Ann. soc. entomol. Fr. (n.s.), 2011, 47 (1 2) : 78-88

11 

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New data on the

Merodon

Meigen 1803 fauna (Diptera:

Syrphidae) of Turkey including description of a new species

and changes in the nomenclatural status of several taxa

Abstract. The Old World syrphid genus Merodon Meigen 1803 is highly species-diverse and has a signifi cant number of endemic species in the circum-Mediterranean area. The present study reports on taxonomic changes resulting from the examination of adult Merodon specimens collected in 15 Turkish provinces during the period 1992 to 2002, and provides new faunistic data. Merodon ilgazense n. sp. is described. Four species of Merodon new to Turkey are recorded: M. armipes Rondani 1843, M. auronites Hurkmans 1993, M. bessarabicus Paramonov 1924 and M. chalybeatus Sack 1913. Lectotypes are designated for two taxa: M. chalybeatus Sack 1913 and M. clunipes Sack 1913. Merodon italicus Rondani 1845 rev. stat. is reinstated as a valid species. Following a detailed study of the type material in different entomological collections, the status of 10 taxa is revised and fi ve new synonymies are proposed: M. albonigrum Vuji Radenkovi & Šimi 1996 n. syn. (= junior synonym of M. chalybeatus Sack 1913); M. alexeji Paramonov 1925 n. syn. (= junior synonym of M. serrulatus Wiedemann in Meigen 1822); M. aureotibia Hurkmans 1993 n. syn. (= junior synonym of M. vandergooti Hurkmans 1993); M. kaloceros Hurkmans 1993 n. syn. (= junior synonym of M. erivanicus Paramonov 1925); M. longicornis Sack 1913 n. syn. (= junior synonym of M. italicus Rondani 1845).

Résumé. Nouvelles données pour la faune de Merodon Meigen 1803 (Diptera : Syrphidae) de la Turquie, description d’une nouvelle espèce et changements du status nomenclatural de quelques taxons. Le genre de Syrphidae du Vieux Monde Merodon Meigen 1803 est très diversifi é avec un grand nombre d’espèces endémiques dans la région Méditerranéenne. La présente étude traite des changements taxonomiques qui résultent de l’examen de spécimens collectés dans 15 provinces turques durant la période 1992-2002 ainsi que de nouvelles données faunistiques. Une nouvelle espèce est décrite : Merodon ilgazense sp. n. Quatre espèces sont nouvelles pour la Turquie : M. armipes Rondani 1843, M. auronites Hurkmans 1993, M. bessarabicus Paramonov 1924 et M. chalybeatus Sack 1913. Les lectotypes sont désignés pour deux taxons : M. chalybeatus Sack 1913 et M. clunipes Sack 1913. M. italicus Rondani 1845 rev. stat. est réinstallée comme espèce valide. Sur la base de d’une étude détaillée du matériel typique de plusieurs collections entomologiques, le status de 10 taxons est révisé et cinq nouvelles synonymies sont proposées : M. albonigrum Vuji Radenkovi & Šimi 1996 n. syn. (= M. chalybeatus Sack 1913); M. alexeji Paramonov 1925 n. syn. (= M. serrulatus Wiedemann in Meigen 1822); M. aureotibia Hurkmans 1993 n. syn. (= M. vandergooti Hurkmans 1993); M. kaloceros Hurkmans 1993 n. syn. (= M. erivanicus Paramonov 1925); M. longicornis Sack 1913 n. syn. (= M. italicus Rondani 1845).

Keywords: Hoverfl ies, new species, fi rst records, new synonyms, lectotypes.

Ante Vuji

(1)

, Mª Ángeles Marcos-García

(2)

, Süleyman Sarıbıyık

(3)

& Antonio Ricarte

(2)

(1) Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia (2) University of Alicante, Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad (CIBIO), carretera de San Vicente s/n, 03690 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain (3) Kastamonu University Education Faculty, 37200 Kastamonu, Turkey

E-mail: ante.vujic@dbe.uns.ac.rs, arcos@ua.es, ricarte24@gmail.com, suleyman4606@gmail.com

Accepté le 31 mai 2010

T

he Mediterranean Basin is one of the 25 world

biodiversity hotspots, partially defi ned by the

ra-tio of endemic plant species occurring in the hotspot

area to world plant species (Myers

et al.

2000). In the

Mediterranean Basin, 13000 of about 25000 plant

spe-cies are endemic (Myers

et al.

2000). Th

e high number

of endemic plants suggests interesting perspectives for

studies on phytophagous insects, mainly those whose

life cycles depends closely on specifi c groups of plants.

Hoverfl ies of the genus

Merodon

Meigen 1803,

commonly known as “

Narcissus

bulb fl ies”, are

distributed throughout the Palaearctic and Afrotropical

regions.

Merodon

is the second largest genus of

European Syrphidae (105 species) and is one of the

most widespread in the Mediterranean Basin (Speight

2008). A high percentage of the species occurs on the

steppes of Eastern Europe and beyond (Speight 2008).

Within the Palaearctic region, Turkey is a geographical

link between three continents and has the highest

number of

Merodon

species and endemicity level in the

Mediterranean Basin. Turkey and the Iberian Peninsula

are the main centres of

Merodon

biodiversity

(Marcos-García

et al.

2007).

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Figures 1–2

Maps showing the sampling sites where Merodon specimens were collected in 15 Turkish provinces from 1992 to 2002. 1, boundaries of the sampled provinces, the sampling site coded as 55 in VN and geographic context of Turkey. 2, enlarged portion of the fi g. 1, showing the rest of sampling sites (see appendix). Abbreviations - AN: Ankara, AT: Antalya, BL: Bolu, BR: Burdur, CA: Çankırı, IS: Isparta, KM: Kahramanmaraş, KA: Karabük, KS: Kastamonu, KY: Kayseri, KN: Konya, MG: Muğla, VN: Van, YZ: Yozgat, ZN: Zonguldak.

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Adults of

Merodon

feed on pollen and nectar

and visit the fl owers of a wide range of plant species

(Marcos-García

et al.

2007), especially those with

easily accessible pollen.

Merodon

larvae are also

phytophagous and feed exclusively on bulbs or rhizomes

of monocotyledonous geophytes (Hurkmans 1993).

Geophytes are well represented in the Mediterranean

Basin, especially in Turkey, where they comprise 15%

of the total fl ora (Çelik

et al.

2004). Relationships

between some

Merodon

species and their host plants

can be highly specifi c (Ricarte

et al.

2008). Further

studies on insect-plant relationships are needed to gain

a better understanding of the evolutionary processes

involving both

Merodon

hoverfl ies and geophytes, and

may also help to explain their current geographical

distributions. But such bio-ecological studies require

the taxonomy of the insects involved to be stable.

At present, the taxonomic status and distinguishing

features of many

Merodon

species require clarifi cation,

especially within the highly diverse Turkish fauna.

Th

ere are only two extensive reviews of

Merodon

species: Hurkmans (1993) which covers certain

groups of Palaearctic species, and Marcos-García

et al.

(2007) which revises the

Merodon

fauna of the Iberian

Peninsula. Integrated taxonomic studies of

Merodon

in

the eastern Mediterranean region of Europe are limited

to those of Vujić

et al.

(2007) and Ståhls

et al.

(2009)

dealing with the fauna and molecular taxonomy,

respectively, of the

Merodon

species from the Greek

island of Lesvos. Further studies such these would

solve nomenclatural problems in

Merodon

species and

clarify their taxonomic status.

Studies on the syrphid fauna of Turkey began more

than a century ago (Bischof 1902). Since then, 303

species of Syrphidae from 73 genera have been recorded

from Turkey (Sarıbıyık

in lit.

).

Merodon

is the largest

genus within the Turkish hoverfl y fauna. In Turkey

nearly 60 species of

Merodon

have been recorded by the

following authors: Aktaş & Sarıbıyık (1996), Bischof

(1902), Claussen & Lucas (1988), Hurkmans (1987,

1988, 1993), Hurkmans & Hayat (1997), Hurkmans

et al.

(1997), Özgür (1986), Peck (1988), Sack

(1928-1932), Reemer & Smit (2007), Sarıbıyık (1999, 2001,

2003a, b, c, d, 2009), Sarıbıyık & Hasbenli (2006),

Séguy (1961), Speight (2008), Tuatay

et al.

(1967) and

Tuatay

et al.

(1972).

Th

e main aims of this study are to provide new data

about

Merodon

diversity in this poorly known region

and to solve taxonomic problems partially derived

from the high number of existing synonymies.

Material and methods

Insects were collected over an 11 year period by one of the authors (Süleyman Sarıbıyık) from 64 sites (see annex) in the following 14 provinces of Central Turkey (fi g. 1–2): Ankara, Antalya, Bolu, Burdur, Çankırı, Isparta, Kahramanmaraş, Karabük, Kastamonu, Konya, Kayseri, Muğla, Yozgat, Zonguldak, and one province in Eastern Turkey, Van, close to the western border of Iran (fi g. 1). Random surveying took place during the period 1992–2002. Th e specimens were collected by hand net at various dates from spring to autumn. Sampling sites covered a wide altitudinal range (100–2100 m) (see annex) and habitats where Merodon adults often occur, such as valleys and riverbanks, were selected for survey. Fieldwork was more intensive in mountain areas (only eight sampling sites were located under 500 m; see annex), where the number of species and incidence of endemism are higher (Marcos-García

et al. 2007). Habitat and fl owers visited were recorded, when possible. Th e world distribution for each species is based on Speight (2008), Ricarte & Marcos-García (2008) and on the data recorded during this study.

To study the male terminalia, specimens were fi rst relaxed and their terminalia then extracted by means of a hook-tipped, entomological pin. Terminalia were stored in glycerol, in microvials attached to the same pin as the adult specimen. Th e terms used in the descriptions and drawings follow Th ompson (1999), except those related to male terminalia, which follow Hurkmans (1993) and Doczkal (1996). Drawings were made with an FSA 25 PE drawing tube attached to a binocular microscope. Measurements were made using a micrometer. Th e following abbreviations are used for the museums and entomological collections containing examined material: CEUA = Colección Entomológica Universidad de Alicante, Spain; ECSS = Entomological Collection Süleyman Sarıbıyık, Turkey; MZNH = Museum of Zoology and Natural History “La Specola”, Florence, Italy (Rondani Collection); NHMW = Th e Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria; NS = University of Novi Sad, Department of Biology and Ecology, Serbia; PC = Paramonov collection at Institute of Zoology of the NAS of Ukraine (Kyiv); PMB = Natural History Museum Belgrade, Serbia; ZMHB = Berlin Museum of Natural History, Germany; ZMUA = Faculty of Science – Zoological Museum Amsterdam, Th e Netherlands.

To avoid unnecessary repetitions, the repository of specimens is only mentioned when the material examined does not belong to the ECSS. For each species, the codes of the sampling sites (see annex) are specifi ed between brackets after “Turkey” in order of appearance in material examined, with the purpose of making easier the correlation among material examined, maps (fi gs. 1–2) and appendix.

Results

Merodon aberrans

Egger 1860

Material examined. Turkey (13): 2♂♂ and 1♀, Bolu, Yedigöller, Köknarlı yayla, 1400 m, 20.VII.1995 (1♂ CEUA, 1♀ and 1♂ NS).

Flowers visited. White-fl owered Umbelliferae.

Range. Southern Europe including Mediterranean islands, North Africa (Morocco).

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Merodon alagoezicus

Paramonov 1925

Material examined. Turkey (47): 1♂ and 1♀, Kayseri, Tomarza, Çaybeli köyü, 1400 m, 8.VII.1997 (CEUA).

Flowers visited. Euphorbia spp.

Range. Armenia, Greece and Turkey.

Merodon albifrons

Meigen 1822

Material examined. Turkey (57, 6, 25, 29, 51): 1♂, Zonguldak, Çaycuma, Çiftlik köyü, 140 m, 23.V.1995 (CEUA); 1♀, Ankara, Şerefl ikoçhisar, 970 m, 3.IX.1997; 1♀, Isparta, Yalvaç, Sultan Dağları, 1560 m, 29.V.2001; 1♀, Isparta, Yenişarbademli, Çayır yaylası, 1925 m, 14.VII.1999; 1♀, Konya, Akşehir, 1700 m, 26.VIII.1992 (CEUA).

Flowers visited. Euphorbia spp. and white-fl owered Umbelliferae.

Habitat. Grasslands.

Range: Southern Europe including Mediterranean islands, North Africa, Crimea and Azerbaijan.

Merodon armipes

Rondani 1843

(fi g. 4)

First record for Turkey

Material examined. Turkey (19, 21, 35, 45): 2♂♂, Çankırı, Çerkeş, Yumaklı köyü, 1200 m, 25.V.1995 (1♂ NS); 1♂, Çankırı, Ilgaz Dağları, Kırkpınar yaylası, 1800 m, 5.VII.1996 (CEUA); 2♂♂, Kastamonu, Ağlı, Ese köyü, 1500 m, 18.VI.1995; 2♂♂, Kastamonu, Yukarı İsmailli köyü, 1300 m, 11.VII.1999 (NS).

Flowers visited. Ranunculus sp. and Euphorbia sp.

Habitat. Damp grasslands.

Range. Europe, North Africa, Iran and Israel.

Merodon auronites

Hurkmans 1993

First record for Turkey

Material examined. Turkey (30): 4♂♂ and 1♀, Kahramanmaraş, Andırın, Beyoluğu köyü, 1400 m, 7.VI.2002 (1♂ CEUA, 1♂

and 1♀ NS).

Habitat: Grassland in Pinus sp. forests.

Range: Israel andTurkey.

Merodon avidus

Rossi 1790

Material examined. Turkey (48, 58, 32, 34): 1♂, Kayseri, Yahyalı, Burhaniye köyü, 1414 m, 13.VII.2002; 1♂, Zonguldak, Çaycuma, Saltukova kasabası, 120 m, 23.V.1995; 1♀, Kahramanmaraş, Andırın, Kurucaova mevkisi, 1250 m, 24.VII.1996; 1♂ and 1♀, Karabük, Safranbolu, Ahmetusta geçidi, 1150 m, 24.V.1995.

Flowers visited. Euphorbia spp.

Habitat. Grasslands.

Range. Europe and North Africa.

Merodon bessarabicus

Paramonov 1924

First record for Turkey

Material examined. Turkey (37, 40, 39): 1♀, Kastamonu, Ilgaz Dağları Milli Parkı, 1600 m, 18.IX.1999; 1♀, Kastamonu, Ilgaz Dağları, Tüfekçi köyü civarı, 1700 m, 23.IX.2001; 4♀♀, Kastamonu, Ilgaz Dağları Milli Parkı, Ilgaz geçidi, Doruk mevkisi, 1900 m, 25.IX.2001 (1♀ CEUA).

Flowers visited.Euphorbia spp.

Habitat. Grassland in Abies sp. forests.

Range. Balkan Peninsula, MoldovaandTurkey.

Figures 3–4

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Merodon chalybeatus

Sack 1913

First record for Turkey

Merodon chalybeatus Sack 1913: 448.

Merodon albonigrum Vujić Radenković & Šimić 1996: 72 n. syn.

Merodon chalybeatus was described from two male specimens (Greece: Morea and Saloniki). Only one type specimen (syntype) was found in the Berlin Museum. Lectotype (designated here):

♂ “48149 Morea sept. [northern Peloponesos] Mount Chelmos 2000 m/ 15 viii 1901 leg. Holtz/Merodon chalybeatus Sack type det. Sack” (ZMHB).

Merodon albonigrum: holotype (original designation): ♂

“Serbia, Dubasnica, gorge of the Lazareva reka Reka 700 m, EP-77, 13.viii.1994, lef. Vujić” (PMB). Paratypes: 5 ♂♂ and 3 ♀♀ (Serbia, type locality; Croatia; FRY Macedonia) (Vujić

et al. 1996). Identity: A junior synonym of M. chalybeatus Sack 1913. Th e characters of the type specimens of M.albonigrum

lie within the range of morphological variation of the examined specimens of M. chalybeatus from the Balkan and Anatolian Peninsulas.

Material examined. Turkey (27): 1♂, Isparta, Yalvaç, Sultan Dağları, 1670 m, 9.VIII.2001 (CEUA).

Flowers visited. Ranunculus sp. and Euphorbia sp.

Habitat. Grasslands in Abies sp. forests.

Range. Anatolian and Balkan Peninsulas.

Merodon clunipes

Sack 1913

Merodon clunipes Sack 1913: 444

Merodon clunipes was described from an unspecifi ed number of males and females (Sicilia, Greece and Asia Minor). Hurkmans (1993) mentions the existence of the holotype of this species in ZMHB but we have discovered that there are 26 type specimens (syntypes) distributed in both ZMHB and NHMW. Lectotype of M. clunipes (designated here): ♂ Turkey, Izmir “Smyrna” (ZMHB). Paralectotypes (designated here): ZMBH: 2 ♀♀

same data as on lectotype ; ♂ Italy, Sicily, leg. Mann; ♀ Greece, Corfu, leg. Erber. NHMW: 7 ♂♂ Italy, Sicily; 7 ♂♂ Turkey, Bursa “Brussa”, ♂ Armenia, Amasia; ♂ 5♀♀ Asia Minor.

Material examined. Turkey (28, 4, 5, 10): 1♂, Isparta, Yenişarbademli, 1180 m, 13.VII.2000 (CEUA); 1♀, Ankara, Kızılcahamam, 970 m, 1.VIII.1996 (CEUA); 3♀♀, Ankara, Kızılcahamam, Güvem köyü, 1000 m, 1.VIII.1996; 1♀, Bolu, Gerede, Aktaş mevkisi, 1400 m, 4.VIII.1996.

Flowers visited. White-fl owered Umbelliferae and Euphorbia

spp.

Habitat. Pinus sp. forests.

Range. Southern Europe including the Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Cyprus and the Lebanon.

Merodon distinctus

Palma 1863

Material examined. Turkey (55): 1♂, Van, Gevaş, Artos Dağı, 1850 m, 17.VIII.1997 (CEUA).

Range. Mediterranean Basin, from Spain to Turkey.

Merodon erivanicus

Paramonov 1925

Merodon erivanicus Paramonov 1925: 154 Merodon kaloceros Hurkmans 1993: 187 n. syn

Merodon erivanicus was described from a single specimen. In the Paramonov collection there is one specimen with original name label and corresponding data. We accept this specimen as the holotype: ♀ “Merodon / erivanicus / n. sp. Typus / Pa ra mo-nov d.” “Armenien, Eriwan, 14.VI.1924 [in Cyrillic]” (PC).

Merodon kaloceros: holotype (original designation): ♂ “Turkey, Antalya, H. Coene, J. Lucas & B. van Oorschor / Irmesan Gediği 12 km N of Akseki 1600 m, 24.vii.1981“ (ZMUA). Paratypes: more than 50 specimens (♂♂ and ♀♀) from Turkey, Croatia, Greece and FRY Macedonia (ZMUA, NHMW) (Hurkmans 1993). Identity: A junior synonym of M. erivanicus

Paramonov 1925. Th e holotype of M. erivanicus is conspecifi c with the holotype and most of the paratypes of M. kaloceros.

Material examined. Turkey (11): 2♀♀, Bolu, Gerede, Örencik köyü, 1100 m, 2.VII.1995 (1♀ CEUA).

Flowers visited. Euphorbia spp.

Range. Armenia, Croatia, FRY Macedonia, Greece and Turkey.

Merodon hamifer

Sack 1913

Material examined. Turkey (52, 53, 28, 9, 24): 1♂, Konya, Akşehir, Ilıcak köyü, Sultan Dağları, 1136 m, 27.VI.2001; 1♂, Konya, Akşehir, Sultan Dağları, Cankurtaran köyü, 1516 m, 27.VI.2001 (CEUA); 1♂, Isparta, Yenişarbademli, 1880 m, 14.VII.1999; 1♀, Antalya, Kaş, Gömbe, Sinekçibeli geçidi, Sinekçi köyü, 1500 m, 28.V.2001; 1♀, Isparta, Yalvaç, Bağkonak, Sultan Dağları, 1735 m, 28.VI.2001.

Flowers visited. White-fl owered Umbelliferae.

Habitat. Quercus sp. forests.

Range. Greece and Turkey.

Merodon hikmeti

Hurkmans & Hayat 1997

Material examined. Turkey (16, 2, 23, 36): 1♂, Çankırı, Çerkeş, 1100 m, 21.VII.1997 (CEUA); 2♂♂, Ankara, Çubuk, Karagöl, 1450 m, 19.VII.1998; 1♀, Çankırı, Ilgaz, İndağı, 1000 m, 5.VII.1996 (CEUA); 1♀, Kastamonu, Biden yaylası, Kızılkese deresi, 1200 m, 21.VII.1995.

Flowers visited. Rosaceae spp., Euphorbia sp. and white-fl owered Umbelliferae.

Habitat. Quercus sp. forests.

Range. Turkey.

Merodon ilgazense

n. sp.

New taxon belonging to the

Merodon rufi cornis

spe-cies group: a medium-sized spespe-cies with mid coxa hairy

posteriorly; anterior anepisternum with area below

postpronotum devoid of hairs; only tergite II with clear

reddish lateral spots; hind legs of male with projections

or spikes on trochanter, tibia and ventral margin of

fe-mur; posterior lobe of surstylus curved and straight

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along the dorsal line (

rufi cornis

group, Radenković

et

al.

2002). Th

is group of species has a predominantly

eastern Mediterranean distribution without any

repre-sentatives on the Iberian Peninsula (Marcos-García

et

al.

2007); the

rufi cornis

group of species has the

high-est diversity in the Balkan and Anatolian Peninsulas

(including the Caucasus), each with 7 species

belong-ing to the

rufi cornis

group (Vujić

in lit.

). One species

from this group was recently described from the island

of Lesvos (Vujić

et al.

2007).

Type material. Holotype: Turkey (44): 1♂, Kastamonu, Tosya, Ilgaz Dağları, Ilgaz geçidi, Yayla yeri, 41°07‘N 34°03‘E, 1650 m, 8.VI.1996 (CEUA).

Description. Male. Head: face and frons black, pruinose and with yellow long hairs. Oral margin bare and shining black. Vertical triangle large, isosceles with yellowish hairs except for a tuft of black hairs on the surface of the ocellar triangle. Occiput with yellowish hairs. Eyes with white hairs. Distance between eyes approximately the same as that between the posterior ocelli. Antennae damaged.

Th orax: mesonotum and scutellum dark, shining and covered with red erect hairs. Dorsal and posterior part of the anepisternum, anepimeron and dorso-posterior part of katepisternum with long yellow hairs. Wings greyish with dark veins. Dorsal calypter dark and ventral one pale-yellow with very long red marginal hairs. Halteres with dark pedicel, capitulum yellow with a black dorsal spot. Femora dark except for a pale apical area. Fore and mid femora covered with short adpressed black hairs dorsally and long pale hairs ventrally. Hind femora with long pale hairs except for some black ones on its inner face. Hind femur strongly curved ventrally, with a very long, ventral, digitate process in the middle, which is of approximately the same length as the trochanteral process (fi g. 3). Hind trochanter with very long, sharp processes covered with pale hairs anteriorly (fi g. 3). Tibiae black with a long spur along the apical third. Tarsi with the three basal tarsomeres pale (fi rst and second with a ventral black spot) and the two apical ones black.

Abdomen: dark, oval, and longer than mesonotum. Tergite II with red antero-lateral margin covered with long red hairs. Tergites III and IV black with narrow, white, pruinose, transverse bands interrupted in the middle; posterior margin of tergites pale. Tergites covered with black hairs medially, except for the transverse pruinose bands bearing pale hairs. Sternites dark with long pale hairs.

Male terminalia. Similar to that of other species of the rufi cornis

group (see fi g. 1–4 in Radenković et al. 2002: 53). Length: body 10.00 mm; wings 08.00 mm (n = 1).

Female: unknown.

Diagnosis.M.ilgazense sp. n. is similar to M. armipes and M. crymensis Paramonov 1925, but males can easily be distinguished by the following characters: M.ilgazense n. sp. has the dark areas of the tergites II- IV covered with short adpressed black hairs. In the other two species the abdominal hairs are longer, erect, and completely pale. M.ilgazense n. sp. has a very long and acute process on the hind trochanter, a very long and rounded process on the middle of the ventral surface of hind femur and a wide, backwardly-directed apical spur on the hind tibia, which touches the femoral process when the legs are folded (fi g. 3). M.

armipes has a long, acute process on the hind trochanter which, when the legs are folded, touches the forwardly-directed apical prolongation of the hind tibia, and has a shorter process on the middle of the ventral surface of the hind femur (fi g. 4). Males of

M. crymensis have a shorter process on the hind trochanter and the apical prolongation of the hind tibia is directed forward; the process on the middle of the ventral surface of hind femur is shorter (see fi g. 5 in Milankov et al. 2002: 322).

Etymology. Merodon ilgazensen. sp. is derived from Ilgaz, the name of the Turkish Mountains of Kastamonu province in the Black Sea region, to the north of the country, where the type specimen was collected.

Flowers visited. Ranunculus sp.

Range. Turkey.

Merodon italicus

Rondani 1845 stat. rev.

Merodon italicus Rondani 1845: 257 Merodon longicornis Sack 1913: 447 n. syn

Merodon italicus was described from an unspecifi ed number of males and females. Hurkmans (1993) designated a lectotype from a syntype: ♀ “67b” in Rondani collection (MZNH). Paralectotypes (designated here): 3 ♀♀ “67” in Rondani collection (MZNH). Hurkmans (1993) incorrectly synonymised M. italicus with M. avidus Rossi 1790. Th ese two taxa have diff erent morphological features and we here reinstate

M. italicus as a valid species.

Merodon longicornis was described from an unspecifi ed number of males and females. Hurkmans (1993) designated a lectotype: ♀ “longicornis det. Sack/Merodon longicornis Sack Type Turkmestan/longicornis det. Hermann” from the Vienna Museum (NHMW). Identity: Comparison between the types of M. italicus and the lectotype of M. longicornis shows that they are conspecifi c. M. longicornis is a junior synonym of M. italicus.

Material examined. Turkey (49, 12, 33, 41): 1♂, Kayseri, Yahyalı, Suçatı, 1700 m, 28.VII.1993 (NS); 1♂ and 1♀, Bolu, Gerede, Yeniçağa, 1100 m, 2.VII.1995 (CEUA); 1♀, Karabük, Cumayanı köyü, 300 m, 1.VII.1995 (NS); 1♂, Kastamonu, Seydiler, Sabuncular köyü, 1600 m, 10.VII.1995 (CEUA).

Flowers visited. Euphorbia spp.

Habitat. On stony riverbanks.

Range. Mediterranean Europe, southern Russia, North Africa and Lebanon.

Merodon loewi

Van der Goot 1964

Material examined. Turkey (11, 17, 20, 19, 18, 59): 1♀, Bolu, Gerede, Örencik köyü, 1100 m, 2.VII.1995; 1♀ and 1♂, Çankırı, Çerkeş, Halkaoğlu köyü, 1100 m, 25.V.1995 (1♀

NS); 1♀, 1♂, Çankırı, Eskipazar, İsmetpaşa köyü, 1000 m, 25.V.1995 (1♀ NS); 1♂, Çankırı, Çerkeş, Yumaklı köyü, 1200 m, 25.V.1995 (CEUA); 1♂, Çankırı, Çerkeş, Işık Dağı geçidi, 1610 m, 25.V.1995; 1♂, Zonguldak, Ereğli, Deliler köyü, 100 m, 21.V. 1995 (only genitalia).

Flowers visited. Euphorbia spp. and Ranunculus spp.

Habitat. Damp grassland.

Range. Armenia, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Moldova, Serbia, Turkey and Ukraine.

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Merodon nanus

Sack 1931

Material examined. Turkey (42): 1♂, Kastamonu, Tosya, 1400 m, 8.VI.1996 (CEUA).

Flowers visited. Euphorbia spp. and Malus sp.

Habitat. Grasslands.

Range. Bulgaria (?), Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia), Iran, Iraq and Turkey.

Merodon nigritarsis Rondani

1845

Material examined. Turkey (19, 56, 41, 11, 10): 1♂, Çankırı, Çerkeş, Yumaklı köyü, 1500 m, 22.VII.1997 (CEUA); 1♂, Yozgat, Çamlık mevkisi, 1400 m, 23.VII.1998; 1♂ and 1♀, Kastamonu, Seydiler, Sabuncular köyü, 1600 m, 10.VII.1995; 1♀, Bolu, Gerede, Örencik köyü, 1100 m, 2.VII.1995; 1♀, Bolu, Gerede, Aktaş mevkisi, 1300 m, 17.VII.1995.

Flowers visited. Euphorbia spp.

Range. Southern Europe.

Merodon ottomanus

Hurkmans 1993

Material examined. Turkey (7): 1♂, Antalya, Akseki, Göktepe yaylası, 2100 m, 13.VII.1999 (CEUA).

Flowers visited.White-fl owered Umbelliferae.

Range. Spain and Turkey.

Merodon planiceps

Loew 1862

Material examined. Turkey (22, 38, 43): 1♂ (damaged, only thorax and genitalia), Çankırı, Ilgaz, Dağları Milli Parkı, Derbent mevkisi, 1700 m, 12.VII.1997 (CEUA); 1♂, Kastamonu, Ilgaz Dağları Milli Parkı, Ilgaz geçidi, Doruk mevkisi, 1875 m, 12.VII.1997; 1♀, Kastamonu, Tosya, Bürnük köyü, 1190 m, 6.VII.1996.

Flowers visited. Euphorbia spp.

Habitat. Damp grasslands.

Range. Greece and Turkey.

Merodon pruni

Rossi 1790

Material examined. Turkey (42, 11): 1♂, Kastamonu, Tosya, 1400 m, 8.VI.1996 (NS); 3♂♂ and 2♀♀, Bolu, Gerede, Örencik köyü, 1100 m, 2.VII.1995 (1♂ and 1♀ CEUA).

Habitat. Grasslands.

Range. Arabia and Mediterranean Basin.

Merodon serrulatus

Wiedemann

in

Meigen 1822

Merodon serrulatus Wiedemann in Meigen 1822: 360 Merodonalexeji Paramonov 1925: 155 n. syn

Merodon serrulatus: Marcos-García et al. (2007) reinstated

M. serrulatus as a valid species based on the holotype: ♀

serrulatus / Portugal / Hoff mannsegg S. / 915 Type [red label]” (Portugal) (ZMHB). Speight & Sarthou (2008) mention that comparison between Spanish material of M. serrulatus and specimens identifi ed as M. alexeji by Hurkmans showed that

M. alexeji sensu Hurkmans (1993) is M. serrulatus. However, the synonymising of M. serrulatus and M. alexeji was beyond of the scope of the study in Speight & Sarthou (2008).

Merodon alexeji was described from two type specimens (syntypes), both of which we found in the Paramonov collection. Lectotype (designated here): ♂ “Merodon/alexejin. sp./Typus/ Pa ra monov d.” “Kohanovka/Baltsk. u./Odes. g. [in Cyrillic] 1.VI.24. Ucraina” (PC). Paralectotype (designated here): ♀

same data as lectotype (PC). Identity: A junior synonym of M. serrulatusWiedemann in Meigen, 1822. Despite the distance separating the Iberian Peninsula and Ukraine, the characters of the type specimens of M.alexeji lie within the morphological range of variation of the Iberian specimens of M. serrulatus, hence the main reason for establishing this synonymy.

Material examined. Turkey (30, 31): 4♂♂ and 1♀, Kahramanmaraş, Andırın, Beyoluğu köyü, 1400 m, 7.VI.2002; 6♂♂ and 2♀♀, Kahramanmaraş, Andırın, Çiğşar köyü, 1400 m, 7.VI.2002.

Habitat. Grasslands in Pinus sp. forests.

Range. France, Portugal, Spain, Turkey and Ukraine.

Merodon spinitarsis

Paramonov 1929

Material examined. Turkey (1, 19, 15, 30, 46, 50, 54): 1♂, Ankara, 1250 m, 20.V.1997; 1♂, Çankırı, Çerkeş, Yumaklı köyü, 1500 m, 22.VII.1997; 1♂, Burdur, Antalya-Isparta yolu, Bucak yol ayrımı, 325 m, 22.IV.2001; 4♂♂, Kahramanmaraş, Andırın, Beyoluğu köyü, 1400 m, 7.VI.2002 (1♂ CEUA); 1♀, Kayseri, Hisarcık, 1600 m, 13.VI.1993 (CEUA); 1♂, Kayseri, Yahyalı-Mansurlu yolu 15 km, 1450 m, 28.VI.1993; 2♂♂

and 1♀, Muğla, Ula, Karaböğürtlen köyü, 250 m, 26.IV.2002 (CEUA).

Flowers visited. Euphorbia spp., Anthemis sp. and white-fl owered Umbelliferae.

Habitat. Grassland in Pinus sp. forests.

Range. Turkey.

Merodon telmateia

Hurkmans 1987

Material examined. Turkey (19, 2): 1♂, Çankırı, Çerkeş, Yumaklı köyü, 1500 m, 22.VII.1997 (CEUA); 1♀, Ankara, Çubuk, Karagöl, 1300 m, 25.V.1996 (CEUA).

Flowers visited. Euphorbia spp.

Range. Turkey.

Merodon vandergooti

Hurkmans 1993

Merodon vandergooti Hurkmans 1993: 188 Merodonaureotibia Hurkmans 1993: 203 n. syn

Merodon vandergooti: holotype (original designation): ♂

“Turkey, Hakkari, Süvarihalil geçidi, 1250 m W side near Halub Deresi, 13.VI.1984 leg. J. A. W. Lucas” (ZMUA). Paratypes: more than 42 specimens (only ♂♂) from Turkey (Hakkari, Ankara) (ZMUA) (Hurkmans 1993).

Merodonaureotibia: holotype (original designation): ♀ “Turkey, Adıyaman, Nemrut Dağı, 1.vi.1983, leg. M. Kuhbandner” (ZMUA). Paratypes: 3 ♀♀ “Tk [Turkey] 5-6-1988 10 km S. Ankara leg. Warncke” (ZMUA) (Hurkmans 1993).

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Table 1. Updated checklist of the Merodon Meigen 1803 species (Diptera: Syrphidae) of Turkey (adapted from Sarıbıyık in lit.). Th e checklist includes 55 valid species [in bold, new contributions of this study].

Valid name Synonyms

M. aberrans Egger 1860

M. aureus Fabricius 1805 M. aeneus Megerle in Meigen 1822 M. alagoezicus Paramonov 1925

M. albifrons Meigen 1822

M. armipes Rondani 1843

M. auronites Hurkmans 1993

M. avidus (Rossi 1790) M. spinipes (Fabricius 1794)

M. bessarabicus Paramonov 1924 M. biarcuatus Curran 1939 M. caucasicus Portschinsky 1877 M. caudatus Sack 1913

M. chalybeatus Sack 1913 M. albonigrum Vujić Radenković & Šimić 1996 M. cinereus (Fabricius 1794)

M. clavipes (Fabricius 1781) M. clunipes Sack 1913

M. crassifemoris Paramonov 1925 M. cupreus Hurkmans 1993

M. distinctus Palma 1863 M. dimorphus (Szilady 1940) M. eques (Fabricius 1805)

M. equestris (Fabricius 1794)

M. erivanicus Paramonov 1925 M. kaloceros Hurkmans 1993 M. femoratoides Paramonov 1925

M. fulcratus (Becker 1913) M. funestus (Fabricius 1794)

M. geniculatus Strobl in Czerny & Strobl 1909 M. fractipes Paramonov 1936 M. hamifer Sack 1913

M. hayati Hurkmans in Hurkmans & Hayat 1997 M. hikmeti Hurkmans in Hurkmans & Hayat 1997 M. hypochrysos Hurkmans 1993

M. ilgazense n. sp.

M. italicus Rondani 1845 M. affi nis Gil Collado 1930; M. longicornis Sack 1913 M. loewi van der Goot 1964

M. lucasi Hurkmans 1993 M. minutus Strobl 1893 M. murinus Sack 1913 M. nanus (Sack 1931) M. nigritarsis Rondani 1845 M. nitidifrons Hurkmans 1993 M. oidipous Hurkmans 1993 M. ottomanus Hurkmans 1993 M. planiceps Loew 1862 M. pruni (Rossi 1790) M. quadrinotatus (Sack 1931) M. satdagensis Hurkmans 1993 M. schachti Hurkmans 1993

M. serrulatus Wiedemann in Meigen 1822 M. alexejilusitanicus Hurkmans 1993 Paramonov 1925; M. altinosus Hurkmans 1993; M. hirsutus Sack 1913; M. M. spinitarsis Paramonov 1929

M. taniniensis Hurkmans 1993 M. telmateia Hurkmans1988 M. testaceus Sack 1913

M. trebevicensis Strobl 1900 M. crymensis Paromonov 1925 M. tricinctus Sack 1913

M. vandergooti Hurkmans 1993 M. aureotibia Hurkmans 1993 M. velox Loew 1869

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Identity: Merodon vandergooti and M. aureotibia were described in the same publication: M. vandergooti from a large number of males and M. aureotibia based only on females. Th e type material of the two taxa belongs to the same species. We retain

M. vandergooti as the valid name for this taxon and designate

M. aureotibia as synonym.

Material examined. Turkey (26): 1♀, Isparta, Yalvaç, Sultan Dağları, 1660 m, 29.V.2001 (CEUA).

Flowers visited.White-fl owered Umbelliferae.

Range. Turkey

Merodon velox

Loew 1869

Material examined. Turkey (3, 8, 12, 14): 1♂ and 1♀, Ankara, Çubuk, Ovacık köyü, 1100 m, 25.V.1996 (1♀ NS); 1♂ and 1♀, Antalya, Alanya, Şeyh köyü, 570 m, 21.IV.2001 (1♀ NS); 1♂, Bolu, Gerede, Yeniçağa, 1020 m, 18.VIII.1995 (CEUA); 1♂, Bolu, Yedigöller-Devrek yolu 15 km, 10.VII.1996.

Flowers visited.White-fl owered Umbelliferae.

Habitat. Abies sp. forests.

Range. Anatolian and Balkan Peninsulas.

Discussion

As result of this study, 26

Merodon

species were

identifi ed including a species new to science,

Merodon

ilgazense

n. sp.

, and four species new to the Turkish

hoverfl y fauna,

M. armipes

,

M. auronites

,

M. bessarabicus

and

M. chalybeatus

. Also lectotypes were designated

for

M. chalybeatus

and

M. clunipes

. Following this

study, the checklist of

Merodon

for Turkey comprises

55 species (tab. 1) which, according to Speight

et al.

(2008), represents about 52 % of the total number of

Merodon

species found in Europe.

Geographic regions such as the Iberian Peninsula

and France - with a well-known hoverfl y faunas and a

combined land area 1.5 times the land area of Turkey

- have a combined total of 50 species of

Merodon

[35

species in the Iberian Peninsula (Marcos-García

et al.

2007; Ricarte & Marcos-García 2008) and 34 in France

(Speight & Sarthou 2008), with 19 species common

to both regions]. Th

ese diff erent faunas located at

opposite ends of the Mediterranean Basin are not only

remarkable because of their species richness but also

because of the number of shared species; Turkey and the

Iberian Peninsula only share 21.8% of

Merodon

species

of a whole list of 66 species (Marcos-García

et al.

2007;

Ricarte & Marcos-García 2008; tab. 1). Within the

eastern Mediterranean Basin, Greece also has a large

number of

Merodon

species (Vujić

et al.

2007). Th

e

high biodiversity of

Merodon

in this area is possibly

connected to the diversity of geophytes occurring in

this region of the Mediterranean Basin (Çelik

et al.

2004). Th

e diversity of the eastern Mediterranean Basin

is complemented by the occurrence of a high number

of endemic species, as occurs in Turkey (nearly 30 %

of the Turkish

Merodon

species are endemic). Th

ere are

evolutionary inter-relationships between geophytes and

insects similar to that between

Merodon

and geophytes

appearing in other insect groups. Micó

et al.

(2009)

studied the Anisopliina beetles (Scarabaeidae) – mainly

distributed in the circum-Mediterranean region – in

relation to Poaceae, concluding that the biogeographic

history of these beetles is clearly connected with the

diversifi cation processes of Poaceae. In Micó

et al.

(2009), relationships between the number of endemic

species, the species richness of beetles and the species

richness of the host plants have been assessed, in

the same way as could be done for

Merodon

and

geophytes.

Our results suggest that the eastern Mediterranean

Basin, geologically more recent than the western region

(Sanmartín 2003), was the main centre of diversifi cation

of

Merodon

. Th

us, the number of endemic species in

this region is probably related to the intense orogenic

activity favouring isolation and allopatric speciation

among populations. More faunistic, biogeographic and

phylogenetic studies throughout the Mediterranean

Basin are necessary in order to ascertain the

Merodon

-geophyte relationships.

Acknowledgements. We thank A. Şahan and D. Aydınözü for helping in the fi eld work .We kindly thank A. Sánchez-Pardo for creating the maps and R. M. Lyszkowski for English revision. We also thank the anonymous referees for their careful revisions. Financial support was provided by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (project number OI173002), the Provincial Ministry of Science and Technological Development, Autochtonous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia [project: Genetical resources in Vojvodina and sustainable agriculture] and the Spanish “Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia” (projects CGL200613847C0201 and CGL200804472).

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Appendix.

List of the 64 alphabetically-ordered sampling sites where

Merodon

specimens were collected in 15

Turkish provinces from 1992 to 2002.

Code is the number used for indicating a sampling site or a pair of sampling sites coincident on the map, because some sampling sites have the same data except for the altitude (for example, sampling sites indicated with the code 2).

Sampling site

Code Province (abbreviation in maps), place name Altitude (m) Coordinate (N-E) Ankara (AN)

1 Ankara 1250 39°56’-32°50’ 2 Çubuk, Karagöl 1300, 1450 40°22’-32°54’ 3 Çubuk, Ovacık köyü 1100 40°20’-32°55’ 4 Kızılcahamam 970 40°26’-32°36’ 5 Kızılcahamam, Güvem köyü 1000 40°43’-32°31’ 6 Şerefl ikoçhisar 970 38°58’-33°30’

Antalya (AT)

7 Akseki, Göktepe yaylası 2100 37°03’-31°44’ 8 Alanya, Şeyh köyü 570 36°37’-32°00’ 9 Kaş, Gömbe, Sinekçibeli geçidi, Sinekçi köyü 1500 36°25’-29°36’

Bolu (BL)

10 Gerede, Aktaş mevkisi 1300, 1400 40°40’-32°19’ 11 Gerede, Örencik köyü 1100 40°49’-32°23’ 12 Gerede, Yeniçağa 1020, 1100 40°46’-32°02’ 13 Yedigöller, Köknarlı yayla 1400 40°54’-31°41’ 14 Yedigöller-Devrek yolu, 15 km - 40°57’-31°44’

Burdur (BR)

15 Antalya-Isparta yolu, Bucak yol ayrımı 325 37°28’-30°33’ Çankırı (CA)

16 Çerkeş 1100 40°48’-32°52’ 17 Çerkes, Halkaoğlu köyü 1100 40°43’-32°46’ 18 Çerkes, Işık Dağı geçidi 1610 40°41’-32°44’ 19 Çerkes, Yumaklı köyü 1200, 1500 40°42’-32°45’ 20 Eskipazar, İsmetpaşa köyü 1000 40°52’-32°36’ 21 Ilgaz Dağları, Kırkpınar yaylası 1800 40°59’-33°34’ 22 Ilgaz, Ilgaz Dağları Milli Parkı, Derbent mevkisi 1700 41°04’-33°44’ 23 Ilgaz, İndağı 1000 40°52’-33°38’

Isparta (IS)

24 Yalvaç, Bağkonak, Sultan Dağları 1735 38°11’-31°14’ 25 Yalvaç, Sultan Dağları 1560 38°16’-31°14’ 26 Yalvaç, Sultan Dağları 1660 38°17’-31°16’ 27 Yalvaç, Sultan Dağları 1670 38°17’-31°14’ 28 Yenişarbademli 1180, 1880 37°42’-31°23’ 29 Yenişarbademli, Çayır yaylası 1925 37°41’-31°21’

Kahramanmaraş (KM)

30 Andırın, Beyoluğu köyü 1400 37°45’-36°17’ 31 Andırın, Çiğşar köyü 1400 37°45’-36°18’ 32 Andırın, Kurucaova mevkisi 1250 37°36’-36°21’

Karabük (KA)

33 Cumayanı köyü 300 41°10’-32°35’ 34 Safranbolu, Ahmetusta geçidi 1150 41°21’-32°41’

Kastamonu (KS)

35 Ağlı, Ese köyü 1500 41°37’-33°36’ 36 Biden yaylası, Kızılkese deresi 1200 41°10’-33°49’ 37 Ilgaz Dağları Milli Parkı 1600 41°05’-33°46’ 38 Ilgaz Dağları Milli Parkı, Ilgaz geçidi, Doruk mevkisi 1875 41°04’-33°45’ 39 Ilgaz Dağları Milli Parkı, Ilgaz geçidi, Doruk mevkisi 1900 41°04’-33°46’ 40 Ilgaz Dağları, Tüfekçi köyü civarı 1700 41°04’-33°43’ 41 Seydiler, Sabuncular köyü 1600 41°37’-33°37’ 42 Tosya 1400 41°02’-34°03’ 43 Tosya, Bürnük köyü 1190 41°14’-34°00’ 44 Tosya, Ilgaz Dağları, Ilgaz geçidi, Yayla yeri 1650 41°07’-34°03’ 45 Yukarı İsmailli köyü 1300 41°14’-33°51’

Kayseri (KY)

46 Hisarcık 1600 38°37’-35°31’ 47 Tomarza, Çaybeli köyü 1400 38°24’-35°44’ 48 Yahyalı, Burhaniye köyü 1414 37°47’-35°33’ 49 Yahyalı, Suçatı 1700 37°58’-35°27’ 50 Yahyalı-Mansurlu yolu 15 km 1450 38°02’-35°24’

Konya (KN)

51 Akşehir 1700 38°21’-31°22’ 52 Akşehir, Ilıcak köyü, Sultan Dağları 1136 38°18’-31°23’ 53 Akşehir, Sultan Dağları, Cankurtaran köyü 1516 38°15’-31°20’ 54 Muğla (MG), Ula, Karaböğürtlen köyü 250 37°02’-28°30’ 55 Van (VN), Gevaş, Artos Dağı 1850 38°18’-43°07’ 56 Yozgat (YZ), Çamlık mevkisi 1400 39°50’-34°46’

Zonguldak (ZN)

57 Çaycuma, Çiftlik köyü 140 41°22’-32°06’ 58 Çaycuma, Saltukova kasabası 120 41°31’-32°04’ 59 Ereğli, Deliler köyü 100 41°17’-31°31’

Figure

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References

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