Ministry of Education & Human Resources Development Korea Education & Research Information Service

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Ministry of Education & Human Resources Development Korea Education & Research Information Service

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W

ith full understanding that fostering a creative and proficient workforce is a core strategy in boosting national competitiveness in the knowledge-based society of the 21st century, we have continuously implemented projects aimed at adapting education to the demands of the information age during the past several years.

As a part of such plans, we have completed the installation of an extensive infrastructure by providing computers and connecting elementary and secondary schools to the Internet. Upon this infrastructure, we will now concentrate on building an information sharing system that will enable us to utilize a wide range of contents for school education.

In particular, the National Education Information System, one of eleven projects of e-government, has enhanced the transparency and efficiency of educational administrative services.

The infrastructure and new plans for adapting education to the information age are changing the environment of the distribution and use of educational contents through comprehensive networks, which will function as the driving force to facilitate innovative teaching-learning activities in schools and improve the overall quality of education.

The 2002 White Paper on Adapting Education to the Information Age is published to inform the nation of the current state of affairs and the next steps to be taken in uplifting education to the demands of the times. I hope that this White Paper will be useful to anyone who has an interest in adapting education to the information age.

Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to everyone who participated in publishing this White Paper.

November 2002

The Deputy Prime Minister serving as the Minister of Education & Human Resources Development

Foreword

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T

he use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in many areas of society makes it possible to conduct business that could not otherwise be done. It has also increased the efficiency and the effectiveness of the work process. In particular, the use of ICT in education, elementary, secondary, higher, and continuing education, has made an important contribution toward national human resources development. Typical examples include the establishment of transparent and accurate educational administration through the Educational Administration Information System, and the availability of cyber teaching-learning methods to all learners at any time and any place.

Over the past several years, the main project in support of our national human resource development program has been the development of ICT in education. In 2000, we completed the first stage of the plan for enhancing the use of ICT in education. At that time, every elementary and secondary school was equipped with computers and infrastructure including connection to the Internet, and further was provided with newly developed educational materials. Now, we are taking a further step forward to introduce a qualitative simplicity in teaching-learning methods and further improving the efficiency of educational administration.

The rapid integration of ICT in education consumes enormous resources. For this reason we must keep interested people completely informed of the current situation and of impending implications of the plan. This information must also be supplied in a timely way to interested researchers and relevant officers in charge. With these goals in mind, this White Paper is published with the intent of describing the current status of the plan, and to provide a preview of the future development of ICT use in education.

The 2002 White Paper on Adapting Education to the Information Age summarizes the current and domestic situation regarding ICT use in education. It includes major current statistics concerning ICT use in education, and describes the current situation, current tasks, future vision and further steps of ICT use in education; from elementary and secondary education through continuing education. I expect this White Paper to be useful to all interested parties and provide to effective information to those concerned with adapting education to the information age. Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to the writers and those who contributed to publishing this White paper.

November 2002

Korea Education & Research Information Service President

Foreword

Foreword

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PART 1. ADAPTING EDUCATION AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN

RESOURCES TO THE INFORMATION AGE

Chapter 1.

Developing Human Resources in a Knowledge-based Society

Section 1. Switching a Paradigm to the Knowledge-based Society 3 Section 2. The New Image of Man in the Knowledge-based Society 4 Section 3. Developing Human Resources to Lead a Knowledge-based Society 4 Section 4. Directions of School Education in a Knowledge-based Society 5

Chapter 2

.

Goals and Major Tasks in Adapting Education to the Information Age

Section 1. Goals 7

Section 2. Step Necessary for Promoting ICT Use in Education 8

1. Elementary and secondary education 8

2. Adapting research and universities to the information age 12

3. ICT use in lifelong education 13

4. Adapting educational administration to the information age 14

Chapter 3.

Development of ICT Utilization Skills at the National Level

PART 2. ADAPTING EDUCATION TO THE INFORMATION AGE : PRESENT

SITUATION

Chapter 1.

Statutes, Institutions, and the Enforcement System concerning ICT Use in Education

Section 1. Statutes on ICT Use in Education 19

1. Major statutes 19

Section 2. Promotion Strategies and System to Adapt Education to the Information Age 21

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Ⅱ Ⅱ

2002 Adapting Education to the Information Age

PART 2. ADAPTING EDUCATION TO THE INFORMATION AGE : PRESENT

SITUATION

Chapter 2

.

Adapting Education to the Information Age in Elementary and Secondary Schools

Section 1. Improvement of infrastructure to facilitate ICT use in Education 23

1. Background 23

2. The second stage of the Comprehensive Plan for ICT Use in Education 24 3. Current status of improving information infrastructure in education 24 4. Construction of harmful information filtering systems 24 5. Information & Communication Security for Educational Information System 25 Section 2. Development and Dissemination of Educational Content 26

1. Overview 26

2. Current status of the development and distribution of educational content 26 3. Promotion of the use of educational materials 27 Section 3. Construction and Operation of EDUNET 27

1. History 27

2. Current operations 28

3. Membership 28

Section 4. Education for ICT Utilization and the Construction of Cyber Culture 29 1. Background of education for ICT utilization 29 2. Current situation of education for ICT utilization 30

3. Promotion of sound cyber culture 31

Section 5. ICT Use in School Libraries 31

1. History 31

2. Current operations 32

Section 6. Staff Training for ICT Use in Education 32

1. History 32

2. Contents of ICT use training 33

3. Plans and results of ICT use training 33

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PART 2. ADAPTING EDUCATION TO THE INFORMATION AGE : PRESENT

SITUATION

Chapter 2

.

Adapting Education to the Information Age in Elementary and Secondary Schools

Section 7. ICT Use in Pre-school Education, Special Education, and the Education for Gifted Children 34

1. ICT use in pre-school education 34

2. ICT use in special education 35

3. ICT use in Education for Gifted Children 37 Section 8. Dissemination of Benefits of ICT use 38

1. Goals 38

2. Current situation 39

3. Promotion of ICT use for children from financially disadvantaged families 39 4. Operation of internet classes for parents 40

Chapter 3

.

ICT Use in Universities, Academies and Research Institutes

Section 1. ICT Use in Universities 41

1. General situation 41

2. ICT use in University of Education 41

3. ICT use in teachers’ colleges 42

4. ICT use in cyber universities 42

Section 2. ICT Use in Academy and Research 43

1. Overview 43

2. ICT use in university libraries 43

3. Current situation of the RISS service 45

Section 3. Operation of KREN 46

1. Current situation 46

2. Next steps 47

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Ⅳ Ⅳ

PART 2. ADAPTING EDUCATION TO THE INFORMATION AGE : PRESENT

SITUATION

Chapter 4

.

ICT Use in Lifelong Education and Vocational Education

Section 1. ICT Use in Lifelong Education 49

1. Overview 49

2. Current Situation 49

Section 2. ICT Use in Vocational Education 51 1. Classification of ICT use in vocational education 51 2. Current situation of ICT use in vocational education 51

3. Next steps 53

Section 3. ICT Use among the Public 54

1. Overview 54

2. Current situation 54

Section 4. ICT Use in Education for Overseas Koreans 56

1. Historical overview 56

2. Current status of educational institutions for overseas Koreans 57 3. KOSNET (Korean language study on the internet) 57

Chapter 5

.

ICT Use in Educational Administration

Section 1. Construction of a National Education Information System (NEIS) 59

1. Historical background 59

2. Overview 59

3. Implementation status 60

4. Current situation 62

Section 2. Comprehensive Information Management System in Elementary and Secondary Schools 63

1. Promotion overview 63

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PART 2. ADAPTING EDUCATION TO THE INFORMATION AGE : PRESENT

SITUATION

Chapter 5

.

ICT Use in Educational Administration

Section 3. Construction and Operation of the Educational Statistics Information System 66

1. Promotion history 66

2. Current situation 67

Section 4. ICT Use in Educational Administration in the Ministry of Education and Human Resources

Development 68

1. Construction of an electronic document management system 68 2. Operation of the homepage of the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development 69

Chapter 6

. Development of Indicators to Adapt Education to the Information Age

Section 1. Overview 71

Section 2. Current situation 71

1. Development of indicators for the second stage of ICT Use in Education 71

2. Achievements 72

PART 3. FURTHER MEASURES IN ADAPTING EDUCATION TO THE

INFORMATION AGE

Chapter 1

. ICT Use in Elementary and Secondary Schools 77

Chapter 2

. ICT Use in Universities and Related Research 81

Chapter 3

. ICT Use in Lifelong Education 83

Chapter 4

. ICT Use in Educational Administration 85

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INDEX

TABLE

PART 2.

ADAPTING EDUCATION TO THE INFORMATION AGE : PRESENT SITUATION

Table 2 - 1. Example of harmful information 25 Table 2 - 2. Statue of development of educational Content up to 2001 26 Table 2 - 3. Development of ICT use in special education by the Ministry of Education and

Human Resources Development 36

Table 2 - 4. Annual Plan for ICT use in special education 36 Table 2 - 5. Budget for ICT use in special education 36 Table 2 - 6. General situation in university libraries 44 Table 2 - 7. Current situation of library collection in universities 44 Table 2 - 8. Current situation of the use of university libraries 44 Table 2 - 9. Database construction in the university libraries 45 Table 2-10. Current situation of RISS service 46 Table 2-11. Current status of RISS users 46 Table 2-12. Current status of users in Center for Career Development 53 Table 2-13. IT training for the unemployed and workers 55 Table 2-14. Current situation of overseas Korean educational Institutions 57 Table 2-15. Educational indicator of ICT use in elementary and secondary schools 72

PART 3.

NEXT STEPS IN ADAPTING EDUCATION TO THE INFORMATION AGE

Table 3-1. Example of harmful information 87

FIGURE

PART 1.

ADAPTING EDUCATION TO THE INFORMATION AGE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES

Figure 1-1. Education for ICT literacy and utilization 9

PART 2.

ADAPTING EDUCATION TO THE INFORMATION AGE: PRESENT SITUATION

Figure 2-1. Goals and Major Tasks to Adapt Education to the Information Age 22 Figure 2-2. Goals and Major Tasks to Adapt Education to the Information Age 29 Figure 2-3. Structure of Central Operation Center 63

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ADAPTING EDUCATION AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES

TO THE INFORMATION AGE

CHAPTER 1.

Developing Human Resources in a Knowledge-based Society

CHAPTER 2.

Goals and Major Tasks in Adapting Education to the Information Age

CHAPTER 3.

Development of ICT Utilization Skills at the National Level

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T

he advent of the information society, or the knowledge-based society, has meant various changes in the world. According to the basic plan of national Human Resources development Human, Resources, Knowledge and New Take-off , such changes are divided into three areas. The first is the change in the economic and social environment. This change has accelerated the expansion of the global economic era where the exchange of knowledge and information among countries has increased. Thus, developed countries have focused on the development of high technologies and the production of new machines while developing countries have tended to develop lower technologies and produce ordinary goods.

Second, because the cultural and social paradigm has changed, the knowledge-based society demands a switch in paradigm. This will change our way of looking at every aspect of society including cultural

and social behavior, life style and ways of thinking. And, third, as a result of these changes, the knowledge-based economy will hire more technology experts and workers possessing innovative knowledge in information communication technology(hereinafter, ICT). A service-focused economy will vary the types of employment and jobs. Moreover, the demand for workers to develop an ability to innovate is increasing and a lifelong education will be required as the average duration of an individual's working life increases. The demand for high quality education is on the increase.

From this point of view, the characteristics of a knowledge-based society that we are now facing can be summarized as follows. First, in a knowledge-based society, the inherent right to use information must be recognized. In the past, people who possessed certain information took an active part in society by obtaining the exclusive right to use that information. But, now, we can obtain knowledge and information easily through various information resources, especially through the Internet. Second, a knowledge-based society is founded on ICT. In a society knowledge-based on ICT, the ability to use ICT means competitiveness and

SECTION 1.

Switching a Paradigm

to the

Knowledge-based Society

CHAPTER 1.

Developing Human Resources in a Knowledge-based

Society

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ensures survival. It also has the ability to open a new era of culture and life style. Third, a knowledge-based society is a society that continuously creates new cultural products. In a knowledge-based society, where one class does not have exclusive control over information, each class creates its own unique culture based on the knowledge and information it possesses. Fourth, the concept of knowledge in the knowledge-based society is different from the one in the past. The knowledge-based society demands active knowledge, alive and dynamic, rather than stagnant. That is, knowledge is not considered to be something made by and obtained from others but something created according to the individual's needs and through trial and error. Such a change in the concept of knowledge differentiates the image of a man in the knowledge-based society from the image of man in industrial society.

One of the important characteristics of the knowledge-based society is the rediscovery of knowledge as a resource and the value of the person who uses it. The following are the images of man suggested by this concept. First, a man must be a producer rather than a consumer of knowledge in the knowledge-based society. Second, a man must possess an open and flexible mind, not hampered by rigid and closed thinking. Third, a man must become an independent agent, not someone who depends on others. Fourth, a man must be a self directed lifelong student.

The expansion of the knowledge-based society is based on a rapid development of ICT. Because the circulating speed of information has become unthinkably fast, every aspect of society is rapidly evolving. Eventually, this will result in a situation where everybody is continuously studying new things. In other words, it will be difficult for a man in an ever-changing society to be overly content with a life based only on his formal education. A man, throughout his lifetime, is able to learn new information, to create knowledge through such learning and to share it. The necessity of doing so will be accelerated by ICT use, and it will at the same time necessitate a more practical and effective lifelong education system.

In order to effectively develop national Human Resources, the following plans should be considered regarding ICT use.

First, a lifelong education system that effectively utilizes the ICT infrastructure must be developed. Lifelong education includes not only learning simple and rapidly circulating knowledge and information, but also encourages communication among various subjects as required by globalization. The use of networks can aid communication. By improving self-directed learning potential with extensive communi-cation networks and by creating a system that provides high quality educational content for all and on demand, the development of the necessary Human Resources

CHAPTER 1. Developing Human Resources in a Knowledge-based

Society

SECTION 2.

The New Image of

Man in the

Knowledge-based Society

SECTION 3.

Developing Human

Resources to Lead a

Knowledge-based Society

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will be achieved.

Second, establishing an effective knowledge management system is required. The international competitiveness of a country in the knowledge-based society is referred to as the power of knowledge. However, because most professional knowledge in an industrial society is individual, rather than collective, and internal, rather than external, that knowledge is not shared but possessed by a few individuals. The development of ICT will build an environment in which most knowledge is shared and more knowledge and information is created as the distribution of such knowledge increases.

Third, it is necessary to develop an education system that ensures workers possess the required knowledge. In the past, the development of Human Resources focused mainly on the training of a standardized human. But, in the knowledge-based society, unlike in the past society, it is inevitable, due to the new value of knowledge, to produce workers with the power of knowledge. Therefore, it is important for them to have the ability to share and provide creative and productive information. It is also necessary to develop a work force that possesses creativity, computer and information literacy, communication skills, and the ability to cooperate.

Along with resources, capital and labor, knowledge in a knowledge-based society is considered to be a key

element of production. Unlike a pre-industrial society that completely separates education from work or the production process, a knowledge-based society accom-plishes total integration of work and education. Now, knowledge is not produced by a small elite class, but by the mass of active workers in the workplace.

Under these conditions, the advent of the knowledge-based society requires several changes of approach in education.

First, a change of direction based on learning, not on education, is required. Up to this point, the biggest function of school education has been to deliver knowledge accumulated throughout human history. But in the knowledge-based society it is people who deliver and develop the production of knowledge. As long as schools maintain the cramming system of education, it will be difficult to cultivate the new intelligence essential for a successful knowledge-based society.

Second, it is necessary to change to an education system focusing on students. The existing industrial society has educated students with different aptitudes and learning styles using standardized textbooks and identical educational methods as though it were producing a large quantity of goods in a factory. However, in a lifelong learning society, the individual student's learning must be the main focus of education.

Third, a creative and self-directed education method is required. The new knowledge for the knowledge-based society is living knowledge. Living knowledge must take into account many factors, such

Part-1

SECTION 4.

Directions of School

Education in a

Knowledge-based Society

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as the subjects, situations and problems that use the knowledge. Living knowledge should be generated by creative and self-directed learning authorities.

CHAPTER 1. Developing Human Resources in a Knowledge-based

Society

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T

he goal of adapting education to the infor-mation age is to foster a competent person who possesses the professionalism, creativity and problem solving abilities necessary for a knowledge-based society. Continuous learning and training through effective educational methods can achieve such a goal. Beyond the narrow concept of education using technology and activities which teach self directed learning, adapting education to the information age should also include general and systematic activities using ICT necessary for innovating and reforming the education system and establishing the broad basis for Human Resources development.

The detailed tasks for fostering a talented person in the knowledge-based society are as follows:

First, we must construct an environment where the entire nation can develop ICT utilization skills for a knowledge-based society. Such environment will make it possible for anyone to study any

subject anywhere or anytime through cyberspace. Any person over the age of 15 in any region and any class should be capable of using the internet for daily activities or occupational activities, like home shopping, home banking, ecommerce, or employment. Second, to foster creative industrial manpower that can create continuous knowledge and increase its own value, colleges and workplaces should heighten workers' professionalism and develop a system to foster excellent industrial manpower. They must reform the human resources development systems by integrating education, training, qualifications and occupations. In order to support this, competitiveness equal to OECD levels should be guaranteed through the standardized production of academic information and the construction of an effective dissemination system.

Third, the entire nation should participate in the promotion and creation of an information culture. To promote and benefit from an information-based culture, everyone should be a cyber citizen in the knowledge-based society. The government should provide support to neglected regions and

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CHAPTER 2.

Goals and Major Tasks in Adapting Education to the

Information Age

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income groups, in order to allow equal access to information and thereby reduce the Digital Divide. Fourth, in order to construct a Total Performance Support system in which people can improve results through learning and working, the government will improve the effectiveness of ICT use in education through accurate evaluation. The Government must pursue legal and organizational reform, raise the standard of educational infrast-ructure to OECD levels, and enhance the trans-parency and productivity of administration through a cyber education administration system.

These tasks aim to build a strong knowledge-based country by fostering citizens who can effectively utilize knowledge and information and by constructing a social environment that can create and spread the new values.

Our tasks for adapting education to the information age are being carried out in four closely interrelated areas: elementary and secondary education, research and universities, lifelong education and educational administration .

1. Elementary and secondary

education

ICT education in elementary and secondary

education involves a revamping of curricula, the development and dissemination of educational content, staff education, and the creating of infrastructure conducive to ICT.

A. Support for curriculum

Since most of Korean education system is dependent on curriculum, ICT use in the curriculum is important to adapt the curriculum to the information age. Current ICT education is divided into two forms, literacy and utilization, but it must eventually be unified. By increasing the ICT utilization skills of students, ICT education in the curriculum can enhance the competitiveness of the country through the production of creative knowledge and the training of a competent people. [Figure 1-1] describes the education for ICT literacy and utilization suggested by the Ministry of Education & Human Resources Development [KERIS, 2000]

Education for ICT literacy has been undertaken to provide equal access to information and to reduce the information gap within public education. Unlike in the past when ICT-related classes were elective subjects in secondary school and no other ICT education was available, since 2001 the government has required mandatory ICT education for elementary school students from first grade to sixth grade.

Furthermore, in every subject, more than 10% of classroom activities are supposed to make use of ICT and education in ICT utilization should not be

CHAPTER 2. Goals and Major Tasks in Adapting Education to the

Information Age

SECTION 2.

Steps Necessary for

Promoting ICT Use

in Education

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considered a special subject or a technical education. Education for ICT utilization is designed to establish a cooperative learning environment, rather than lecture oriented learning. That is, students as a group search for various types of information over the internet, and actively produce and share the outcomes of learning by utilizing the information they have found. Also, ICT utilization provides multimedia content and presentation materials as auxiliary educational instruments that help students learn various subjects in their classes.

B. Development and dissemination of educational content

Educational content plays an important role in reforming various educational activities and methods. KERIS has actively participated in developing and disseminating educational content. There are several ways KERIS disseminates education content, including the development of multimedia educational materials; ICT teaching software and ICT teaching learning plans; the dissemination of educational software developed by the private sector; the operation of model schools using ICT; and the support for ICT curriculum research institutes. Under the plan to construct an education information sharing system, the developed materials will be jointly utilized in

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Figure 1-1 Education for ICT literacy and utilization

ICT Education

Education for ICT Iiteracy

Technical manual about ICT Instrumental utilization about ICT

Education for ICT utilization

Integration of curriculum(with ICT) Educational utilization of ICT

Literacy Curriculum Utilization

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the whole country. The tasks for each plan are as follows: The development of new multimedia educational materials began with the adoption of new textbooks in accordance with the Seventh School Curriculum. It focused on developing a common basic textbook (10 textbooks for 10 grades). Multimedia educational materials have been under development since 2000 and were activated on EDUNET (http://www. edunet.net) in May 2001. As of June 2002, the material has been developed for all grades of elementary school, the first grade of middle school and Korean, Ethics, and History classes of the second grade of middle school and the first grade of high school. Through 2003, this plan will continue to develop 129 kinds and 207 volumes of books (government designated textbooks 97 kinds and 171 volumes; authorized books 32 kinds and 36 volumes).

The teaching learning plan using ICT is a plan to develop and distribute current teaching plans and materials by using multimedia educational materials. A development guide and a service system for these materials have been constructed by KERIS and the model schools have been refining their content since 2001. The Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development has designed various types of materials so that teachers can choose, revise or supplement appropriate materials on their own for their particular classroom. The teaching software development plan is a plan to develop the software and other supporting

teaching materials necessary to support class activities using ICT. Each of the sixteen Offices of Education in cities or provinces was in charge of developing a particular subject of this software. KERIS has constructed its development guide and service system and has been distributing them through EDUNET. This software, which is suitable for classroom use, is designed to meet the demands of specific school levels, grades or curriculum. As of May 2002, a total of 3,616 software applications have been developed.

The educational software development plan is a plan to develop computer assisting program and self-study materials to facilitate a self-directed learning environment in which elementary and secondary school students can study independently. KERIS has distributed the curriculum through electronic textbooks since 1997 and is currently revising or supplementing material according to new curricula. This material makes it possible for students to pursue more in-depth study or to supplement class material through the Internet.

The dissemination plan for educational software developed by the private sector seeks to improve both teaching methods and the growth of the software industry by disseminating such educational software. The Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development and the Offices of Education in cities and provinces have operated the Authentication of Educational Software program to help consumers identify reli-able educational software, and have subsidized schools in purchasing

CHAPTER 2. Goals and Major Tasks in Adapting Education to the

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approved software. KERIS has been authenticating education software since 1998. Every year it has designated about 100 soft-ware programs as Acceptable by conferring the authentication mark which is printed on the final product for sale. The operation of model schools using ICT is a plan to apply a teaching learning model using ICT and to develop and disseminate a teaching-learning plan using ICT. There are 16 model schools selected by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development and 21 model schools selected by the Offices of Education in cities and provinces. The results of the operation of model schools will be stored in an educational information database for ICT use and will be available to teachers as useful educational content through EDUNET.

The construction of an educational information network includes a plan to share, through meta data, educational content among Offices of Education in cities and provinces, training institutes and schools, and thus to promote education using ICT. In cooperation, KERIS and the Offices of Education constructed the educational information network that simplifies searching for and utilizing educational content. Using this network, users are able to get the information quickly and easily because the original materials remain in educational institutions such as schools or Offices of Educations while meta data exists on an information network such as EDUNET. Since June 2002, the EDUNET network has been available nationally.

C. Staff education for ICT utilization

The quality of school education is closely related to teachers' ability to utilize ICT because teachers affect education. The quality and content of education varies according to what perceptions teachers have and what strategies they employ. Therefore, staff education must be a priority if we wish to effectively educate using ICT. Every year, over 33% of all teachers take ICT training and all teachers take ICT training every three years. Staff education for ICT utilization includes ICT training, the support for developing curriculum using ICT, ICT utilization contests, an information ability evaluation program, and a cyber training system.

D. Construction of information infrastructure in education

The construction of information infrastructure is a plan to construct a new infrastructure for new policies and to revise existing plans by reforming the educational environment. The term of this plan has been extended to 2002 because of the economic crisis at the end of 1997. But the first stage of the construction of ICT infrastructure was completed in 2000, thanks to the support of the President who realized the importance of adapting education to the information age. Upon the plan's completion, 10,000 schools nationwide had at least one computer lab and 220,000 classrooms had installed PCs, a visual presenter, and/or an OHP and screen.

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With this equipment, teachers have been able to utilize the internet and multimedia teaching and learning materials in class. PCs have also been distributed to 340,000 teaching staff member, to help with preparation and administrative duties. Through the internet, every school is intercon-nected and both domestic and foreign educational information is available to all schools.

2. Adapting research and

univer-sities to the information age

A professional who can lead social innovation by producing and using high quality knowledge will become the main actor in the 21st century knowledge-based society and economy. A person with high cultural literacy will also lead culture-based industries, an important field in the age of globalization. From this point of view, adapting research and universities to the information age is the most important element in determining the future of the country.

A. Adapting universities to the information age

Teachers' colleges train the prospective teachers to teach the elementary school students who will eventually lead our knowledge-based society. Since the 1990's, teachers' colleges have promoted ICT use in universities and have constructed an infrastructure conducive to ICT. They also pursued

the construction of high-tech classrooms, the reform of the internet network, the construction of intranet within campuses, cyber libraries, and ICT training for students and staff.

Beginning with a two-year temporary project that provided ICT facilities to education institutions producing secondary school teachers, the plan for ICT use in universities of education was mainly interested in national universities of education. Thus, the basic ICT facilities, such as multimedia labs or computer labs, are inferior in the 21 private universities of education, compared to 13 national universities of education by 55%. Support for ICT in private universities of education is therefore essential.

The rules concerning the establishment of a cyber university are prescribed in Article 22, Section 3 of the Lifelong Education Act and Sections 29 and 31 of its Enforcement Decree. A total of 15 cyber universities six in 2000 and nine in 2001 were founded, and in 2002 eleven institutions have applied for authorization to be established. The cyber university as a means of lifelong education and self-learning will continue to develop and supplement the role of the traditional university.

As cyber education is only beginning in Korea, we must consider some issues in its development. Although it is a higher education institute that confers a degree on students like a university approved under the Higher Education Act, a cyber university is governed by the Lifelong Education Act and is different from traditional universities in

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terms of tax benefits and service to staff and students. Taking the quality of education into consideration, the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development has limited the number of students in cyber universities. Some people have objected to such a limitation and claimed it was contrary to the cyber university's nature of openness. Although the Ministry has allowed nine universities to increase the number of students by more than 100%, the staff in charge of lectures or teaching is still limited in cyber universities, and thus we need to develop a more appropriate system for regulating cyber universities.

B. Adapting research to the information age

The university library is the central organ of a university that supports academic and research activities. University libraries have become an essential resource in the production of new knowledge and high quality Human Resources. Accordingly, their importance and necessity is being increasingly recognized. This recognition is observed through the construction of digital libraries beginning in 2000, several policy debates that have dealt with the issue of libraries, and the 2002 project for ICT use in elementary and secondary school libraries and university libraries by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. For the purpose of sharing academic information among university libraries, KERIS

operates the Research Information Service System (RISS). As of March 2002, 318 libraries have subscribed to RISS, which, at that time, possessed 5,800,000 bibliography datum and 24,000,000 collection datum. As of June 2002, 272 institutions had joined the loan service for information and were actively using the service. The online database of doctoral dissertations and master theses has been available to 37 universities and is opening to others. However, the construction of a systematic management system for copyrights is prerequisite for effective digitalization and smooth online content distribution.

3. ICT use in lifelong education

A comprehensive information system for lifelong education has been constructed and operated by a lifelong education center established under the Lifelong Education Act. This system aims to collect and provide information on lifelong education to people and to construct the network, vertically and horizontally, between central or provincial lifelong education centers and other lifelong education facilities. Through this system, people can get necessary information with the least effort and the government can eliminate double investment. Developing a comprehensive information system under which anyone can receive lifelong education anytime and anywhere using ICT is necessary to standardize and integrate widely scattered educational resources and thus to construct a single utilization

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system. Furthermore, in order to develop and provide high quality lifelong education content, we must construct vertical and horizontal networks among lifelong education institutions and facilities. For this integrated system, current lifelong education information includes information about programs, lifelong education institutions, staff or teachers and learning content. As the integrated system expands, synergy effects will improve information access.

4. Adapting educational administration

to the information age

Adapting educational administration to the information age is essential to a knowledge-based society. Currently, those working in the field are using a National Education Information System to establish an advanced working environment for educational administration.

A. National Education Information System

The goal of adapting educational administration to the information age is to construct an electronic system to connect, through the internet, all educational administration services of schools and other educational institutions and offices. This project aims to improve the quality of education by reducing the workload of staff, allowing students and parents access to student information, and increasing the productivity of educational administration institu-tions through sharing

information.

The central role of the National Education Information System is to develop the system to handle administrative duties by connecting schools with educational administration institutions. However, the projects that support the operation of the system also play very important roles, such as the collection and input of existing information, the construction of hardware and/or operating environment, the reform of relevant statutes and forms, training of system users and operators, certification of users, the supply of workers and an organizational structure for operating the system.

B. Computerization of educational admi-nistration in the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development

The computerization of educational administra-tion within the Ministry of Educaadministra-tion and Human Resources Development aims to improve the efficiency of educational administration, share information through an electronic network and provide education information services. Its main tasks include an electronic document processing system to share documents with educational institutions and affiliated institutions, and the operation of a homepage to administrate civil affairs.

CHAPTER 2. Goals and Major Tasks in Adapting Education to the

Information Age

(23)

s

ince 1998, each branch of the government has promoted projects aimed at the general public for adapting the nation to the information age. According to each branch's special goals, such projects targeted housewives, the elderly, city or provincial residents, or farmers and fishermen. However, current progress is lagging due to a lack of curriculum and standardized criteria for developing ICT utilization skills at the national level. Moreover, teaching learning materials using ICT have not yet been developed, and without the means and a measurement system to evaluate the effect of ICT utilization education, we will not be able to evaluate our progress.

Next, for staff, the Ministry has been providing ICT training for 33% of all staff from 2001 to 2003, and the Offices of Education in cities or provinces have started the Information Ability Evaluation Program.

Again, due to the lack of governmental criteria for ICT utilization skills, curriculum, teaching-learning

methods and evaluation of staff, staff ICT utilization skills are developed differently in different cities or provinces.

Lastly, for students, the Ministry has introduced the Information Literacy Certification Program for high school students, but the program has been fruitless because it lacks both admini strative and institutional support. According to ‘An operational guide for ICT education in elementary and secondary school students’ a guide designated to strengthen ICT education under the Seventh School Curriculum, the Ministry has been enforcing one hour per week of ICT education for elementary school students, from the first to the sixth grade.

As one of 10 projects to pursue the Second Stage Comprehensive Plan for Developing ICT Use in Education, in 2001, the Ministry has started the implementation plan for developing public ICT use to set goals for promoting ICT use among the public, staff, and students. This goal aims to develop and provide ICT Skill Standards for All (ISSA), its curriculum, evaluation

CHAPTER 3.

Development of ICT Utilization Skills at the National

Level

(24)

methods and teaching learning methods so that people can be equipped with ICT literacy and utilization skills.

Now, by developing ISSA and its curriculum, the Ministry is planning to set national standards, furnish evaluation methods and systems for ICT utilization skills of the people, and develop high quality teaching learning methods and materials for the promotion of ICT utilization skills on a national level.

Through these plans, staff will provide high-quality education and produce high-high-quality Human Resources by using ICT, and students will become creative and self-directed learners by using varied and abundant information. Moreover, people can learn without location or scheduling limitations through cyber space, and engage in daily activities over the internet.

In 2001 the Ministry developed the national ISSA and its curriculum, and in 2002 is planning to standardize the ISSA and introduce its curriculum to the public.

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ADAPTING EDUCATION TO THE INFORMATION AGE : PRESENT

SITUATION

CHAPTER 1.

Statutes, Institutions, and the Enforcement System concerning ICT

Use in Education

CHAPTER 2.

Adapting Education to the Information Age in Elementary and

Secondary Schools

CHAPTER 3.

ICT Use in Universities, Academies and Research Institutes

CHAPTER 4.

ICT Use in Lifelong Education and Vocational Education

CHAPTER 5.

ICT Use in Educational Administration

CHAPTER 6.

Development of Indicators to Adapt Education to the Information Age

Part-2

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1. Major statutes

A. The lifelong education act

T

his Lifelong Education Act prescribes the establishment of a national lifelong education center, local lifelong education information centers in cities or provinces, and lifelong learning centers that are acting as research, training and information centers for ICT use in lifelong education. Under the Act, the system linking lifelong education institutions and the information network for lifelong education have been lawfully constructed for the purpose of providing various opportunities and speedy information transfer concerning lifelong education. The Act stipulates not only relevant rules for cyber lifelong education using high-tech ICT and computer networks but also identifies the institutions that can be a founder of a cyber lifelong education university and confer

bachelor's degrees.

B. Framework act on informatization promotion

The Framework Act promotes informatization through the increase of private investment and fair competition in information markets; the establishment of a system corresponding to a rapid-changing environment; free access to ICT structure; the supply of service on condition that no regional or economic discrimination be allowed; the protection of privacy, copyrights and other information materials; and the promotion of international cooperation.

The Act also includes various projects a basic action plan for informatization promotion; the establishment and operation of the Informatization Promotion Committee; the promotion of public informatization; the dissemination of information culture, the establishment of sound ICT ethics; the promotion of a public information system; regular notification on the information protection system; the administration of the information system; the development of ICT

CHAPTER 1.

Statutes, Institutions, and the Enforcement System

concerning ICT Use in Education

SECTION 1.

Statutes on ICT Use in

Education

(27)

technologies; the promotion of ICT standardization; the training of ICT human resources; the construction of an ICT industry complex; the construction of a super-speed information and communication network; and the operation and utilization of information and communication networks.

C. The act on the management of knowledge information resources

This Act seeks to increase national competitiveness and contribute to the national economy by prescribing basic guiding principles on the management and use of knowledge and information resources and planning the continuing use of knowledge information resources. This Act provides legal mechanisms for managing information resources which include the selection, collection, utilization, standardization, and evaluation of information resources. The management areas under the Act are divided by category into religion, culture, history, politics and foreign affairs, industry and economy, law, geography, welfare, labor, science and technology, and education and research. Among these, information resources in four categories science and technology, education and research, culture, and history are to be kept in a digital database.

D. The copyright act

The Copyright Act describes the rights of authors, the rights neighboring on them, rights of publication, copyright management services, special provisions

concerning cinematographic works, the deliberation process on copyrights, resolution of disputes, redress for infringement of rights, and penal provisions.

While it is preferable that the original copies of a thesis or dissertation presented by universities and research institutes should be digitalized in order to be available directly to academic researchers, the problem with copyrights remains unsolved.

Pursuant to Article 28, Section 1 of the Enforcement Decree on the Copyright Act which was amended in July 2001, it shall be permissible to reproduce a work included in materials held by libraries as prescribed by the Library and Book Reading Promotion Act and other facilities described in the Presidential Decree which provide books, documents, records and other materials to the public. Only the National Library, KERIS, Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Korea Institution of Science and Technology (KIST), and Korea Research and Development Information Center (KIDIC) are allowed to participate in a digitalization project. Digitalized materials are available as read-only, and information service institutions are obliged to install devices which prevent illegal reproduction and use.

E. The Act on solutions for the digital divide

This Act purports to increase quality of life and ensure a balanced development of the economy by guaranteeing free access and use of information networks to people who have difficulties in access due

CHAPTER 1. Statutes, Institutions, and the Enforcement System

concerning ICT Use in Education

(28)

to their economic, regional, physical or social barriers. It also describes the national and local governments' responsibility for narrowing the information gap. Pursuant to Article 8 of the Framework Act on Information Promotion, a committee on decreasing the information gap was established under the Informatization Support Division of the Ministry of Information and Communication.

The strategies for the promotion of ICT Use in Education are as follows:

- The Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development launched the Ministerial Commission for Human Resources Development, and through this Commission manages and coordinates projects involving educational reform and Human Resources.

- Relevant institutions and organizations establish and implement basic plans, mobilize and allocate resources, and provide administrative and financial support for the promotion of ICT use in education.

- Local governments establish specific plans and undertake their implementation, mobilize and allocate resources, and manage education and training services.

- Educational institutions at every level develop ICT-based teaching-learning methods, share and

utilize science and knowledge information, and promote ICT use among the people.

- Industries participate in and support ICT projects, R&D, development of technology and information. With the consultation of the International Information Subcommittee under the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development, major information policies and policies on ICT use in education are determined by the Presidential Commission on Education and Human Resources Policy, which is responsible directly to the President, the Information Strategy Meeting, and the Korea Informatization Promotion Committee chaired by the Prime Minister.

Further, as shown in Figure 2-1 , the Second Stage Comprehensive Plan for Developing ICT Use in Education proposes ICT use in all areas of education, government, and industry.

Part-2

SECTION 2.

Promotion Strategies

and System to Adapt

Education to the

Information Age

(29)

CHAPTER 1. Statutes, Institutions, and the Enforcement System

concerning ICT Use in Education

22

Figure 2-1 Promotion System of ICT Use in Education

Related Institutions Local Government IT Industry Museum Library Vocational Training Institution Community Information Center

City and Provincial Office of Education Higher Education Institution KERIS KEDI KICE Lifelong Education Institution KRIVET Presidential Commission on

Education and Human Resources Policy Information Strategy Committee Information Promotion Committee Informatization Enforcement Subcommittee Ministerial Commission for

Human Resources

Development Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development

President

Prime Minister

Early Childhood, Special, and Gifted Child Education Elementary and Secondary Education Liftelong Education Higher Education e-Community

(30)

1. Background

T

he construction of an infrastructure to facilitate ICT use began in 1997 and has been essential in creating the foundations of the information society and the enhancement of the nation's ICT literacy. It began as the Three Year Plan for the Construction of ICT Infrastructure (1997-99), but was revised under the Comprehensive Plan for ICT Use in Elementary and Secondary Schools (1998-2002) in 1998. This comprehensive plan was again modified in 1999. The latest policy, currently in effect, is the Five-Year Plan for Education Development (1999-2003).

Moreover, on January 3, 2000, President Kim Dae Jung, in his New Year's Message for 2000, proclaimed his goal to complete the Comprehensive Plan for ICT Use in Education by the end of 2000 and ordered the early construction of infrastructure to facilitate ICT use in education in preparation for the 21st century

knowledge-based society and in accordance with the Seventh School Curriculum.

Thereupon, on April 24, 2000, the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development launched a ‘New Budget for the Comprehensive Plan for ICT use in Education, related to the Presidential New Year's Message.’ With the cooperation of the Ministry of Planning and Budget and the Ministry of Information and Communication, the Ministry has completed the Comprehensive Plan in spite of a lack of time and money.

Thanks to the early completion of the infrastructure for ICT use in education, every elementary and secondary school in the country has installed a LAN and is connected to the internet the first time this has been done on a national scale anywhere in the world. More than 13,000 computer labs are now in use by teachers and students in these schools. Each of the 222,000 classrooms has PCs and multimedia equipment installed. PCs have also been distributed to each of 340,000 teaching staff member. Thus, every elementary and secondary school teacher will be able to exploit the internet for teaching-learning resources

SECTION 1.

Improvement of

infrastructure to facilitate

ICT use in Education

CHAPTER 2.

Adapting Education to the Information Age in

Elementary and Secondary Schools

(31)

and this will help students develop their self-directed and explorative learning abilities.

2. The second stage of the

compre-hensive plan for ICT use in education

Upon completion of the first stage of the Com-prehensive Plan for ICT Use in Education, all elementary and secondary schools are now furnished with in-campus networks, an internet connection and computer labs, and are ready for ICT use in education.

But, to improve the ICT infrastructure to the levels of the advanced OECD countries, we must increase the number of PCs, replace old PCs, raise Internet communication speeds and install other labs and equipment.

We must reduce the student PC ratio to five students per PC and raise internet communication speeds to at least 2Mbps. The accomplishment of these tasks requires more resource input and institutional collaboration not only between govern-mental organizations but also between the public and the private sector. We must also make sure that resources remain available in order to improve the infrastructure and maintain existing ICT instruments.

3. Current status of improving

infor-mation infrastructure in education

The basic infrastructure for ICT use in education

was constructed after the completion of the first stage of the Comprehensive Plan for ICT use in Education. The next step is to increase teachers' ICT literacy, develop new educational curriculum using ICT, and produce new educational content using ICT. We must also understand that continuous maintenance and repair of ICT equipments is necessary to become "the best country in computer utilization," along with a high level of infrastructure for ICT use in education.

The Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development amended the enfor-cement rules to subsidize local educational finance by changing from a method of computing using cost coefficients to a method estimating actual expenses and secured a budget of 450 billion won in 2001 and 300 billion won in 2002, some of which are to be allocated for the construction of higher quality infrastructure.

4. Construction of harmful

informa-tion filtering systems

While popular use of the internet has resulted in a positive change in educational methods using ICT and the development of the ICT industry, it has also increased the circulation of harmful information. Since one characteristic of the internet is that it guarantees the anonymity of users, and unlimited access to all types of information, youth are being exposed to harmful information. Harmful information means information violating the law, ethics, or social norms. Examples are in <Table 2-1>.

CHAPTER 2. Adapting Education to the Information Age in Elementary

and Secondary Schools

(32)

5. Information & communication security

for educational information system

The Information & Communication Security for Educational Information System indicates all the means and methods to eliminate the weaknesses of the Education Information System and protect the System from inside and outside attack. The Education Information System includes computers installed in elementary and secondary schools, and the data recorded in those computers, and LANs.

Since early 2000, the exchange and dissemination of information in classes using the internet, educational administration using ICT and the exchange of e-mails have been universalized through the construction of networks in elementary and secondary schools. However, schools have often simultaneously suffered damage directly from viruses or hacking, or have indirectly caused harm to other institutions. It is urgent that we realize the need for reinforcing the security of information systems.

Part-2

To produce and circulate photographs, pictures, books, video and animation depicting sexual activities using multimedia technology

Examples Details

Pornography

To smear a person's name or character through aggressive and destructive images, games, language, killing and abuse.

Violent materials

Illegal dissemination of software and multimedia content. Violation of IP

rights

Cyber gambling through the Internet, the outflow of foreign currency when using foreign gambling websites, and the increase of gambling spirits. Cyber

Gambling

To harm a person's reputation by spreading falsehoods or undisclosed truth Defamation

To seek indecent conversation, prostitution or a sex partner Cyber Sex

* Source : National Computerization Agency (Feb. 2001). 2001 Korean Internet White Paper.

<Table 2-1> Examples of harmful information

Untruthful advertising, campaigns, or tricks abusing the Internet Fraud

Continuous unwanted touch or contact, threats, or use of abusive words Stalking

Online sale of unlawful items or of items prohibited to be sold online Illegal Sale

(33)

1. Overview

As ICT use in education expands, various digital educational contents will be developed, disseminated and shared. The main forms of educational content include the following: multimedia educational materials with images and sounds; teaching-learning plans which use ICT by combining a teaching plan with learning activities; teaching software using ICT for a lecture; educational software contests; and

software developed by the private sector. Within the system for disseminating and sharing various digital contents, the schools have arranged learner-centered classes and have sought better educational outcomes.

2. Current status of the development and

distribution of educational content

Until present, public institutions have developed 6,454 items of educational content and the private sector has developed 3,724 items. Among the materials produced by public institutions, there are 102 items defined as multimedia educational material, 95 as teaching-learning plans using ICT, 3,386 as

CHAPTER 2. Adapting Education to the Information Age in Elementary

and Secondary Schools

26

58 44 102

Form 88 - 99 2000 2001 Total

Multimedia educational materials

95 95 teaching learning plans using ICT

2,070 468 848 3,386 teaching software using ICT

684 76 760 - joint development by Offices of Education

1,163 193 299 1,655 - separate development by Offices of Education

12 12 - KERIS

233 275 461 959 - Educational software Contests

2,308 326 237 2,871 Learning materials using ICT

37 10 47

- Software for individual study

218 51 31 300 - Software for learning by subject

2,053 275 196 2,524 - Educational software Contests

1,319 1,206 1,199 3,724 Software developed by private sector

113 104 217 - Agreement on the authentic software use

217 138 118 473 - Authentication of educational software

1,102 955 977 3,034 - Educational Software Exhibitions

5,697 2,058 2,423 10,178 Total

< Table 2-2> Status of development of educational content (up to 2001) (Unit : item)

SECTION 2.

Development and

Dissemination of

Educational Content

(34)

teaching software, and 2,871 as learning materials. To promote the use of educational materials by the private sector, there are 217 items under the Agreement on Authentic Software Use, 473 items with Authentication Certificate and 3,034 items entered in software exhibitions(See <Table 2-2>).

3. Promotion of the use of educational

materials

A. Educational Software Contest

Educational software contests have been held since 1992 to encourage the development of educational software and to enhance teachers' interest in ICT use. KERIS manages this national contest under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The Offices of Education in cities and provinces hold preliminary contests in their districts and the contest is open to prospective teachers and students studying education in college or university.

B. Authentication of Educational Software

As hundreds of educational software programs are produced every year and the quality of these programs varies, it is not easy for teachers, students, or parents to evaluate their quality. They cannot try a large number of programs, nor can they choose appropriate ones by depending on advertising. To address this situation, KERIS has been authenticating educational software since August 1998 to help software

consumers get reliable information on educational software and to guide software developers by providing direction for software development and improvement.

C. Committee for Authentic Software Use

The Committee for Authentic Software Use was formed in 1999 to drive out the use of illegal software and to promote the use of authenticated software in elementary and secondary schools. Using authentic software is essential for copyright protection and promotes an ethical information culture in our society.

D. Educational software exhibitions and seminar

Since 1998, educational software exhibitions have been held to show new educational software to teachers and to allow software developers to advertise their products. The 5th Educational Software Fair in 2002 toured through 4 major cities Seoul, Gwangju, Daegu, and Busan from March 14, 2002 to April 6, 2002 and about 425,000 people visited the exhibitions.

1. History

EDUNET is an integrated service network for educational information developed by KERIS, in

Part-2

SECTION 3.

Construction and

Operation of EDUNET

(35)

order to meet the information demands of teachers, students, and parents through PC communication. It was established with several goals in mind: to actively prepare for the rapidly changing information society; to enhance global competitiveness in education; to construct a foundation for open and lifelong education; and to provide an effective communication service for educational information. The basic plan for EDUNET was prepared by the Promotion Subcommittee on ICT Use in Education in April 1996. EDUNET started its service in September 1996 and the Korean Educational Development Institute was initially charged with its operation.

2. Current operations

A. Operational goals

EDUNET provides the information channel through which every education consumer can retrieve the information he or she needs in the knowledge-based information society. EDUNET aims to promote the achievement of the following goals:

- To provide an effective educational information network by integrating disparate educational information;

- To construct the foundation for cyber education; - To construct an educational information database

for ICT use; and

- To promote the utilization of the internet for effective educational services.

B. Technical specifications of EDUNET

EDUNET operates with more than 50 servers, including three web servers, nine mail servers, eleven user-connection servers, nineteen database and contents servers, and seven community servers. Each server has a different function according to service type.

C. Current status of EDUNET service

Since the EDUNET began service in 1996, it has provided a comprehensive information service by distributing teaching-learning materials, teaching plans and learning activities. As of April 2002, the total number of EDUNET subscribers reached over 5.1 million. EDUNET has grown with the changing information demands of its members, the development of ICT and changes to the educational environment.

3. Membership

The membership of EDUNET has shown an average annual growth rate of 160% since 1996. The number of individual subscribers in December of 1996 was 40,000. It grew to 190,000 in 1997, 570,000 in 1998, 1,530,000 in 1999, 2,630,000 in 2000, 4,820,000 in 2001 and over 5,000,000 in April of 2002. Almost every teacher in the country is a subscriber and there are 3,580,000 student subscribers, 46% of whom are elementary and secondary school students.

CHAPTER 2. Adapting Education to the Information Age in Elementary

and Secondary Schools

Figure

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References

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