-Lopez, Kristin and Candace Kruttschnitt. (2010). Risky relationships? Assortative mating and women’s experiences of intimate partner violence. Crime and Delinquency, 56(3): 358-384.

Felson, Richard B. and Jodi K. Lane. (2010). Does violence involving women and intimate partners have a special etiology? Criminology, 48(1): 321-338.

Johnson, Michael P. (1995). Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: Two forms of violence against women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57: 283-294.

Lussier, Patrick, David P. Farrington and Terrie E. Moffitt. (2009). Is the antisocial child father of the abusive man? A 40-year prospective longitudinal study on the developmental antecedents of intimate partner violence. Criminology, 47(3): 741-780.