CheckPoint NG Security Administration.pdf


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Check Point


• Bonus Coverage of CCSA NG Exam 156-210


• Additional CCSA Self-Assessment

Questions Available for Free Download

• Free Spoofing Chapter by Dan “Effugas”

Kaminsky, World-Renowned

Cryptography Expert

Drew Simonis CISSP, CCSE

Corey S. Pincock CISSP, CCSA Daniel Kligerman CCSE Doug Maxwell CCSI

Cherie Amon CCSI, Technical Editor Allen Keele CCSI, Technical Reviewer





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Check Point

Drew Simonis CISSP, CCSE

Corey S. Pincock CISSP, CCSA

Daniel Kligerman CCSE

Doug Maxwell CCSI

Cherie Amon CCSI, Technical Editor

Allen Keele CCSI, Technical Reviewer








v We would like to acknowledge the following people for their kindness and support in making this book possible.

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Drew Simonis(CISSP, CCNA, SCSA, SCNA, CCSA, CCSE, IBM CS) is a Senior Security Engineer with the RL Phillips Group, LLC, where he provides senior level security consulting to the United States Navy, working on large enterprise networks. Drew is a security generalist, with a strong background in system administration, Internet application devel-opment, intrusion detection and prevention, and penetration testing. He is a co-author of Hack Proofing Your Web Applications (Syngress Publishing, ISBN: 1-928994-31-8) and Hack Proofing Sun Solaris 8 (Syngress, ISBN: 1-928994-44-X). Drew’s background includes various consulting posi-tions with Fiderus, serving as a Security Architect with AT&T and as a Technical Team Lead with IBM. Drew has a bachelor’s degree from the University of South Florida and is also a member of American MENSA. He lives in Suffolk,Virginia with his wife, Kym and daughters, Cailyn and Delany. He would like to pay special thanks to Travis Corson and Ron Ostrenga for helping him break into the industry.

Daniel Kligerman(CCSA, CCSE, Extreme Networks GSE, LE) is a Consulting Analyst with TELUS. As a member of TELUS Enterprise Solutions Inc., he specializes in routing, switching, load balancing, and network security in an Internet hosting environment. A University of Toronto graduate, Daniel holds an honors bachelor of science degree in computer science, statistics, and English. Daniel currently resides in Toronto, Canada, and would like to thank Robert, Anne, Lorne, and Merita for their support.


ix help clients build network infrastructure that provides the high availability and security required in today’s Internet environment.

Doug Maxwell(CCSI) is a Senior Network Engineer with Activis, Ltd. in East Hartford, Connecticut. He currently works as a third-tier engineer in the technical support division, and is a certified Check Point instructor. His specialties include Unix network security and firewall network inte-gration. Doug holds a bachelor of science degree in computer science from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, and is a member of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), USENIX, and SAGE, the System Administrator’s Guild. He happily resides in Ellington,

Connecticut with his wife and 1-year-old son.



Technical Editor

Cherie Amon(CCSA, CCSE, CCSI) is a Senior Network Security Engineer and Security Instructor for Integralis. She is a Check Point Certified Security Instructor and has been installing, configuring, and supporting Check Point products since 1997. Cherie teaches the Check Point courses at the Integralis Authorized Training Center (ATC) in East Hartford, Connecticut, which is the only Check Point ATC in the state. Prior to working at Integralis, she held a position at IBM supporting the IBM Global Dialer, which is now the ATT Global Dialer. Cherie lives in Tampa, Florida and attended college at the University of South Florida in Tampa, where she is now pursuing a math degree. She would like to thank her husband, Kyle Amon, and father, Jerry Earnest, for leading her in the direction of computers and technology.

Allen Keeleis an author and lecturer and holds over 20 technical accred-itations including CISSP, SCNP, CCSE+, CCSI, CCNP, CCDA, NSA, NVGA, MCSE, CCEA, CCI, and PSE. Allen holds a business degree in risk management from the University of Georgia, and has provided advanced technical and security training throughout the United States and Western Europe since 1998. He currently leads Certified Tech Trainers, Inc. to provide comprehensive InfoSec training throughout the United States and Europe for Check Point (CCSE/CCSE/CCSE+) and Security Certified Program (SCNP/SCNA) accreditation.


We live in an ever shrinking world.Thanks to the growing ubiquity of the Internet, we can keep in closer touch with more people than at any other time in the history of civilization.We can transact business with someone on the other side of the globe with the same ease that we can chat with our neighbor.What was just a decade ago considered a miracle of technology has become commonplace.These conveniences have not, however, come free of charge.

Although the world is shrinking, we can’t revert to the behavior of the proverbial small town. I’m sure we’ve all heard about places where everyone knows their

neighbor, and no one locks their doors. Unfortunately, for those of us involved in net-work security, we are not in that place.To do our jobs well, we must assume that we live in a paranoid, dysfunctional city.We don’t know all of our neighbors, but we do know that many of them are out to get us.We not only have to lock our doors, we have to weld them shut and put bars on our windows.We don’t want anyone coming in unless we say so, and we want to watch them very closely while they are inside.

Check Point has supplied us with a solution to our digital dilemma.Their excel-lent VPN-1/FireWall-1 security product can go a long way towards soothing the fears associated with connecting your little neck of the woods to the rest of the world. In its latest incarnation, the market leading VPN-1/FireWall-1 eschews a ver-sion number for the term “Next Generation.”The moniker fits rather nicely, as there are many improvements over previous versions.These improvements include support for the new Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the successor to DES, a new, fea-ture rich GUI, and increased ease of configuration.

The goal of this book is to instruct you.We want you to be able to take this book right to your desk and implement a solid security solution utilizing Check Point VPN-1/FireWall-1. We haven’t made any assumptions about your previous experience; so don’t be afraid if you haven’t worked with the product before. Each chapter in this book builds on the previous ones, so that reading the book cover to



admin-Chapter 11 ties in well with admin-Chapter 10 by securing your remote clients utilizing Check Point’s Policy Server, Desktop Security options, and SecureClient software. SecureClient is the same as SecuRemote, with the addition of personal firewall capa-bilities.The Desktop Security tab in the Policy Editor is used to create a Granular Security Policy for remote user’s desktops.We will also provide information on the SecureClient Packaging Tool, and take you on a step-by-step procedure for creating a customized SecuRemote/SecureClient package.

Chapter 12 deals with Advanced Configurations. In this chapter we will discuss Single Entry Point (SEP) and Multiple Entry Point (MEP) VPN designs, and go through these configurations in VPN-1/FireWall-1.We’ll setup the Check Point High Availability module and discuss other high availability options such as routing and VRRP on the Nokia platform as well as hardware devices such as the Foundry ServerIron XL content switch.

Appendix A presents readers with a useful netmask cheat sheet that readers will find helpful when working with network addresses and subnet masks. In Appendix B we will make a slight departure from focusing on securing your network using Check Point products, and instead focus on the theories and methodologies behind

spoofing attacks.To successfully secure your systems, you must understand the motives

and the means of those who intend to launch a malicious attack against your net-work. In this Appendix Dan “Effugas” Kaminsky, world-renowned cryptography expert and frequent speaker at the Black Hat Briefings and DEF CON, provides invaluable insight to the inner workings of a spoof attack.

Working on this book has been an enjoyable experience. I think that you will find it to be a powerful resource for anyone interested in using the Check Point VPN-1/FireWall-1 product. My hope is that you get as much out of reading this book as the authors and I got out of writing it for you.

—Cherie Amon,Technical Editor and Contributor

Check Point Certified Security Professional: CCSA, CCSE, CCSI Senior Network Security Engineer/Security Instructor, Activis/Integralis

—Drew Simonis, Contributing Author


Introduction to

Check Point Next


Solutions in this chapter:

Introducing the Check Point Next

Generation Suite of Products

Understanding VPN-1/FireWall-1 SVN


Looking at Firewall Technology

Chapter 1


; Summary

; Solutions Fast Track


into a single suite, NG provides network and security managers with the security and management tools needed in today’s enterprise networks in one integrated, scaleable package.

To tie all these products together into an easy-to-manage solution, NG includes a new Security Dashboard that incorporates the best features of the Policy Editor with additional object display windows and the optional Visual Policy Editor.The Security Dashboard, shown in Figure 1.1, not only provides a single point of access for managing the entire NG suite, but also shows how the different products integrate together allowing configuration information to be moved and shared between applications quickly and easily.


At the cornerstone of the NG Suite, and what most of us think about when someone mentions the Check Point name, is VPN-1/FireWall-1.The VPN-1 and FireWall-1 products are designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from the


through the VPN-1/FireWall-1 gateway. Like FireWall-1, FloodGate-1 is policy based on and managed from the Policy Editor.This integration with VPN-1/ FireWall-1 is what allows FloodGate-1 to outperform other QoS solutions. For example, by working with VPN-1, FloodGate-1 can manage VPN traffic with finer control than other QoS products because it can manage data before it is encrypted and assign weighting to different types of VPN data, whereas other applications can only see and manage the entire encrypted data stream as one. Being built into VPN-1/FireWall-1 also allows the same objects and user defini-tions to be used in the QoS policy as in the Security Policy.

To control QoS, FloodGate-1 enables you to set a weighting on individual types of traffic.The weighting for each rule is relative to that of the other active rules in the database. For example, if data is applied to a rule that has a weight of 10 and, when combined, all the rules with open connections have a total weight of 90, then the data gets 10 percent of the available bandwidth dedicated to it. However, if the rule has a weight of 10 and the rules with open connections have a total weight of only 10, then the data receives 50 percent of the available band-width.This allows QoS to be applied dynamically, maximizing use of the available bandwidth, and ensuring that no class of traffic is starved completely even under heavy load. Figure 1.2 shows a FloodGate-1 policy loaded into the Policy Editor in the same fashion as the Security or Network Address Translation (NAT) policy.



SecureUpdate is an application, included with the Management Module, that enables you to maintain and upgrade software and licenses for Check Point and OPSEC applications from a central server. For example, SecureUpdate can be used to install a new service pack or feature pack onto your VPN-1/FireWall-1 NG installation as well as push out updated license information when you need to renew expired licenses or if you license additional features.

SecureUpdate enables you to track Operating System and application versions from all of your Check Point modules as well as supported OPSEC applications. Figure 1.4 shows a typical SecureUpdate window displaying Operating System, service pack, and IP address information for all the modules currently defined to the Management Server.

The licenses tab of SecureUpdate allows you to see the installed license details for all your firewalls and supported OPSEC applications in one convenient location. Aside from showing you the features currently licensed on all your gate-ways, SecureUpdate could also be used to upgrade those licenses remotely.This


Policy Editor

The easiest way to manage your Security Policy is to use the Policy Editor, although a command-line interface is available.The Policy Editor has seen major improvements from previous versions to provide a user-friendly, GUI-based approach to security rule base creation and management.The Policy Editor has been designed to give a more detailed, visual representation of your Security Policy providing fast, easy, and more accurate rule creation.

Depending on the products licensed, all four VPN-1/FireWall-1 policies are available from the main Policy Editor window. Along with the standard Security and Network Address Translation (NAT) policy tabs, the Quality of Service (QoS) and Desktop Security policies are also available.This all-in-one approach to maintaining all the major policies from a single GUI is a direct result of Checkpoint’s Secure Virtual Network (SVN) architecture that attempts to treat network security as an easy-to-manage, end-to-end solution rather than separate, isolated components.The added advantage of managing all four policies together


Policy Server

The Policy Server integrates into VPN-1, enabling you to manage the Secure Client software installed on a VPN user’s machine from a central location.The Policy Server is responsible for sending Secure Client policy information for the specific Desktop Security settings to load, as well as using Secure Configuration Verification (SVC) to ensure that the Secure Client machine’s configuration meets your policy requirements.

In addition to verifying the clients’ configuration and sending the Desktop Security policy, the Policy Server is also responsible for handling logs from the Secure Client machines. As a final step of logging into the Policy Server, the Secure Client software will package its local alert logs and send them to the Policy Server.The Policy Server then opens these files and sends each alert log entry to the Management Server to be incorporated into the log database, where it is viewable through the VPN-1/FireWall-1 Log Viewer.This enables you to


Taking advantage of the VPN-1/FireWall-1 distributed design helps not only with scalability, but also with performance issues. As your network grows, you can add additional firewalls, either in a clustered load-balancing configuration or as stand-alone enforcement points, to spread different functions to separate gate-ways. For example, I’ve seen medium-sized organizations use one firewall for out-bound user traffic, such as HTTP and FTP access, as well as protecting an


Although network security application vendors would like to produce a single product or suite that could storm the market by providing all the security tools any organization will need, the fact is, it’s just not possible. Although Check Point VPN-1/FireWall-1 and the NG suite will cover the basic security needs of most enterprises, there will always be small gaps where third-party applications are needed.To help you ensure that you can leverage your existing investment and provide easy integration with your Check Point security infrastructure, OPSEC was created to certify that the third-party products you require will work well with VPN-1/FireWall-1 and other OPSEC applications.

Combining the proven, market-leading NG versions of VPN-1 and FireWall-1 with the NG Suite of products as well as with Check Point OPSEC partner applications enables you to build and manage the highly available, secure network infrastructure needed to support today’s eBusiness models and to scale up to future growth in enterprise network security.

Solutions Fast Track

Introducing the Check Point

Next Generation Suite of Products

; FireWall-1 is the cornerstone of the NG suite providing data filtering, logging, and authentication in stand-alone, distributed, and high-availability clustered gateway models.

; VPN-1 builds onto the features of FireWall-1 adding encryption and VPN support.

; The LDAP Account Management module can run as a separate

application or be integrated into the Security Dashboard, enabling you to manage LDAP database-stored user accounts easily.

; SecuRemote is used with VPN-1 and creates the client or user end of the VPN tunnel, providing the authentication and encryption needed to establish and maintain the VPN connection.


; The Reporting Module helps you trend and analyze your network by using predefined or customized report criteria to generate data traffic statistics and reports.

; The Check Point High Availability module helps you to create clusters of firewalls to reduce service downtime by providing seamless fail-over from one gateway to another.

; FloodGate-1 has been integrated into VPN-1/FireWall-1 to provide Quality of Service prioritization of network traffic as it passes through the gateway.

; Meta IP provides you with secure, scalable solutions for DNS and DHCP server management. As well as providing standards-based servers, Meta IP provides additional tools such as Secure DHCP that you use to authenticate your users before giving their machine a fully functional IP address.

; The User Authority module extends the user-authorization information acquired by VPN-1/FireWall-1 to trusted third-party applications.This can help reduce multiple logons and reduce development time for new applications.

Understanding VPN-1/FireWall-1 SVN Components

; The VPN-1/FireWall-1 Management Module resides on the

Management Server, and not only stores and pushes out the Security Policy to the enforcement points, but is also responsible for storing all the objects and definitions used in the policy. Logs from Check Point enforcement modules, including Secure Client, are stored in the log database hosted by the Management Server.

; The Management Module is at the heart of the distributed model for firewall deployment, allowing for centralized logging and easy security management even for environments with several firewalls.


; The Firewall Module contains the Inspection Engine that uses a compiled version of the Security Policy to control traffic attempting to pass between the firewall’s interfaces.

; The SIC module ensures that communication between GUI clients, Management Servers, and the Inspection Engine is secure to prevent modification or copying of data in transit.

Looking at Firewall Technology

; Proxy or Application Gateway firewalls provide in-depth control of a single application, allowing for very detailed filtering. However, this makes scaling to new applications difficult and can reduce performance of the firewall.

; Packet Filters offer great performance and affordability because this type of firewall is often built-in routers or similar network devices. Since Packet Filtering firewalls are unaware of the application layer, granular control is not possible.

; VPN-1/FireWall-1 uses a Check Point Patented technology called Stateful Inspection to control IP network data.

; Stateful Inspection is able to make control decisions based on information from the top five layers of the OSI model, providing granular control and application awareness.


Q:What is this “Fingerprint” I see when first connecting to the Management server?

A:In order to verify that you are connecting to the intended Management sta-tion (rather than an imposter) FW-1 uses a Fingerprint phrase.To ensure that secure communication between the GUI client and Management Server is set up properly, be sure that you have the server’s fingerprint to verify before ini-tiating the first connection to a new server.

Q:What happened to the “Apply gateway rules to interface direction” property?

A:In previous versions of FireWall-1 you could specify, in the policy properties, the data direction (inbound, outbound, or eitherbound) in which the security policy would be applied on the Firewall’s interfaces. In VPN-1/FireWall-1 NG, Check Point has removed this option and the security policy rules are now applied inbound and outbound on all interfaces. Aside from not being needed in the new version of the Inspection Engine, removing this option is likely for the best since few people actually understood how it worked or why it was needed.

Q:How are the rules in the Security Policy applied to incoming data?

A:The Security Policy rules are applied from top to bottom. Data for which no rule applies will be dropped after falling to the bottom of the Security Policy. Data dropped in this fashion is not logged, which is why a “drop all” rule is used with source: any, destination: any, service: any and track set to log is nor-mally written at the bottom of the rule base.

Q:VPN-1/FireWall-1 just looks like an application running on my server; how does it protect the underlying Operating System from attack?

Frequently Asked Questions


A:The FireWall-1 Inspection Engine is inserted into the Operating System’s Kernel just above layer two of the OSI model. Since layer two is actually the firewall’s Network Interface Card driver, this means that data must pass through the firewall Security Policy before being allowed to move onto the Operating Systems’ IP stack.Therefore, the underlying OS is never exposed to raw, unfiltered network data.

Q:How does the Inspection Engine handle fragmented packets?

A:When you look at fragmented packets individually, most of the information needed to make a control decision is in the first packet. However, FireWall-1 needs the entire assembled packet for a couple of reasons. First, the data sec-tion of the packet is most likely to be fragmented since it’s at the end of the packet and is the largest section. Depending on the rules in your policy, this data may need to be inspected in its entirety to make a control decision. Second, the second and subsequent fragments only contain the remainder of the original packet (usually the data portion), not another copy of the full packet headers, which may also be needed to make the control decision. Without reassembling the packet, it may not be possible to apply it to the security policy since information about source and destination ports would be missing.To get around this, FireWall-1 will completely reassemble a packet before applying it to the Security Policy.To prevent a Denial of Service (DOS) attack caused by a high volume of incomplete packet fragments, a timer is used when the first fragment arrives. If the timer expires before the complete packet is reassembled, the fragments are discarded. Once a packet is reassembled and a control decision is made to pass the packet on, the original fragments are released in the same fragmented condition and order as they arrived in, to the destination.

Q:Can I get a copy of VPN-1/Firewall-1 for evaluation?


Installing and

Configuring VPN-1/

FireWall-1 Next


Solutions in this chapter:

Before You Begin

Installing Check Point VPN-1/FireWall-1 NG

on Windows

Uninstalling Check Point VPN-1/FireWall-1

NG on Windows

Installing Check Point VPN-1/FireWall-1 NG

on Solaris

Uninstalling Check Point VPN-1/FireWall-1

NG on Solaris

Installing Check Point VPN-1/FireWall-1 NG

on Nokia

Chapter 2


; Summary

; Solutions Fast Track


Sun Solaris 7 (32-bit Sun Solaris SPARC mode only)*

Sun Solaris 8 (32- or 64-bit mode)**

RedHat Linux 6.2, 7.0 and 7.2

Disk Space 40 MB 40 MB

CPU 300+ MHz No minimum specified

Memory 128 MB 32 MB

Network Interfaces ATM, Ethernet, Fast Any supported by the Ethernet, Gigabit operating system. Ethernet, FDDI, Token Ring


* You must have patch 106327 on Solaris 2.7

** You must have patches 108434 and 108435 on Solaris 2.8 Solaris patches can be obtained from

Table 2.1Continued

System Primary Management & GUI Clients (Policy Requirement Enforcement Module Editor, Log Viewer, etc)

Solaris 32-bit vs. 64-bit

To check whether your Solaris machine is in 32- or 64-bit mode, use the following commands:

isainfo –b isainfo –vk

To change from 64- to 32-bit mode in Solaris 2.7 or 2.8, perform the following actions:

1. Enter EEPROM mode using the STOP-A keyboard combo. 2. Type setenv boot-file kernel/unix and press <RETURN>.

Tools & Traps…


Performance of your firewall will rely on the hardware you choose. It is highly recommended that you increase your hardware requirements above the minimum listed in Table 2.1 in real-world environments. Keep in mind that your management station will be handling logs from each module it controls, so you will want to ensure that you have adequate disk space, memory, and CPU to handle these connections. Before you start your installation, make sure that you complete the items listed below:

Get your licenses.

Secure the Host.

Configure routing and test network interface cards.

Enable IP forwarding.

Configure DNS.

Prepare for Check Point Installation and Configuration Screens.

Obtaining Licenses

Check Point licenses have changed (again) with the Next Generation release. In order to obtain a license, you can either get them through your Check Point Value Added Reseller (VAR) or use the Check Point User Center to license your products at (see Figure 2.1).You have two options when it comes to licensing your firewall modules.You can either have them tied to their individual IP addresses (external interface recommended) as was the way with previous versions, or you can tie them all to the management station’s IP address.These licenses are called either local or central respectively. All licenses are maintained on the management console, and administrators can add or remove licenses using the SecureUpdate management tool.

3. Reboot.

4. If the machine has difficulty booting, user the “set-defaults” command to return to 64-bit mode.

To change from 32- to 64-bit mode, do the following:


The management module itself must have a local license based on its own IP address.The nice thing about using central licenses for the enforcement modules is that you can change their IP addresses without needing to replace the license, and you can easily move a license from one module to another.

It is always best to obtain your licenses before you install the firewall software. The program will ask you for your license details during the install procedure. If you cannot obtain your permanent license prior to the install, then you should ask for an evaluation license. Check Point’s eval licenses have full functionality for all VPN-1/FireWall-1 features.They are usually valid for one month, and the product is not crippled in any way while running on eval.

Securing the Host

With any firewall installation it is important to consider the security of the host computer on which you are installing the firewall software.There are some guidelines available on the Internet for securing the various operating systems. Below is a list of URLs to some good guides:









Lance Spitzner also has several great papers at ~lspitz/, which you might want to check out.

You should start out by installing the base operating system without any bells or whistles, and then apply any necessary OS patches.You should not install any additional Internet servers on your firewall host either. For example, you do not want to have IIS or an FTP server running on your firewall since these services could be vulnerable to attack.

Disabling Services

Probably the most important step in any of these guides is the process of dis-abling services on the firewall host. Almost any OS installation enables various services out-of-the-box, which are not needed for the operation of a firewall. Your firewall should have as few services running as possible. If you are installing on a Windows machine, you should disable NETBEUI or any other non-IP pro-tocols.The kernel processes of the NG product do not inspect traffic on non-IP protocols, so your NETBEUI and IPX traffic would not be protected, therefore it should not be installed on the firewall.

Nokia Services Disabled

By default, the Nokia hardware platform comes with a hardened FreeBSD operating system out-of-the-box. There is nothing that needs to be done to secure a Nokia platform prior to installing the NG product when starting with a default install.




name dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/in.tnamed



# Shell, login, exec, comsat and talk are BSD protocols.


shell stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/in.rshd in.rshd

login stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/in.rlogind


exec stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/in.rexecd


comsat dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/in.comsat


talk dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/in.talkd in.talkd

To disable services in this file, simply edit it, and insert a pound sign or hash mark in front of the line that you wish to disable.When completed, send a HUP signal to the inetd process running on the system as shown in Illustration 2.2.

Illustration 2.2SIGHUP to inetd Process

# ps -ef | grep inet

root 229 1 0 Nov 06 ? 0:00 /usr/sbin/inetd -s

# kill -HUP 229

You can verify that the processes are no longer listening on the system by running the netstat –ancommand. Because there are fewer services running on

the firewall, the system is more secure.You can think of each of those listening ports as holes into your operating system. Although the firewall software will pro-tect the operating system from direct attack if you have the security policy

defined properly, it is better to stay on the safe side and reduce the number of possible ingresses.


Routing and Network Interfaces

I recommend that before you install the Check Point product, first configure and test the networks that the firewall will be communicating on.When you install VPN-1/FireWall-1, the product binds to the interface adapters, and even begins configuring the firewall at this early stage. Regardless of the platform you are installing on, I recommend that you configure the first interface on your firewall as the external interface, and that this IP address resolves to the name of the host computer in the hosts files. On Windows systems, that means the external IP address of the enforcement firewall should go on the network interface that is displayed first in the interface pull-down list under the IP Address tab of the Microsoft TCP/IP Properties window. If this is not defined properly, then several problems may occur with SIC and VPN configurations.

Prior to installation, configure your firewall interfaces with the correct IP addresses and subnet masks. See the Netmask Cheat Sheet available in Appendix A for a quick method of discerning subnet boundaries. Ideally you can plug your system into a test network so that you are not putting your unprotected system on the live network before installing the firewall software. It is always best to install a firewall in an isolated environment so that it cannot be compromised before it has been protected.You will want to test routing and IP forwarding first. Check Point VPN-1/FireWall-1 NG will control IP forwarding once it is

installed, but you must first enable it in the OS and test that your network adapters and routing is functioning properly. Just imagine if you didn’t perform this test before installing the software, and then found that you had a faulty Network Interface Card (NIC). It would have saved you a lot of blood, sweat, and tears if you had determined this first.

Windows Default Gateway

When you are configuring your interfaces on a Windows system, be sure that you only configure one interface with a gateway. This is a common mistake since each interface gives you the option of filling in a gateway, but you should never have more than one default gateway configured on your firewall.


Next, make sure you understand the WAN connections that will be coming into your firewall, and configure routing accordingly.You may decide to set up a dynamic routing protocol on your firewall to maintain its routing table, or you may decide that static routes are the way to go. If you add a route on a Windows system, then you should provide the –p switch so that the route will still be there after a reboot.This switch permanently adds the route into the system registry. For example, the following command will route the network to the next hop router of on a WinNT system:

route add –p mask

In Solaris, you need to set up your route statements in a file that will be run at startup. I typically use the /etc/rc2.d directory.The file name will need to begin with a capital S for the system to run it (e.g. S99local), and you should set the file modes to allow execution.The same route command above can be written in Solaris as follows:

route add -netmask

If your firewall will be on the boarder of your network, connecting your LANs and WANs to the Internet, then you will need to ensure that default routes are configured throughout on all your workstations and routers so that they are routed to the next hop closest to the Internet. It may prove helpful if you create a network diagram that shows how your network looks prior to having a firewall, and another to show the network after the firewall is in place.This will help you to visualize what connections will be changing so that you can prepare accordingly.

Enabling IP Forwarding

To test your routing and interfaces you must enable IP forwarding in your OS.To do this on WinNT, you go to your TCP/IP properties window and select

Enable IP Forwardingfrom the Routing tab as shown in Figure 2.2.To enable IP forwarding in Win2k, you must edit the registry as outlined in Microsoft’s KB article Q230082 as follows:

1. Open the registry by running “regedt32.exe.”

2. Find the following registry key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters

3. Add the following value to this key:


Value type: REG_DWORD

Value Data: 1

In Solaris, IP forwarding is usually enabled by default.You can switch it off and on with the following command: ndd -set /dev/ip ip_forwarding 1.The set-tings for this command are as follows:

0 disables IP forwarding

1 enables IP forwarding

Configuring DNS

Since it is suggested to install your firewall while it is not plugged into any untrusted networks, it will be best to start with DNS disabled on the firewall. If you have DNS enabled and the system cannot reach its name servers, then the system may become sluggish and system performance will be affected. It is important that once you do configure DNS that you configure it properly.The firewall should be able to resolve its own external IP address to the name of the host computer.This could be set up in advance by creating an A record in your domain for the firewall, and you should enter it into the firewall’s hosts file. In


The default folder installation in Windows is c:\winnt\fw1\ng and Check Point installs files on Solaris in /opt and /var/opt. Make sure that you have parti-tioned your disk properly to accept the default installation folder, or be prepared to give a custom location for the installation (Windows only). If you don’t accept the defaults, you should verify that the install program configures the firewall’s environment variables properly.

The VPN-1/FireWall-1 component options are as follows:

Enterprise Primary Management To install a Management server

only, which will be acting in a primary capacity.

Enterprise Secondary Management To install a Management server

only, which will be acting in a backup capacity.

FireWall-1 Environment Variables

You will see the use of the $FWDIR environment variable throughout this book. It is the nature of an environment variable to contain some value (similar to a variable used to represent a number in algebra). The $FWDIR variable contains the value of your firewall’s installation direc-tory, and it is configured upon install. If you install on Windows, this variable is set to c:\winnt\fw1\ng. In Solaris the $FWDIR environment variable is set to /opt/CPfw1-50.

There is also a $CPDIR variable, which contains the installation directory of the CPShared (SVN) components. In Windows, the $CPDIR variable is set to C:\Program Files\CheckPoint\CPShared\5.0, and in Solaris it is set to /opt/CPshared/5.0.

So, whenever you see these terms used, $FWDIR or $CPDIR, then just substitute the appropriate directory for your firewall installation in their place. On a Unix system, you can type “echo $FWDIR” to see the value of the variable, or type “set” to see a list of all environment vari-ables and their associated values. To be technically accurate, we should probably use %FWDIR% when talking about the Windows environment, but we are going to stick to the Unix method of describing variables in this book.


Enforcement Module & Primary Management (Default) To

install both a Primary Management Module and VPN-1/FireWall-1 Enforcement Module.

Enforcement Module To install an Enforcement Module only, the

management server will be installed on a separate host.

The Management Client options are as follows:

Policy Editor Used to connect to your management server to

con-figure your Rule Base, Network Address Translation, FloodGate-1 QoS policy, and SecureClient Desktop Security Policies.

Log Viewer Used to view your VPN-1/FireWall-1 security logs,

accounting logs, and audit logs on the management server.

System Status Used to view the status of your remote enforcement

points connected to your management server.

SecureClient Packaging Tool Used to create custom packages for

SecuRemote/SecureClient mobile users.

Traffic Monitoring Used to monitor an interface, QoS rule, or virtual

link in real time.The display is in the form of a line or bar graph.

SecureUpdate Used for managing licenses and doing remote software

updates of your remote enforcement points connected to your manage-ment server.

Reporting Tool Used to generate reports with graphs and pie charts

from the data in the VPN-1/FireWall-1 logs.

After the Check Point installation wizard copies files, it will run through a number of configuration screens.These will be identical if you are installing a Management Module with or without an Enforcement Module with the excep-tion of the SNMP opexcep-tion in Solaris, which is only configured if you are installing an Enforcement module.The screens that you can prepare for in advance are the following:

Licenses You should read the section on Licenses above, if you need

help getting licenses.You will fill in the following fields:

Host/IP Address The IP address associated with this license or



SKU/Features These are the features that this license will enable

(e.g. Management or 3DES)

String/Signature Key The license string provided by Check Point

to validate the license.This key will be unique for each license and IP Address.

Administrators You will need to configure at least one administrator

during install. See below for more on adding Administrators.

Administrator Name Choose a login name for your admin.This

field is case sensitive.

Password Choose a good alphanumeric password. It must be at

least four characters long.

Confirm Password Repeat the same password entered above.

GUI Clients These are the IP addresses of the Management Clients

that your administrators will use when connecting to this Management Module.You may need to configure static IP addresses for your admins. You may add as many GUI clients as you’d like or you may enter none; it’s up to you. See below for your GUI Client options.

SNMP extension (Unix only) If you wish to utilize external

net-work management tools such as HP OpenView, then you can install the Check Point FireWall-1 SNMP daemon.With the daemon installed and activated, you will be able to query the firewall status.You could use a network management tool to monitor the firewall’s health and generate alerts based on certain criteria.

Group Permissions (Unix only) If you choose to set group






Around mid-February 2002 a CERT Advisory was posted warning about various vulnerabilities that have been found and exploited in many SNMP implementations. These vulnerabilities could lead to Denial of Service attacks or unauthorized access. Please ensure that you have applied any applicable security patches to your systems prior to accepting SNMP through your firewall. For more information, and links to patches visit the CERT Web site: Nokia IPSO 3.4.2 and above already have the SNMP fix integrated.


It is best to use individual admin usernames instead of a generic username like fwadmin.The problem with using a generic login ID is that you cannot properly audit the activities of the firewall administrators. It may be important for you to know who installed the last security policy when you are troubleshooting a problem.This becomes more and more important when there are several people administering a firewall system.The fields that you need to fill in follow:

Administrator Name Choose a login name for your admin.This field

is case sensitive.

Password Choose a good alphanumeric password. It must be at least

four characters long.



If you are installing just an Enforcement Module, then you will not have any administrators or GUI clients to configure.

There is a section labeled Permissions that enables you to define the access level you will require on an individual basis for each administrator. If you select


able to update some things and not others.To do this, select Customized and configure each of these options:

SecureUpdate This GUI tool enables you to manage licenses and

update remote modules.

Objects Database This tool is used to create new objects to be used

in the Security Policy Rule Bases. Objects will be covered in the next chapter.

Check Point Users Database This tool is used to manage users for

firewall authentication purposes.

LDAP Users Database This tool is used to manage LDAP users.

Security Policy This tool is used to create and manage Rule Bases

using the Policy Editor GUI.

Monitoring This option enables access to the Log Viewer, System

Status, and Traffic Monitoring GUI clients.

GUI Clients

When you enter GUI Clients, you type their hostname or IP address into the Remote hostname: field, and then add them to the list of clients allowed to con-nect to your Management Module.You are allowed to use wildcards as follows:

Any If you type in the word “Any,” this will allow anyone to connect

without restriction (not recommended).

Asterisks You may use asterisks in the hostname, e.g. 10.10.20.* means

any host in the network, or * means any hostname within the domain.

Ranges You may use a dash (-) to represent a range of IP addresses, e.g. means the 5 hosts including and and every one in between.

DNS or WINS resolvable hostnames


CD, then you may start it manually from the CD’s wrappers\windows folder by running demo32.exe. From this screen you may choose to read the important information regarding evaluation licenses, purchased prod-ucts, and the contents of the CD.

2. If you are ready to continue the installation, then select Next to start the Installation Wizard.You will be presented with the License Agreement as illustrated in Figure 2.4.

Figure 2.3Welcome Screen


instal-■ VPN-1 SecureClient Client Encryption software with

Desktop Security (personal firewall) features.

Session Authentication Agent This agent is installed on

desktop computers where your users will need to authenticate with Session Authentication.

5. Make sure that Server/Gateway Components is selected, and click on Next.



During the installation process, use the Back button at any time to move to the previous screen, use the Next button to advance to the next screen, use the Exit option to exit at any time, and use the elevator but-tons along the side of the page to scroll up and down.

6. The next screen that comes up is the Server/Gateway Components (see Figure 2.6), which provides you with the various options for which individual Check Point components you wish to install.We will select

VPN-1 & FireWall-1and Management Clients to install the Management and Enforcement modules as well as the Graphical User


Interface. If you place your mouse pointer over each item, you will see a detailed description displayed on the right-hand side.



If you wish to install the Management Module only, your selections here will be the same. If you wish to install the Enforcement Module only, then you will only select VPN-1 & FireWall-1.

7. Click on Next when you are ready to begin the install process.

8. The Check Point Installation Wizard will start the InstallShield Wizard program to begin the installation based on the options you’ve chosen thus far. Figure 2.7 illustrates the screen that you should see next. Select

Nextwhen you are ready to continue.The InstallShield Wizard will start installing the Check Point SVN Foundation.You should note that this is the first piece that is always installed on a Next Generation system. It will also be the last piece if you uninstall. A progress window will pop up as shown in Figure 2.8.You should see the window displayed in Figure 2.9 when the SVN installation is complete.


Figure 2.7Selected Products


9. Immediately after this screen, another window will pop up asking you for the specific components of VPN-1/FireWall-1 that you wish to install.This screen listing your options is displayed in Figure 2.10.You will be given the options shown below. Select Enforcement Module

& Primary Managementas shown in Figure 2.10, and click Next.

Enterprise Primary Management To install a Management

server only that will be acting in a primary capacity.

Enterprise Secondary Management To install a Management

server only that will be acting in a backup capacity.

Enforcement Module & Primary Management (Default) To

install both a Primary Management server and VPN-1/FireWall-1 Enforcement Module.

Enforcement Module To install an Enforcement Module only, the

Management server will be installed on separate hardware.




If you wish to install the Management Module only, select Enterprise Primary Management and then click on Next. If you wish to install the Enforcement Module only, then select Enforcement Module and click on Next.

10. The next screen (Figure 2.11) gives you the option of installing with or without backward compatibility. If you choose to install without backward compatibility, then you will only be able to manage NG enforcement modules, and you will not be able to manage VPN-1/FireWall-1 v4.0 nor v4.1 firewalls from this management station. Choosing to install with backward compatibility support will enable you to manage these older versions of the product. Since we will not be managing any older versions of the product with this management server, choose the default option to

Install without backward compatibility, and then click on Next.


11. Next, Check Point will ask you where you want to install the product files.The default folder location in Windows is c:\winnt\fw1\ng. If you wish to install to a different folder, then choose Browse; otherwise, select Next to accept the default location and continue.Whatever value you choose for the firewall’s installation directory will be the value of the $FWDIR environment variable, which will be used throughout this book when referencing this directory.This is the last screen before VPN-1/FireWall-1 files are copied to your hard drive (Figure 2.12). Now the system copies files and installs the software.You should see a screen sim-ilar to the one in Figure 2.13 as the install program shows you its

progress.You may click on the Cancel button on the bottom right-hand side of this screen if you wish to stop the installation at this point.

12. Once the system is finished copying files, you may see some messages pop up such as “Installing FireWall-1 kernel,” “Installing FireWall-1 Service,” “Setting Permissions” (NTFS only), and “Register product add-ons….”These windows appear whenever you are installing an

Enforcement Module.The installation wizard will then give you a final popup window from VPN-1/FireWall-1 explaining that the installation will complete upon reboot as shown in Figure 2.14. Click on OK.


Figure 2.12Choose Destination Location

Figure 2.13Copying Files


13. The system will not reboot after you select OK. Instead, it will begin installing the Check Point Management Clients.You will see a window like the one in Figure 2.15 asking if you wish to install the Management Clients in the default folder C:\Program Files\CheckPoint\Management Clients.You can either accept the default or click on “Browse…” to choose a new target for the files. Accept the default folder location and click on Next to continue.

14. Now you will need to choose which of the Management Clients you want to install. Figure 2.16 displays the window you will see with your available options, which are as follows:

Policy Editor Used to configure your Rule Base, Network Address

Translation, FloodGate-1 QoS policy, and SecureClient Desktop Security Policies.

Log Viewer Used to view your VPN-1/FireWall-1 security logs,

accounting logs, and audit logs.

System Status Used to view the status of your remote

enforce-ment points connected to your manageenforce-ment server.


SecureClient Packaging Tool Used to create custom packages for

SecuRemote/SecureClient mobile users.

Traffic Monitoring Used to monitor an interface, QoS rule, or

virtual link in real time.The display is in the form of a line or bar graph.

SecureUpdate Used for managing licenses and doing remote

soft-ware updates of your remote enforcement points connected to your management server.

Reporting Tool Used to generate reports with graphs and pie

charts from the data in the VPN-1/FireWall-1 logs.

Accept the default values, Policy Editor, Log Viewer, System Status, and SecureUpdate, and click on Next.This is the last screen before the Check Point installation wizard begins copying files to your system (Figure 2.17).

15. When the system is done copying files, the installation process is nearly complete.You can now click on any of the icons in the Check Point Management Clients folder.You can also open the Management Clients by going to Start | Programs | Check Point Management

Clients. Click on OK to finish the installation (Figure 2.18) and begin the configuration process.


Configuring Check Point

VPN-1/FireWall-1 NG on Windows

Once the system is done copying files during the install procedure, it will begin to go through the configuration screens. If you read the first section of this chapter, then you should be prepared to configure the firewall. After this initial configuration, you can always come back to any of these screens by opening the

Check Point Configuration NGwindow via Start | Programs | Check

Point Management Clients | Check Point Configuration NG. The initial configuration will take you through the following screens:



GUI Clients

Certificate Authority Configuration

Figure 2.17Management Clients Copying Files



You should have obtained all of your licenses before you get to this step. If you didn’t, don’t worry.There is even a link to the Check Point User Center, where you can get your licenses, right in the Licenses window. If you need help with your license, read the first part of this chapter titled “Before you Begin.” If you don’t have any permanent licenses to install at this time, you can always request an evaluation license from either Check Point or your Check Point reseller.

Since you have installed a Primary Management Module, you should be installing a local license that was registered with the local Management station’s IP address. Follow this step-by-step procedure for adding your license(s).

1. Click on Add as shown in the Licenses configuration window in Figure 2.19.

2. Once you click on Add, you will see a window pop-up like the one illustrated in Figure 2.20. In this window you can either select Paste

License or enter the license details into the appropriate fields.The figure below shows the following license installed: cplic putlic eval 01Mar2002 aoMJFd63k-pLdmKQMwZ-aELBqjeVX-pJxZJJCAy


CPMP-EVAL-1-3DES-NG CK-CP. In addition you will see the fol-lowing fields:

IP Address The IP address associated with this license or “eval.”

Expiration Date The date that the license expires, which may be


SKU/Features These are the features that this license will enable

(e.g. Management or 3DES).

Signature Key The license string provided by Check Point to

vali-date the license.This key will be unique for each license and IP Address.

Enter your license details in the Add License window, and click on

Calculateto verify that the information you entered is correct. Match the Validation Code that you receive in this cell to the Validation Code on the license obtained from the Check Point User Center.You can also copy the entire ‘cplic putlic’ command into your clipboard, and then click the Paste License button at the top of the screen to fill in all the fields. Click OK to continue, and if you entered everything correctly you should see the license entered into the main Licenses window (Figure 2.21).




The license configuration window will be displayed whether you are installing just the Management or the Enforcement Module in a dis-tributed install as well.

3. Click on Next to continue.The next screen deals with the Check Point configuration of the Management module.

Figure 2.21License Added Successfully

Fetching Licenses

If you have saved your license(s) to a file with a .lic extension (e.g. licenses.lic), then you could alternatively use the “Fetch from File…” button that would enable you to browse your file system for the file. Once you’ve located the *.lic file, select Open, and the license details will be imported into the Licenses configuration window.



After installing your licenses, you will be presented with another configuration window (see Figure 2.22) in which you need to configure your firewall adminis-trators.You will need to define at least one administrator during this time.You can always come back to this window later to add, edit, or delete your admins.

1. The first step to configuring your administrators is to click on Add…

2. You will be presented with another window similar to the one in Figure 2.23 where you can define the attributes for one administrator. It is best to use individual admin usernames instead of a generic username like fwadmin.The problem with using a generic login ID is that you cannot properly audit the activities of the firewall administrators. It may be important for you to know who installed the last security policy when you are troubleshooting a problem.This becomes more and more important when there are several people administering a firewall system. The fields that you need to fill in are listed below. Fill in the required fields in the Add Administrator Window and select Read/Write All for the permissions. Click on OK to finish adding the administrator.

Administrator Name Choose a login name for your admin.This

field is case sensitive.


Password Choose a good alphanumeric password. It must be at

least four characters long and is also case sensitive.

Confirm Password Repeat the same password entered above.

The section labeled Permissions enables you to define the access level that you will require on an individual basis for each administrator. If you select Read/Write All or Read Only All, then your admin will have access to all the available GUI client features with the ability to either make changes and updates or view the configuration and logs (perhaps for troubleshooting purposes) respectively.You may also choose to customize their access so that they may be able to update some things and not others.To do this, select Customized and configure each of these options:

SecureUpdate This GUI tool enables you to manage licenses and

update remote modules.

Objects Database This tool is used to create new objects to be

used in the Security Policy. Objects will be covered in the next chapter.


Check Point Users Database This tool is used to manage users

for firewall authentication purposes.

LDAP Users Database This tool is used to manage LDAP users.

Security Policy This tool is used to create and manage a rule base

using the Policy Editor GUI.

Monitoring This option enables access to the Log Viewer, System

Status, and Traffic Monitoring GUI clients.

3. When you finish adding your administrator, you will be brought back to the main Administrators configuration window.Your administrator should now be listed in the Administrator’s Permissions window. From here you may choose to Add…, Edit…, or Delete administrators from this list (see Figure 2.24).When you are done adding your adminis-trators, click on Next to continue with the configuration of the Check Point Management Module.

GUI Clients

The Graphical User Interface (GUI) Clients are the Management Clients we installed.These clients could also be installed on as many desktops as you wish, but before they can connect to the management server, you need to enter their IP addresses into the GUI Clients configuration window shown in Figure 2.25.


Figure 1.1 NG Security Dashboard
Figure 1 1 NG Security Dashboard. View in document p.33
Figure 1.2 Floodgate-1 Policy
Figure 1 2 Floodgate 1 Policy. View in document p.42
Figure 1.3 Distributed Client/Server Architecture
Figure 1 3 Distributed Client Server Architecture . View in document p.46
Figure 1.4 SecureUpdate Products Tab
Figure 1 4 SecureUpdate Products Tab. View in document p.49
Figure 1.5 Security Dashboard
Figure 1 5 Security Dashboard. View in document p.52
Figure 1.6 Visual Policy Editor Showing Rule
Figure 1 6 Visual Policy Editor Showing Rule. View in document p.55
Figure 1.7 FireWall-1 Data Flow and Inspection Engine detail
Figure 1 7 FireWall 1 Data Flow and Inspection Engine detail. View in document p.60
Figure 2.1 Check Point’s User Center
Figure 2 1 Check Point s User Center. View in document p.74
Figure 2.6 Server/Gateway Components
Figure 2 6 Server Gateway Components. View in document p.93
Figure 2.8 Progress Window
Figure 2 8 Progress Window. View in document p.94
Figure 2.9 VPN-1 & FireWall-1 Installation
Figure 2 9 VPN 1 FireWall 1 Installation. View in document p.95
Figure 2.10 VPN-1 & FireWall-1 Product Specification
Figure 2 10 VPN 1 FireWall 1 Product Speci cation. View in document p.96
Figure 2.15 Management Client Location
Figure 2 15 Management Client Location. View in document p.99
Figure 2.18 Setup Complete
Figure 2 18 Setup Complete. View in document p.101
Figure 2.19 Licenses
Figure 2 19 Licenses. View in document p.102
Figure 2.21 License Added Successfully
Figure 2 21 License Added Successfully. View in document p.104
Figure 2.22 Configuring Administrators
Figure 2 22 Con guring Administrators. View in document p.105
Figure 2.23 Adding an Administrator
Figure 2 23 Adding an Administrator. View in document p.106
Figure 2.24 Administrators
Figure 2 24 Administrators. View in document p.107
Figure 2.25 GUI Clients
Figure 2 25 GUI Clients. View in document p.108
Figure 2.26 GUI Clients
Figure 2 26 GUI Clients. View in document p.109
Figure 2.32 Reboot Computer
Figure 2 32 Reboot Computer. View in document p.113
Figure 2.31 NG Configuration Complete
Figure 2 31 NG Con guration Complete. View in document p.113
Figure 2.33 Check Point Configuration Tool
Figure 2 33 Check Point Con guration Tool. View in document p.115
Figure 2.35 Secure Internal Communication
Figure 2 35 Secure Internal Communication. View in document p.116
Figure 2.34 Enforcement Module Configuration Tool
Figure 2 34 Enforcement Module Con guration Tool. View in document p.116
Figure 2.36 High Availability
Figure 2 36 High Availability. View in document p.117
Figure 2.41 Removing VPN-1/FireWall-1 Files
Figure 2 41 Removing VPN 1 FireWall 1 Files. View in document p.120
Figure 2.44 SVN Foundation Maintenance Complete
Figure 2 44 SVN Foundation Maintenance Complete. View in document p.122
Figure 2.45 Add/Remove Management Clients NG
Figure 2 45 Add Remove Management Clients NG. View in document p.123



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