Year Book India 2010 Publications Division

1292  Download (0)

Full text

(1)
(2)

INDIA 2010

A REFERENCE ANNUAL

Compiled by

RESEARCH, REFERENCE AND TRAINING DIVISION

PUBLICATIONS DIVISION

MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND BROADCASTING GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

(3)

54

Edition

© Research, Reference and Training Division

Price : Rs. 345.00

Published by the Additional Director General (Incharge),

Publications Division,

Ministry of Information and Broadcasting,

Government of India, Soochna Bhawan, CGO Complex

Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110 003

Website : www.publicationsdivision.nic.in

E-mail : dpd@mail.nic.in

Sales Centres :

l

Soochna Bhavan, C.G.O. Complex, Lodhi Road, New

Delhi-110003

l

Hall No. 196, Old Secretariat, Delhi-110054

l

701, B-Wing,

Kendriya Sadan, Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614

l

8, Esplanade East,

Kolkata-700069

l

'A' Wing, Rajaji Bhawan, Besant Nagar, Chennai-600090

l

Press

Road, Near Govt. Press, Thiruvananthapuram-695001

l

Block 4, 1st Floor,

Gruhakalpa Complex, M.G. Road, Nampally Hyderabad-500001

l

1st Floor,

‘F’ Wing, Kendriya Sadan, Koramangala, Bangaluru-560034

l

Bihar State

Co-operative Bank Building, Ashoka Rajpath, Patna-800004

l

Hall No. 1, 2nd

Floor, Kendriya Bhawan, Sector H, Aliganj, Lucknow-226024

l

Ambica

Complex, 1st Floor, Paldi, Ahmedabad-380007

l

House No. 7, New Colony,

Cheni Kuthi, KKB Road Guwahati-781003.

Publications Division Editing :

Dayawanti Srivastava Nitima Shiv Charan S. Manjula

R. Anuradha

Cover Design : Asha Saxena Production : J. K. Chandra

Research, Reference and Training Division Compilation and Coordination

S. M. Khan Surendra Kumar Romi Sharma Simmi Kumar

Typesetter : Quick Prints, Naraina, New Delhi-110 028. Printed at : TAN Prints India Pvt. Ltd. (HR)

ISBN : 978-81-230-1617-7 REF-ENG-OP-069-2009-10

(4)

1 . Land and the People 1

2 . National Symbols 2 2

3 . The Polity 2 6

4 . Agriculture 6 1

5 . Art and Culture 1 1 4

6 . Basic Economic Data 1 2 8

7 . Commerce 1 5 3 8 . Communications 1 6 9 9 . Defence 2 0 5 1 0 . Education 2 2 7 1 1 . Energy 2 6 2 1 2 . Environment 3 0 6 1 3 . Finance 3 4 6 1 4 . Corporate Affairs 4 2 5

1 5 . Food and Civil Supplies 4 3 6

1 6 . Health and Family Welfare 4 7 9

1 7 . H o u s i n g 5 4 9

1 8 . India and the World 5 6 7

1 9 . Industry 6 0 6

2 0 . Justice and Law 7 0 7

2 1 . Labour 7 3 0

2 2 . Mass Communication 7 5 4

2 3 . P l a n n i n g 8 0 8

2 4 . Rural Development 8 4 2

2 5 . Scientific and Technological Developments 8 6 2

2 6 . Transport 9 6 1

2 7 . Water Resources 9 9 8

2 8 . Welfare 1 0 2 9

2 9 . Youth Affairs and Sports 1 0 8 6

3 0 . States and Union Territories 1 1 0 7

3 1 . Diary of National Events 1 2 2 3

(5)

1 Land and the People

"INDIA is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend and the great grandmother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only."—Mark Twain

India has a unique culture and is one of the oldest and greatest civilizations of the world. It stretches from the snow-capped Himalayas in the North to sun drenched coastal villages of the South, the humid tropical forests on the south-west coast, the fertile Brahamputra valley on its East to the Thar desert in the West. It covers an area of 32,87,263 sq. km. It has achieved all-round socio-economic progress during the last 62 years of its Independence. India has become self-sufficient in agricultural production and is now the tenth industrialised country in the world and the sixth nation to have gone into outer space to conquer nature for the benefit of the people. As the 7th largest country in the world, India stands apart from the rest of Asia,

marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.

Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between latitudes 8°4' and 37°6' north, longitudes 68°7' and 97°25' east and measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman & Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.

PHYSICAL BACKGROUND

Countries having a common border with India are Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west, China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north, Myanmar to the east and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

PHYSICAL FEATURES

The mainland comprises four regions, namely, the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region and the southern peninsula.

The Himalayas comprise three almost parallel ranges interspersed with large plateaus and valleys, some of which, like the Kashmir and Kullu valleys, are fertile, extensive and of great scenic beauty. Some of the highest peaks in the world are found in these ranges. The high altitudes admit travel only to a few passes, notably the Jelep La and Nathu La on the main Indo-Tibet trade route through the Chumbi Valley, north-east of Darjeeling and Shipki La in the Satluj valley, north-east of Kalpa (Kinnaur). The mountain wall extends over a distance of about 2,400 km with a varying depth of 240 to 320 km. In the east, between India and Myanmar and India and Bangladesh, hill ranges are much lower. Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and Naga Hills,

(6)

running almost east-west, join the chain to Mizo and Rkhine Hills running north-south.

The plains of the Ganga and the Indus, about 2,400 km long and 240 to 320 km broad, are formed by basins of three distinct river systems - the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. They are one of the world’s greatest stretches of flat alluvium and also one of the most densely populated areas on the earth. Between the Yamuna at Delhi and the Bay of Bengal, nearly 1,600 km away, there is a drop of only 200 metres in elevation.

The desert region can be divided into two parts - the great desert and the little desert. The great desert extends from the edge of the Rann of Kuchch beyond the Luni river northward. The whole of the Rajasthan-Sind frontier runs through this. The little desert extends from the Luni between Jaisalmer and Jodhpur up to the northern wastes. Between the great and the little deserts lies a zone of absolutely sterile country, consisting of rocky land, cut up by limestone ridges.

The Peninsular Plateau is marked off from the plains of the Ganga and the Indus by a mass of mountain and hill ranges varying from 460 to 1,220 metres in height. Prominent among these are the Aravalli, Vindhya, Satpura, Maikala and Ajanta. The Peninsula is flanked on the one side by the Eastern Ghats where average elevation is about 610 metres and on the other by the Western Ghats where it is generally from 915 to 1,220 metres, rising in places to over 2,440 metres. Between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea lies a narrow coastal strip, while between Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal there is a broader coastal area. The southern point of plateau is formed by the Nilgiri Hills where the Eastern and the Western Ghats meet. The Cardamom Hills lying beyond may be regarded as a continuation of the Western Ghats.

GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE

The geological regions broadly follow the physical features and may be grouped into three regions: the Himalayas and their associated group of mountains, the Indo-Ganga Plain and the Peninsular Shield.

The Himalayan mountain belt to the north and the Naga-Lushai mountain in the east, are the regions of mountain-building movement. Most of this area, now presenting some of the most magnificent mountain scenery in the world, was under marine conditions about 60 crore years ago. In a series of mountain-building movements commencing about seven crore years ago, the sediments and the basement rocks rose to great heights. The weathering and erosive agencies worked on these to produce the relief seen today. The Indo-Ganga plains are a great alluvial tract that separate the Himalayas in the north from the Peninsula in the south.

The Peninsula is a region of relative stability and occasional seismic disturbances. Highly metamorphosed rocks of the earliest periods, dating back as far as 380 crore years, occur in the area; the rest being covered by the coastal-bearing Gondwana formations, lava flows belonging to the Deccan Trap formation and younger sediments.

RIVER SYSTEMS

The river systems of India can be classified into four groups viz., (i) Himalayan rivers, (ii) Deccan rivers, (iii) Coastal rivers, and (iv) Rivers of the inland drainage basin. The Himalayan rivers are formed by melting snow and glaciers and therefore, continuously flow throughout the year. During the monsoon months, Himalayas

(7)

receive very heavy rainfall and rivers swell, causing frequent floods. The Deccan rivers on the other hand are rainfed and therefore fluctuate in volume. Many of these are non-perennial. The Coastal streams, especially on the west coast are short in length and have limited catchment areas. Most of them are non-perennial. The streams of inland drainage basin of western Rajasthan are few and far apart. Most of them are of an ephemeral character.

The main Himalayan river systems are those of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna system. The Indus, which is one of the great rivers of the world, rises near Mansarovar in Tibet and flows through India and thereafter through Pakistan and finally falls in the Arabian sea near Karachi. Its important tributaries flowing in Indian territory are the Sutlej (originating in Tibet), the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum. The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna is another important system of which the principal sub-basins are those of Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda, which join at Dev Prayag to form the Ganga. It traverses through Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal states. Below Rajmahal hills, the Bhagirathi, which used to be the main course in the past, takes off, while the Padma continues eastward and enters Bangladesh. The Yamuna, the Ramganga, the Ghaghra, the Gandak, the Kosi, the Mahananda and the Sone are the important tributaries of the Ganga. Rivers Chambal and Betwa are the important sub-tributaries, which join Yamuna before it meets the Ganga. The Padma and the Brahmaputra join at Bangladesh and continue to flow as the Padma or Ganga. The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet, where it is known as Tsangpo and runs a long distance till it crosses over into India in Arunachal Pradesh under the name of Dihang. Near Passighat, the Debang and Lohit join the river Brahmaputra and the combined river runs all along the Assam in a narrow valley. It crosses into Bangladesh downstream of Dhubri.

The principal tributaries of Brahmaputra in India are the Subansiri, Jia Bhareli, Dhansiri, Puthimari, Pagladiya and the Manas. The Brahmaputra in Bangladesh fed by Tista etc., finally falls into Ganga. The Barak river, the Head stream of Meghna, rises in the hills in Manipur. The important tributaries of the river are Makku, Trang, Tuivai, Jiri, Sonai, Rukni, Katakhal, Dhaleswari, Langachini, Maduva and Jatinga. Barak continues in Bangladesh till the combined Ganga—Brahmaputra join it near Bhairab Bazar.

In the Deccan region, most of the major river systems flowing generally in east direction fall into Bay of Bengal. The major east flowing rivers are Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery, Mahanadi, etc. Narmada and Tapti are major West flowing rivers.

The Godavari in the southern Peninsula has the second largest river basin covering 10 per cent of the area of India. Next to it is the Krishna basin in the region, while the Mahanadi has the third largest basin. The basin of the Narmada in the uplands of the Deccan, flowing to the Arabian Sea and of the Kaveri in the south, falling into the Bay of Bengal are about the same size, though with different character and shape.

There are numerous coastal rivers, which are comparatively small. While only handful of such rivers drain into the sea near the delta of east coast, there are as many as 600 such rivers on the west coast.

A few rivers in Rajasthan do not drain into the sea. They drain into salt lakes and get lost in sand with no outlet to sea. Besides these, there are the desert rivers which flow for some distance and are lost in the desert. These are Luni, Machhu, Rupen, Saraswati, Banas, Ghaggar and others.

(8)

CLIMATE

The climate of India may be broadly described as tropical monsoon type. There are four seasons: (i) winter (Janu ary-February), (ii) hot weather summer (March-May); (iii) rainy south-western monsoon (June-September) and (iv) post-monsoon, also known as north-east monsoon in the southern Peninsula (October-December). India’s climate is affected by two seasonal winds - the north-east monsoon and the south-west monsoon. The north-east monsoon commonly known as winter monsoon blows from land to sea whereas south-west monsoon known as summer monsoon blows from sea to land after crossing the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The south-west monsoon brings most of the rainfall during the year in the country.

F L O R A

With a wide range of climatic conditions from the torrid to the arctic, India has a rich and varied vegetation, which only a few countries of comparable size possess. India can be divided into eight distinct-floristic-regions, namely, the western Himalayas, the eastern Himalayas, Assam, the Indus plain, the Ganga plain, the Deccan, Malabar and the Andamans.

The Western Himalayan region extends from Kashmir to Kumaon. Its temperate zone is rich in forests of chir, pine, other conifers and broad-leaved temperate trees. Higher up, forests of deodar, blue pine, spruce and silver fir occur. The alpine zone extends from the upper limit of the temperate zone of about 4,750 metres or even higher. The characteristic trees of this zone are high-level silver fir, silver birch and junipers. The eastern Himalayan region extends from Sikkim eastwards and embraces Darjeeling, Kurseong and the adjacent tract. The temperate zone has forests of oaks, laurels, maples, rhododendrons, alder and birch. Many conifers, junipers and dwarf willows also grow here. The Assam region comprises the Brahamaputra and the Surma valleys with evergreen forests, occasional thick clumps of bamboos and tall grasses. The Indus plain region comprises the plains of Punjab, western Rajasthan and northern Gujarat. It is dry, hot and supports natural vegetation. The Ganga plain region covers the area which is alluvial plain and is under cultivation for wheat, sugarcane and rice. Only small areas support forests of widely differing types. The Deccan region comprises the entire table land of the Indian Peninsula and supports vegetation of various kinds from scrub jungles to mixed deciduous forests. The Malabar region covers the excessively humid belt of mountain country parallel to the west coast of the Peninsula. Besides being rich in forest vegetation, this region produces important commercial corps, such as coconut, betelnut, pepper, coffee, tea, rubber and cashewnut. The Andaman region abounds in evergreen, mangrove, beach and diluvial forests. The Himalayan region extending from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh through Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Meghalaya and Nagaland and the Deccan Peninsula is rich in endemic flora, with a large number of plants which are not found elsewhere. India is rich in flora. Available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70 per cent geographical area surveyed so far, over 46,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Kolkata. The vascular flora, which forms the conspicuous vegetation cover, comprises 15,000 species. The flora of the country is being studied by BSI and its nine circle/field offices located throughout the country along with certain universities and research institutions.

(9)

Ethno-botanical study deals with the utilisation of plants and plant products by ethnic races. A scientific study of such plants has been made by BSI. A number of detailed ethno-botanical explorations have been conducted in different tribal areas of the country. More than 800 plant species of ethno-botanical interest have been collected and identified at different centres.

Owing to destruction of forests for agricultural, industrial and urban development, several Indian plants are facing extinction. About 1,336 plant species are considered vulnerable and endangered. About 20 species of higher plants are categorised as possibly extinct as these have not been sighted during the last 6-10 decades. BSI brings out an inventory of endangered plants in the form of a publication titled Red Data Book.

F A U N A

The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), with its headquarters in Kolkata and 16 regional stations is responsible for surveying the faunal resources of India. Possessing a tremendous diversity of climate and physical conditions, India has great variety of fauna numbering over 89,000 species. Of these, protista number 2,577, mollusca 5,070, anthropoda 68,389, amphibia 209, mammalia 390, reptilia 456, members of protochordata 119, pisces 2,546, aves 1,232 and other invertebrates 8,329.

The mammals include the majestic elephant, the gaur or Indian bison–the largest of existing bovines, the great Indian rhinoceros, the gigantic wild sheep of the Himalayas, the swamp deer, the thamin spotted deer, nilgai, the four-horned antelope, the Indian antelope or black-buck – the only representatives of these genera. Among the cats, the tiger and lion are the most magnificent of all; other splendid creatures such as the clouded leopard, the snow leopard, the marbled cat, etc., are also found. Many other species of mammals are remarkable for their beauty, colouring, grace and uniqueness. Several birds, like pheasants, geese, ducks, myanahs, parakeets, pigeons, cranes, hornbills and sunbirds inhabit forests and wetlands.

Rivers and lakes harbour crocodiles and gharials, the latter being the only representative of crocodilian order in the world. The salt water crocodile is found along the eastern coast and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. A project for breeding crocodiles which started in 1974, has been instrumental in saving the crocodile from extinction.

The great Himalayan range has a very interesting variety of fauna that includes the wild sheep and goats, markhor, ibex, shrew and tapir. The panda and the snow leopard are found in the upper reaches of the mountains.

Depletion of vegetative cover due to expansion of agriculture, habitat destruction, over-exploitation, pollution, introduction of toxic imbalance in community structure, epidemics, floods, droughts and cyclones, contribute to the loss of flora and fauna. More than 39 species of mammals, 72 species of birds, 17 species of reptiles, three species of amphibians, two species of fish and a large number of butterflies, moth and beetles are considered vulnerable and endangered.

DEMOGRAPHIC BACKGROUND

CENSUS

The Census of India 2001, is historic and epoch making, being the first census of the twenty-first century and the third millennium. It reveals benchmark data on the state of abundant human resources available in the country, their demography, culture

(10)

and economic structure at a juncture, which marks a centennial and millenial transition.

The population enumeration of 2001 census was undertaken during 9-28 February 2001 with a revisional round from 1-5 March 2001. The census moment, the referral time at which the snapshot of the population is taken was 00.00 hours of 1 March 2001. Until the 1991 Census, the sunrise of 1 March was taken to be the census moment. The houseless population, as has been the usual practice, was enumerated on the night of 28 February 2001.

P O P U L A T I O N

India’s population as on 1 March 2001 stood at 1,028 million (532.1 million males and 496.4 million females). India accounts for a meagre 2.4 per cent of the world surface area of 135.79 million sq km. Yet, it supports and sustains a whopping 16.7 per cent of the world population.

The population of India, which at the turn of the twentieth century was around 238.4 million, increased to reach 1,028 million at the dawn of the twenty-first century. The population of India as recorded at each decennial census from 1901 has grown steadily except for a decrease during 1911-21. Decadal growth of population from 1901 is shown in table 1.1.

Table 1.2 gives the selected indicators of population growth in different States and Union Territories. The per cent decadal growth of population in the inter-censal period 1991-2001 varies from a low of 9.43 in Kerala to a very high 64.53 in Nagaland. Delhi with 47.02 per cent, Chandigarh with 40.28 per cent and Sikkim with 33.06 per cent registered very high growth rates. In addition to Kerala, Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh registered low growth rates during 1991-2001.

POPULATION DENSITY

One of the important indices of population concentration is the density of population. It is defined as the number of persons per sq km. The population density of India in 2001 was 324 per sq km.

The density of population was increased in all States and Union Territories between 1991 and 2001. Among major states, West Bengal is still the most thickly populated state with a population density of 903 in 2001. Bihar is now the second highest densely populated state pushing Kerala to the third place. Ranking of the States and Union Territories by density is shown in table 1.3.

SEX RATIO

Sex ratio, defined as the number of females per thousand males is an important social indicator to measure the extent of prevailing equality between males and females in a society at a given point of time. The sex ratio in the country had always remained unfavourable to females. It was 972 at the beginning of the 20th century and thereafter

showed continuous decline until 1941. The sex ratio from 1901-2001 is given in table 1.4.

L I T E R A C Y

For the purpose of census 2001, a person aged seven and above, who can both read and write with understanding in any language, is treated as literate. A person, who can only read but cannot write, is not literate. In the censuses prior to 1991, children below five years of age were necessarily treated as illiterates.

(11)

TABLE 1.1 : POPULATION 1901-2001 Average Decadal Growth Change in decadal annual Progressive Census growth exponential growth rate years Population growth rate over 1901 Absolute Per cent Absolute Per cent (per cent) (per cent) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1901 23 ,83,96,327 – – – – – – 1911 25,20,93,390 1,36,97,063 5.75 – – 0.56 5.75 1921 25,13,21,213 -7,72,177 -0.31 -1,44,69,240 -6.05 -0.03 5.42 1931 27,89,77,238 2,76,56,025 11.00 2,84,28,202 11.31 1.04 17.02 1941 31,86,60,580 3,96,83,342 14.22 1,20,27,317 3.22 1.33 33.67 1951 1 36,10,88,090 4,24,27,510 13.31 27,44,168 -0.91 1.25 51.47 1961 1 43,92,34,771 7,81,46,681 21.64 3,57,19,171 8.33 1.96 84.25 1971 54,81,59,652 10,89,24,881 24.80 3,07,78,200 3.16 2.22 129.94 1981 2 68,33,29,097 13,51,69,445 24.66 2,62,44,564 -0.14 2.20 186.64 1991 3 84,64,21,039 16,30,91,942 23.87 2,79,22,497 -0.79 2.14 255.05 2001 4 1,02,87,37,436 18,23,16,397 21.54 1,92,24,455 -2.33 1.95 331.47 Notes : 1.

In working out ‘Decadal Growth’ and ‘Percentage Decadal Growth’ for India 1941-51 and 1951-61 the population of Tuensang district for 1951 (7,025) and the population of Tuensang (83,501) and Mon (5,774) districts for 1961 Census of Nagaland state have not been taken into account as the areas went in for census for the first time in 1951 and the same are not comparable.

2.

The 1981 Census could not be held owing to disturbances in Assam. Hence the population figures for 1981 of Assam have been worked out by ‘interpolation’.

3.

The 1991 Census could not be held owing to disturbances in Jammu and Kashmir. Hence the population figures for 1991 of Jammu and Kashmir have been worked out by ‘interpolation’.

4.

The population figures of 2001 includes estimated figures for those of the three sub-divisions, viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Pural of Senapa

ti district of Manipur as census result of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative

(12)

TABLE 1.2

: TOTAL POPULATION AND POPUATION GROWTH DURING 1991-2001,

INDIA/STATE/UNION TERRITORY

Sl. No. India State/Union territory Total Population

Population growth 1991 2001 1991-2001 Person Males Females Person Males Females 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 India ** 846,421,039 439,358,440 407,062,599 1,028,737,436 532,223,090 496,514,346 21.54 1.

Jammu and Kashmir*

7,837,051 4,142,082 3,694,969 10,143,700 5,360,926 4,782,774 29.43 2. Himachal Pradesh 5,170,877 2,617,467 2,553,410 6,077,900 3,087,940 2,989,960 17.54 3. Punjab 20,281,969 10,778,034 9,503,935 24,358,999 12,985,045 11,373,954 20.10 4. Chandigarh 642,015 358,614 283,401 900,635 506,938 393,697 40.28 5. Uttarakhand 7,050,634 3,640,895 3,409,739 8,489,349 4,325,924 4,163,425 20.41 6. Haryana 16,463,648 8,827,474 7,636,174 21,144,564 11,363,953 9,780,611 28.43 7. Delhi 9,420,644 5,155,512 4,265,132 13,850,507 7,607,234 6,243,273 47.02 8. Rajasthan 44,005,990 23,042,780 20,963,210 56,507,188 29,420,011 27,087,177 28.41 9. Uttar Pradesh 132,061,653 70,396,062 61,665,591 166,197,921 87,565,369 78,632,552 25.85 10. Bihar 64,530,554 33,838,238 30,692,316 82,998,509 43,243,795 39,754,714 28.62 11. Sikkim 406,457 216,427 190,030 540,851 288,484 252,367 33.06 12. Arunachal Pradesh 864,558 465,004 399,554 1,097,968 579,941 518,027 27.00 13. Nagaland 1,209,546 641,282 568,264 1,990,036 1,047,141 942,895 64.53 14. Manipur** 1,837,149 938,359 898,790 2,293,896 1,161,952 1,131,944 24.86 15. Mizoram 689,756 358,978 330,778 888,573 459,109 429,464 28.82 16. Tripura 2,757,205 1,417,930 1,339,275 3,199,203 1,642,225 1,556,978 16.03 17. Meghalaya 1,774,778 907,687 867,091 2,318,822 1,176,087 1,142,735 30.65 18. Assam 22,414,322 11,657,989 10,756,333 26,655,528 13,777,037 12,878,491 18.92 19. West Bengal 68,077,965 35,510,633 32,567,332 80,176,197 41,465,985 38,710,212 17.77

(13)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20. Jharkhand 21,843,911 11,363,853 10,480, 058 26,945,829 13,885,037 13,060,792 23.36 21. Orissa 31,659,736 16,064,146 15,595,590 36,804,660 18,660,570 18,144,090 16.25 22. Chhattisgarh 17,614,928 8,872,620 8,742,308 20,833,803 10,474,218 10,369,585 18.27 23. Madhya Pradesh 48,566,242 25,394,673 23,171,569 60,348,023 31,443,652 28,904,371 24.26 24. Gujarat 41,309,582 21,355,209 19,954,373 50,671,017 26,385,577 24,285,440 22.66 25.

Daman and Diu

101,586 51,595 49,991 158,204 92,512 65,692 55.73 26.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

138,477 70,953 67,524 220,490 121,666 98,824 59.22 27. Maharashtra 78,937,187 40,825,618 38,111,569 96,878,627 50,400,596 46,478,031 22.73 28. Andhra Pradesh 66,508,008 33,724,581 32,783,427 76,210,007 38,527,413 37,682,594 14.59 29. Karnataka 44,977,201 22,951,917 22,025,284 52,850,562 26,898,918 25,951,644 17.51 30. Goa 1,169,793 594,790 575,003 1,347,668 687,248 660,420 15.21 31. Lakshadweep 51,707 26,618 25,089 60,650 31,131 29,519 17.30 32. Kerala 29,098,518 14,288,995 14,809,523 31,841,374 15,468,614 16,372,760 9.43 33. Tamilnadu 55,858,946 28,298,975 27,559,971 62,405,679 31,400,909 31,004,770 11.72 34. Puducherry 807,785 408,081 399,704 974,345 486,961 487,384 20.62 35. Andaman and 280,661 154,369 126,292 356,152 192,972 163,180 26.90 Nicobar Islands Note : *

The 1991 census figures of Jammu & Kashmir are interpolated as no census was conducted there due to disturbances.

**

India and Manipur figures include estimated figures for those of the three sub-divisions viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Puru of Senapati district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons.

Source :

(14)

The results of 2001 census reveal that there has been an increase in literacy in the country. The literacy rate in the country is 64.84 per cent, 75.26 for males and 53.67 for females. The steady improvement in literacy is apparent from the table 1.5.

Kerala retained its position by being on top with a 90.86 per cent literacy rate, closely followed by Mizoram (88.80 per cent) and Lakshadweep (86.66 per cent). Bihar with a literacy rate of 47.00 per cent ranks last in the country preceded by Jharkhand (53.56 per cent) and Jammu and Kashmir (55.52 per cent). Kerala also occupies the top spot in the country both in male literacy with 94.24 per cent and female literacy with 87.72 per cent. On the contrary, Bihar has recorded the lowest literacy rates both in case of males (59.68 per cent) and females (33.12 per cent). Table 1.6 shows the literacy rate among persons, male and female in States and UTs, and their ranking.

TABLE 1.3 : STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES BY DENSITY

R a n k S t a t e / D e n s i t y Rank in 2001 Union territories 2 0 0 1 1 9 9 1 in 1991 1 2 3 4 5 1 . D e l h i 9 , 3 4 0 6 , 3 5 2 1 2 . C h a n d i g a r h 7 , 9 0 0 5 , 6 3 2 2 3 . P u d u c h e r r y 2 , 0 3 4 1 , 6 8 3 5 4 . L a k s h a d w e e p 1 , 8 9 5 1 , 6 1 6 3

5 . Daman and Diu 1 , 4 1 3 9 0 7 4

6 . West Bengal 9 0 3 7 6 7 6 7 . B i h a r 8 8 1 6 8 5 7 8 . K e r a l a 8 1 9 7 4 9 9 9 . Uttar Pradesh 6 9 0 5 4 8 8 1 0 . P u n j a b 4 8 4 4 0 3 1 0 1 1 . T a m i l n a d u 4 8 0 4 2 9 1 1 1 2 . H a r y a n a 4 7 8 3 7 2 1 2

1 3 . Dadra and Nagar Haveli 4 4 9 2 8 2 1 4

1 4 . G o a 3 6 4 3 1 6 1 3 1 5 . A s s a m 3 4 0 2 8 6 1 5 1 6 . J h a r k h a n d 3 3 8 2 7 4 1 7 1 7 . M a h a r a s h t r a 3 1 5 2 5 7 1 6 1 8 . Tripura 3 0 5 2 6 3 1 8 1 9 . Andhra Pradesh 2 7 7 2 4 2 1 9 2 0 . K a r n a t a k a 2 7 6 2 3 5 2 0 2 1 . G u j a r a t 2 5 8 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 . O r i s s a 2 3 6 2 0 3 2 2 2 3 . Madhya Pradesh 1 9 6 1 5 8 2 3 2 4 . R a j a s t h a n 1 6 5 1 2 9 2 4 2 5 . U t t a r a k h a n d 1 5 9 1 3 3 2 5 2 6 . C h h a t t i s g a r h 1 5 4 1 3 0 2 6 2 7 . N a g a l a n d 1 2 0 7 3 2 7 2 8 . Himachal Pradesh 1 0 9 9 3 2 8 2 9 . M a n i p u r * 1 1 1 8 2 3 0 3 0 . M e g h a l a y a 1 0 3 7 9 2 9

3 1 . Jammu and Kashmir 1 0 0 7 7 3 1

3 2 . S i k k i m 7 6 5 7 3 2

(15)

3 4 . M i z o r a m 4 2 3 3 3 4

35. Arunacha l Pradesh 1 3 1 0 3 5

Notes :

* Manipur figures include estimated figures for those of the three sub-divisions, viz., Mao

Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senapti district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons.

TABLE 1.4 : SEX RATIO : 1901-2001

Census Year Sex Ratio

(females per 1,000 males)

1 9 0 1 9 7 2 1 9 1 1 9 6 4 1 9 2 1 9 5 5 1 9 3 1 9 5 0 1 9 4 1 9 4 5 1 9 5 1 9 4 6 1 9 6 1 9 4 1 1 9 7 1 9 3 0 1 9 8 1 9 3 4 1 9 9 1 9 2 6 2 0 0 1 9 3 3 N o t e s :

1 . For 1981, interpolated figures for Assam have been used.

2 . For 1991, interpolated figures based on final population of 2001 census for Jammu and

Kashmir have been used.

3 . India figures for 2001 census exclude those of the three sub-divisions, viz., Mao Maram,

Paomata and Purul of Senapati district of Manipur as population Census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons.

TABLE 1.5 : LITERACY RATE : 1951-2001

Census Year P e r s o n s M a l e s F e m a l e s 1 9 5 1 1 8 . 3 3 2 7 . 1 6 8 . 8 6 1 9 6 1 2 8 . 3 4 0 . 4 0 1 5 . 3 5 1 9 7 1 3 4 . 4 5 4 5 . 9 6 2 1 . 9 7 1 9 8 1 4 3 . 5 7 5 6 . 3 8 2 9 . 7 6 1 9 9 1 5 2 . 2 1 6 4 . 1 3 3 9 . 2 9 2 0 0 1 6 4 . 8 4 7 5 . 2 6 5 3 . 6 7 Notes :

1 . Literacy rates for 1951, 1961 and 1971 Censuses relates to population aged five years and

above. The rates for the 1981, 1991 and 2001 Censuses relate to the population aged seven years and above.

2 . The 1981 Literacy rates exclude Assam where the 1981 Census could not be conducted.

3 . The 1991 Literacy rates exclude Jammu and Kashmir where the 1991 Census could not be

(16)

TABLE 1.6

: RANKING OF STATES/UT

s BY

LITERACY RATE AMONG PERSONS, MALES AND FEMALES, 2001 CENSUS

Persons Males Females Rank State/ Literacy State/ Literacy State/ Literacy Union Territories Rate Union Territories Rate Union Territories Rate 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. K erala 90.86 Kerala 94.24 Kerala 87.72 2. Mizoram 88.80 Lakshadweep 92.53 Mizoram 86.75 3. Lakshadweep 86.66 Mizoram 90.72 Lakshadweep 80.47 4. Goa 82.01 Puducherry 88.62 Chandigarh 76.47 5. Chandigarh 81.94 Goa 88.42 Goa 75.37 6. Delhi 81.67 Delhi 87.33

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

75.24

7.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

81.30

Daman and Diu

86.76 Delhi 74.71 8. Puducherry 81.24

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

86.33

Puducherry

73.90

9.

Daman and Diu

78.18 Chandigarh 86.14 Himachal Pradesh 67.42 10. Maharashtra 76.88 Maharashtra 85.97 Maharashtra 67.03 11. Himachal Pradesh 76.48 Himachal Pradesh 85.35

Daman and Diu

65.61 12. Tamilnadu 73.45 Uttarakhand 83.28 Tripura 64.91 13. Tripura 73.19 Tamilnadu 82.42 Tamilnadu 64.33 14. Uttarakhand 71.62 Tripura 81.02 Punjab 63.36 15. Manipur 1 70.53 Manipur 1 80.33 Nagaland 61.46 16. Punjab 69.65 Gujarat 79.66 Manipur 1 60.53 17. Gujarat 69.14 Haryana 78.49 Sikkim 60.40 18. Sikkim 68.81 Chhattisgarh 77.38 Uttarakhand 59.63 19. West Bengal 68.64 West Bengal 77.02 West Bengal 59.61 20. Haryan a 67.91 Karnataka 76.10 Meghalaya 59.61

(17)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21. Kar nataka 66.64 Madhya Pradesh 76.06 Gujarat 57.80 22. Nagaland 66.59 Sikkim 76.04 Karnataka 56.87 23. Chhattisgarh 64.66 Rajasthan 75.70 Haryana 55.73 24. Madhya Pradesh 63.74 Orissa 75.35 A ssam 54.61 25. Assam 63.25 Punjab 75.23 Chhattisgarh 51.85 26. Orissa 63.08 Assam 71.28 Orissa 50.51 27. Meghalaya 62.56

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

71.18 Andhra Pradesh 50.43 28. Andhra Pradesh 60.47 Nagaland 71.16 Madhya Pradesh 50.29 29. Rajasthan 60.41 Andhra Pradesh 70.32 Rajasthan 43.85 30.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

57.63 Uttar Pradesh 68.82 Arunachal Pradesh 43.53 31. Uttar Pradesh 56.27 Jharkhand 67.30

Jammu and Kashmir

43.00

32.

Jammu and Kashmir

55.52

Jammu and Kashmir

66.60 Uttar Pradesh 42.22 33. Arunachal Pradesh 54.34 Meghalaya 65.43

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

40.23 34. Jharkhand 53.56 Arunachal Pradesh 63.83 Jharkhand 38.87 35. Bihar 47.00 Bihar 59.68 Bihar 33.12 Notes : 1

(18)

TABLE 1.7 : TOTAL POPULATION AND PERCENTAGE OF SCHEDULED CASTES AND SCHEDULED TRIBES : 2001 CENSUS

S l . I n d i a / S t a t e / T o t a l Scheduled Caste Scheduled Tribe

N o . Union Territory Population Population Percentage Population Percentage

( ‘ 0 0 0 ) ( ‘ 0 0 0 ) of total ( ‘ 0 0 0 ) of total

population population

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

INDIA1 1,028,610 166,636 16.20 84,326 8.20

1. Jammu and Kashmir 1 0 , 1 4 4 7 7 0 7 . 5 9 1 , 1 0 6 1 0 . 9 0

2 . Himachal Pradesh 6 , 0 7 8 1 , 5 0 2 2 4 . 7 2 2 4 5 4 . 0 2 3 . P u n j a b 2 4 , 3 5 9 7 , 0 2 9 2 8 . 8 5 0 0 . 0 0 4 . C h a n d i g a r h 9 0 1 1 5 8 1 7 . 5 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 . U t t a r a k h a n d 8 , 4 8 9 1 , 5 1 7 1 7 . 8 7 2 5 6 3 . 0 2 6 . H a r y a n a 2 1 , 1 4 5 4 , 0 9 1 1 9 . 3 5 0 0 . 0 0 7 . D e l h i 1 3 , 8 5 1 2 , 3 4 3 1 6 . 9 2 0 0 . 0 0 8 . R a j a s t h a n 5 6 , 5 0 7 9 , 6 9 4 1 7 . 1 6 7 , 0 9 8 1 2 . 5 6 9 . Uttar Pradesh 1 6 6 , 1 9 8 3 5 , 1 4 8 2 1 . 1 5 1 0 8 0 . 0 6 1 0 . B i h a r 8 2 , 9 9 9 1 3 , 0 4 9 1 5 . 7 2 7 5 8 0 . 9 1 1 1 . S i k k i m 5 4 1 2 7 5 . 0 2 1 1 1 2 0 . 6 0 1 2 . Arunachal Pradesh 1 , 0 9 8 6 0 . 5 6 7 0 5 6 4 . 2 2 1 3 . N a g a l a n d 1 , 9 9 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 , 7 7 4 8 9 . 1 5 1 4 . M a n i p u r1 2 , 1 6 7 6 0 2 . 7 7 7 4 1 3 4 . 2 0 1 5 . M i z o r a m 8 8 9 0 0 . 0 3 8 3 9 9 4 . 4 6 1 6 . T r i p u r a 3 , 1 9 9 5 5 6 1 7 . 3 7 9 9 3 3 1 . 0 5 1 7 . M e g h a l a y a 2 , 3 1 9 1 1 0 . 4 8 1 , 9 9 3 8 5 . 9 4 1 8 . A s s a m 2 6 , 6 5 6 1 , 8 2 6 6 . 8 5 3 , 3 0 9 1 2 . 4 1 1 9 . West Bengal 8 0 , 1 7 6 1 8 , 4 5 3 2 3 . 0 2 4 , 4 0 7 5 . 5 0 2 0 . J h a r k h a n d 2 6 , 9 4 6 3 , 1 8 9 1 1 . 8 4 7 , 0 8 7 2 6 . 3 0 2 1 . O r i s s a 3 6 , 8 0 5 6 , 0 8 2 1 6 . 5 3 8 , 1 4 5 2 2 . 1 3 2 2 . C h h a t t i s g a r h 2 0 , 8 3 4 2 , 4 1 9 1 1 . 6 1 6 , 6 1 7 3 1 . 7 6 2 3 . Madhya Pradesh 6 0 , 3 4 8 9 , 1 5 5 1 5 . 1 7 1 2 , 2 3 3 2 0 . 2 7 2 4 . G u j a r a t 5 0 , 6 7 1 3 , 5 9 3 7 . 0 9 7 , 4 8 1 1 4 . 7 6

2 5 . Daman and Diu 1 5 8 5 3 . 0 6 1 4 8 . 8 5

2 6 . Dadra and Nagar Haveli 2 2 0 4 1 . 8 6 1 3 7 6 2 . 2 4

2 7 . M a h a r a s h t r a 9 6 , 8 7 9 9 , 8 8 2 1 0 . 2 0 8 , 5 7 7 8 . 8 5 2 8 . Andhra Pradesh 7 6 , 2 1 0 1 2 , 3 3 9 1 6 . 1 9 5 , 0 2 4 6 . 5 9 2 9 . K a r n a t a k a 5 2 , 8 5 1 8 , 5 6 4 1 6 . 2 0 3 , 4 6 4 6 . 5 5 3 0 . G o a 1 , 3 4 8 2 4 1 . 7 7 1 0 . 0 4 3 1 . L a k s h a d w e e p 6 1 0 0 . 0 0 5 7 9 4 . 5 1 3 2 . K e r a l a 3 1 , 8 4 1 3 , 1 2 4 9 . 8 1 3 6 4 1 . 1 4 3 3 . T a m i l n a d u 6 2 , 4 0 6 1 1 , 8 5 8 1 9 . 0 0 6 5 1 1 . 0 4 3 4 . P u d u c h e r r y 9 7 4 1 5 8 1 6 . 1 9 0 0 . 0 0

3 5 . Andaman & Nicobar Islands 3 5 6 0 0 . 0 0 2 9 8 . 2 7

Note :

1 . India and Manipur figures exclude those of the three sub-divisions, viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senapati district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons.

(19)

TABLE 1.8 : RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION

Census Year Population (Million) Percentage of

total population R u r a l U r b a n R u r a l U r b a n 1 2 3 4 5 1 9 0 1 2 1 3 2 6 8 9 . 2 1 0 . 8 1 9 1 1 2 2 6 2 6 8 9 . 7 1 0 . 3 1 9 2 1 2 2 3 2 8 8 8 . 8 1 1 . 2 1 9 3 1 2 4 6 3 3 8 8 . 0 1 2 . 0 1 9 4 1 2 7 5 4 4 8 6 . 1 1 3 . 9 1 9 5 1 2 9 9 6 2 8 2 . 7 1 7 . 3 1 9 6 1 3 6 0 7 9 8 2 . 0 1 8 . 0 1 9 7 1 4 3 9 1 0 9 8 0 . 1 1 9 . 9 1 9 8 1 5 2 4 1 5 9 7 6 . 7 2 3 . 3 1 9 9 1 6 2 9 2 1 8 7 4 . 3 2 5 . 7 2 0 0 1 7 4 3 2 8 6 7 2 . 2 2 7 . 8 Note :

1 . India and Manipur figures are final and include estimated figures for those of the three

sub-divisions, viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senapati district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative r e a s o n s .

2 . The 1991 Census could not be held owing to disturbed conditions prevailing in Jammu and

Kashmir. Hence the population figures for 1991 of Jammu and Kashmir have been worked out by 'interpolation' on the basis of 2001 final population.

3 . The 1981 census could not be held in Assam. The figures for 1981 for Assam have been

worked out by interpolation.

TABLE 1.9 : POPULATION BY CLASS OF TOWN, INDIA-2001 CENSUS (in 000's) Class of Town 2 0 0 1 I 1,00,000 and above 1 7 8 , 2 2 4 I I 5 0 , 0 0 0 - 9 9 , 9 9 9 3 4 , 4 5 2 I I I 2 0 , 0 0 0 - 4 9 , 9 9 9 4 2 , 1 1 9 I V 1 0 , 0 0 0 - 1 9 , 9 9 9 2 2 , 6 1 4 V 5 , 0 0 0 - 9 , 9 9 9 7 , 8 9 0 V I Less than 5,000 8 2 1 All Classes 2 8 6 , 1 2 0

(20)

TABLE 1.10

: DISTRIBUTION OF VILLAGES ACCORDING TO POPULATION 2001 CENSUS AND TOTAL NUMBER

OF INHABITED VILLAGES Sl. States/UTs 10000 5,000 2,000- 1,000-500-999 200-499 Less than Total No. No. and above 9,999 4,999 1,999 200 of inhabited villages. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1.

Jammu and Kashmir

@ 10 135 886 1,546 1,664 1,499 677 6,417 2. Himachal Pradesh 1 8 174 660 2,094 5,645 8,913 17,495 3. Punjab 26 273 1,987 3,405 3,378 2,130 1,079 12,278 4. Chandigarh 2 6 7 2 2 1 3 23 5. Uttarakhand 13 69 350 752 1,890 4,912 7,775 15,761 6. Haryana 97 504 2,015 2,091 1,205 582 270 6,764 7. Delhi 24 26 60 29 9 4 6 158 8. Rajasthan 100 661 4,660 8,777 11,058 9,151 5,346 39,753 9. Uttar Pradesh 296 2,266 16,573 27,218 25,614 16,879 9,096 97,942 10. Bihar 630 2,306 8,571 10,113 8,498 5,662 3,235 39,015 11. Sikkim 0 9 40 120 157 82 42 450 12. Arunachal Pradesh 0 3 26 126 266 682 2,760 3,863 13. Nagaland 5 50 171 253 372 323 104 1,278 14. Manipur * 6 28 157 202 326 731 749 2,199 15. Mizoram 1 1 31 76 198 258 142 707 16. Tripura 28 106 370 188 99 55 12 858 17. Meghalaya 0 4 60 185 690 2,090 2,753 5,782 18. Assam 19 185 2,495 5,439 6,233 6,018 4,735 25,124 19. West Bengal 354 1,526 6,819 8,490 8,930 7,553 4,273 37,945 20. Jharkhand 28 174 1,642 4,173 7,442 9,234 6,661 29,354 21. Orissa 5 180 2,404 6,814 11,428 14,054 12,644 47,529

(21)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 22. Chhattisgarh 6 80 1,264 4,185 6,465 5,498 2,246 19,744 23. Madhya Pradesh 19 362 3,551 10,434 16,277 14,330 7,144 52,117 24. Gujarat 153 807 4,154 5,615 4,262 2,297 778 18,066 25.

Daman and Diu

2 5 5 4 5 2 0 23 26.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

0 7 28 15 12 7 1 70 27. Maharashtra 262 1,018 5,862 11,570 12,074 7,367 2,942 41,095 28. Andhra Pradesh 498 1,788 6,915 6,475 4,467 3,402 3,068 26,613 29. Karnataka 131 703 4,024 6,378 7,367 5,563 3,315 27,481 30. Goa 3 23 96 77 56 60 32 347 31. Lakshadweep 1 2 3 0 0 1 1 8 32. Kerala 1,072 207 69 10 0 4 2 1,364 33. Tamilnadu 168 1,254 4,870 4,484 2,801 1,344 479 15,400 34. Puducherry 2 20 45 18 7 0 0 92 35. Andaman and 0 2 23 52 62 90 272 501 Nicobar Islands ALL INDIA 3,962 14,798 80,407 129,976 145,408 127,510 91,555 593,616 Note : @

India and Jammu & Kashmir State excludes the villages of the areas under unlawful occupation of Pakistan and China where Census could not be taken.

*

India and Manipur excludes villages for those of the three sub-divisions viz. Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senapati district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons.

Source :

(22)

TABLE 1.11

: POPULATION OF MILLION PLUS CITIES/TOWNS

Population 0-6 Population Literates Sl.No.

City/Town Person Male Female Person Male Female Person Male Female 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1.

Greater Mumbai (M Corp.)

11,978,450 6,619,966 5,358,484 1,364,423 709,777 654,646 9,207,877 5,388,552 3,819,325 2. DMC (U) (M Corp.) 9,879,172 5,412,497 4,466,675 1,352,656 724,171 628,485 7,075,280 4,110,213 2,965,067 3. Kolkata (M Corp.) 4,572,876 2,500,040 2,072,836 390,282 202,527 187,755 3,382,103 1,925,008 1,457,095 4. Chennai (M Corp.) 4,343,645 2,219,539 2,124,106 433,340 219,720 213,620 3,336,695 1,799,981 1,536,714 5. Bangaluru (M Corp.) 4,301,326 2,242,835 2,058,491 484,982 249,652 235,330 3,265,702 1,787,677 1,478,025 6. Hyderabad (M Corp.) 3,637,483 1,883,064 1,754,419 463,150 238,386 224,764 2,498,234 1,374,955 1,123,279 7. Ahmedabad (M Corp.) 3,520,085 1,867,249 1,652,836 441,022 240,797 200,225 2,552,731 1,447,380 1,105,351 8. Kanpur (M Corp.) 2,551,337 1,374,121 1,177,216 317,756 171,263 146,493 1,758,807 997,001 761,806 9. Pune (M Corp.) 2,538,473 1,321,338 1,217,135 302,960 158,672 144,288 1,930,063 1,064,508 865,555 10. Surat (M Corp.) 2,433,835 1,372,415 1,061,420 340,582 186,746 153,836 1,736,939 1,043,703 693,236 11. Lucknow (M Corp.) 2,185,927 1,156,151 1,029,776 273,401 143,232 130,169 1,474,733 827,793 646,940 12. Nagpur (M Corp.) 2,052,066 1,059,765 992,301 249,827 129,283 120,544 1,609,126 873,739 735,387 13. Jaipur (M Corp.) 2,322,575 1,237,765 1,084,810 352,661 187,351 165,310 1,537,850 908,969 628,881 14. Indore (M Corp.) 1,474,968 774,540 700,428 200,081 105,478 94,603 1,064,912 598,339 466,573 15. Bhopal (M Corp.) 1,437,354 757,408 679,946 208,587 108,172 100,415 979,770 555,051 424,719 16. Ludhiana (M Corp.) 1,398,467 793,142 605,325 169,273 93,050 76,223 981,383 573,886 407,497

(23)

Population 0-6 Population Literates Sl.No. City/Town Person Male Female Person Male Female Person Male Female 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 17. Patna (M Corp.) 1,366,444 746,344 620,100 182,037 96,034 86,003 961,681 564,625 397,056 18. Vadodara (M Corp.) 1,306,227 684,013 622,214 148,034 80,610 67,424 1,014,014 557,051 456,963 19. Agra (M Corp.) 1,275,134 690,599 584,535 179,411 96,850 82,561 766,860 452,770 314,090 20. Thane (M Corp.) 1,262,551 675,147 587,404 161,698 84,334 77,364 973,195 551,086 422,109 21. Kalyan-Dombivli (M Corp.) 1,193,512 633,508 560,004 144,097 75,256 68,841 944,745 525,907 418,838 22. Varanasi (M Corp.) 1,091,918 582,096 509,822 161,172 84,256 76,916 670,367 392,103 278,264 23. Nashik (M Corp.) 1,077,236 575,737 501,499 147,919 78,579 69,340 802,695 458,005 344,690 24. Meerut (M Corp.) 1,068,772 568,081 500,691 163,570 87,893 75,677 610,636 355,282 255,354 25. Faridabad (M Corp.) 1,055,938 581,069 474,869 158,603 85,805 72,798 714,578 430,274 284,304 26.

Pimpri Chinchwad (M Corp.)

1,012,472 547,050 465,422 143,034 75,688 67,346 745,317 431,785 313,532 2 7. Howrah (M Corp.) 1,007,532 547,068 460,464 94,330 48,678 45,652 768,655 438,450 330,205

(24)

TABLE 1.12 : STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES BY POPULATION IN DESCENDING ORDER AND RANK IN 1991 AND 2001 CENSUS

Per cent to total

R a n k S t a t e / P o p u l a t i o n Population of India R a n k in 2001 Union territories 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 1 9 9 1 in 1991 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 . Uttar Pradesh 1 6 6 , 1 9 7 , 9 2 1 1 6 . 1 6 1 5 . 5 9 1 2 . M a h a r a s h t r a 9 6 , 8 7 8 , 6 2 7 9 . 4 2 9 . 3 3 2 3 . B i h a r 8 2 , 9 9 8 , 5 0 9 8 . 0 7 7 . 6 2 5 4 . West Bengal 8 0 , 1 7 6 , 1 9 7 7 . 7 9 8 . 0 4 3 5 . Andhra Pradesh 7 6 , 2 1 0 , 0 0 7 7 . 4 1 7 . 8 6 4 6 . T a m i l n a d u 6 2 , 4 0 5 , 6 7 9 6 . 0 7 6 . 6 0 6 7 . Madhya Pradesh 6 0 , 3 4 8 , 0 2 3 5 . 8 7 5 . 7 4 7 8 . R a j a s t h a n 5 6 , 5 0 7 , 1 8 8 5 . 4 9 5 . 2 0 9 9 . K a r n a t a k a 5 2 , 8 5 0 , 5 6 2 5 . 1 4 5 . 3 1 8 1 0 . G u j a r a t 5 0 , 6 7 1 , 0 1 7 4 . 9 3 4 . 8 8 1 0 1 1 . O r i s s a 3 6 , 8 0 4 , 6 6 0 3 . 5 8 3 . 7 4 1 1 1 2 . K e r a l a 3 1 , 8 4 1 , 3 7 4 3 . 1 0 3 . 4 4 1 2 1 3 . J h a r k h a n d 2 6 , 9 4 5 , 8 2 9 2 . 6 2 2 . 5 8 1 4 1 4 . A s s a m 2 6 , 6 5 5 , 5 2 8 2 . 5 9 2 . 6 5 1 3 1 5 . P u n j a b 2 4 , 3 5 8 , 9 9 9 2 . 3 7 2 . 4 0 1 5 1 6 . H a r y a n a 2 1 , 1 4 4 , 5 6 4 2 . 0 6 1 . 9 5 1 7 1 7 . C h h a t t i s g a r h 2 0 , 8 3 3 , 8 0 3 2 . 0 3 2 . 0 8 1 6 1 8 . D e l h i 1 3 , 8 5 0 , 5 0 7 1 . 3 5 1 . 1 1 1 8

1 9 . Jammu and Kashmir2 1 0 , 1 4 3 , 7 0 0 0 . 9 9 0 . 9 3 1 9

2 0 . U t t a r a k h a n d 8 , 4 8 9 , 3 4 9 0 . 8 3 0 . 8 4 2 0 2 1 . Himachal Pradesh 6 , 0 7 7 , 9 0 0 0 . 5 9 0 . 6 1 2 1 2 2 . Tripura 3 , 1 9 9 , 2 0 3 0 . 3 1 0 . 3 3 2 2 2 3 . M e g h a l a y a 2 , 3 1 8 , 8 2 2 0 . 2 3 0 . 2 1 2 4 2 4 . M a n i p u r1 2 , 2 9 3 , 8 9 6 0 . 2 2 0 . 2 2 2 3 2 5 . N a g a l a n d 1 , 9 9 0 , 0 3 6 0 . 1 9 0 . 1 4 2 5 2 6 . G o a 1 , 3 4 7 , 6 6 8 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 4 2 6 2 7 . Arunachal Pradesh 1 , 0 9 7 , 9 6 8 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 0 2 7 2 8 . P u d u c h e r r y 9 7 4 , 3 4 5 0 . 0 9 0 . 1 0 2 8 2 9 . C h a n d i g a r h 9 0 0 , 6 3 5 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 8 2 9

(25)

3 0 . M i z o r a m 8 8 8 , 5 7 3 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 8 3 0

3 1 . S i k k i m 5 4 0 , 8 5 1 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 3 1

3 2 . Andaman and Nicobar Islands 3 5 6 , 1 5 2 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 3 2

3 3 . Dadra and Nagar Haveli 2 2 0 , 4 9 0 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 3 3

3 4 . Daman and Diu 1 5 8 , 2 0 4 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 1 3 4

3 5 . L a k s h a d w e e p 6 0 , 6 5 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 3 5

Notes :

1 . India and Manipur figures include estimated figures for those of the three sub-divisions

viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senepati district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative r e a s o n s .

2 . The 1991 Census could not be held owing to disturbed conditions prevailing in Jammu

and Kashmir. Hence the population figures for 1991 of Jammu and Kashmir have been worked out by 'interpolation'.

(26)

2 National Symbols

NATIONAL FLAG

THE National flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel which represents the chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July 1947.

Apart from non-statutory instructions issued by the Government from time to time, display of the National Flag is governed by the provisions of the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 (No. 12 of 1950) and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 (No. 69 of 1971). The Flag Code of India, 2002 is an attempt to bring together all such laws, conventions, practices and instructions for the guidance and benefit of all concerned.

The Flag Code of India, 2002, has taken effect from 26 January 2002 and supercedes the ‘Flag Code—Indias’ as it existed. As per the provisions of the Flag Code of India, 2002, there shall be no restriction on the display of the National Flag by members of general public, private organisations, educational institutions, etc., except to the extent provided in the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 and any other law enacted on the subject.

STATE EMBLEM

The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law

(Dharma Chakra) .

In the state emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels on extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning 'Truth Alone Triumphs', are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.

NATIONAL ANTHEM

The song Jana-gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950. It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Kolkata Session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of the National Anthem :

(27)
(28)
(29)

1 As published in Volume Eight of Sri Aurobindo Birth Centenary Library, Popular Edition 1 9 7 2 Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. Punjab-Sindh-Gujarat-Maratha Dravida-Utkala-Banga Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga Uchchala-Jaladhi-taranga. Tava shubha name jage, Tava shubha asisa mange,

Gahe tava jaya gatha, Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he

Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he, Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!

Playing time of the full version of the national anthem is approximately 52 seconds. A short version consisting of the first and last lines of the stanza (playing time approximately 20 seconds) is also played on certain occasions. The following is Tagore’s English rendering of the anthem :

Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people, Dispenser of India’s destiny.

Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha,

Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal;

It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.

They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise. The saving of all people waits in thy hand, Thou dispenser of India’s destiny.

Victory, victory, victory to thee.

NATIONAL SONG

The song Vande Mataram, composed in sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The following is the text of its first stanza :

Vande Mataram!

Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam, Shasyashyamalam, Mataram!

Shubhrajyotsna pulakitayaminim, Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim, Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim, Sukhadam varadam, Mataram!

(30)

The English translation of the stanza rendered by Sri Aurobindo in prose1 is :

I bow to thee, Mother,

richly-watered, richly-fruited, cool with the winds of the south, dark with the crops of the harvests, The Mother!

Her nights rejoicing in the glory of the moonlight,

her lands clothed beautifully with her trees in flowering bloom, sweet of laughter, sweet of speech,

The Mother, giver of boons, giver of bliss.

NATIONAL CALENDAR

The national calendar based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes: (i) Gazette of India, (ii) news broadcast by All India Radio, (iii) calendars issued by the Government of India and (iv) Government communications addressed to the members of the public.

Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.

NATIONAL ANIMAL

The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris, a striped animal is the national animal of India, it has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of grace, strength, ability and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India. Out of eight races of the species known, the Indian race, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region and also in the neighbouring countries, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.

NATIONAL BIRD

The Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus, the national bird of India, is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. The male of the species is more colourful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green trail of around 200 elongated feathers. The female is brownish, slightly smaller than the male and lacks the trail. The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a gorgeous sight.

NATIONAL FLOWER

Lotus (Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn) is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.

NATIONAL TREE

The Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis) is the National Tree of India. This huge tree towers over its neighbours and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees, easily covering several acres. It sends off new shoots from its roots, so that one tree is really a tangle of branches, roots, and trunks.

(31)

NATIONAL FRUIT

Mango (Manigifera indica) is the National fruit of India. Mango is one of the most widely grown fruits of the tropical countries. In India, mango is cultivated almost in all parts, with the exception of hilly areas. Mango is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India, we have hundreds of varieties of mangoes. They are of different sizes, shapes and colours. Mangoes have been cultivated in India since time immemorial.

(32)

3 The Polity

INDIA, a Union of States, is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government. The Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution, which was adopted by Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950.

The Constitution which envisages parliamentary form of government is federal in structure with unitary features. The President of India is constitutional head of executive of the Union. Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as head to aid and advise President who shall in exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice. Real executive power thus vests in Council of Ministers with Prime Minister as head. Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Similarly, in states, Governor is head of executive, but it is the Council of Ministers with Chief Minister as head in whom real executive power vests. Council of Ministers of a state is collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly.

The Constitution distributes legislative power between Parliament and state legislatures and provides for vesting of residual powers in Parliament. Power to amend the Constitution also vests in Parliament. The Constitution has provision for independence of judiciary, Comptroller and Auditor-General, Public Service Commissions and Chief Election Commissioner.

THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY

India comprises 28 States and seven Union Territories. They are: Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Union Territories are : Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Lakshadweep and Pondicherry.

C I T I Z E N S H I P

The Constitution of India provides for a single citizenship for the whole of India. Every person who was at the commencement of the Constitution (26 January 1950) domiciled in the territory of India and: (a) who was born in India; or (b) either of whose parents was born in India; or (c) who has been ordinarily resident in India for not less than five years became a citizen of India. The Citizenship Act, 1955, deals with matters relating to acquisition, determination and termination of Indian citizenship after the commencement of the Constitution.

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

The Constitution offers all citizens, individually and collectively, some basic freedoms. These are guaranteed in the Constitution in the form of six broad categories of Fundamental Rights which are justiciable. Article 12 to 35 contained in Part III of the Constitution deal with Fundamental Rights. These are : (i) right to equality including equality before law, prohibition of discrimination on grounds

(33)

of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth and equality of opportunity in matters of employment; (ii) right to freedom of speech and expression; assembly; association or union; movement; residence; and right to practice any profession or occupation (some of these rights are subject to security of the State, friendly relations with foreign countries, public order, decency or morality); (iii) right against exploitation, prohibiting all forms of forced labour, child labour and traffic in human beings; (iv) right to freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion; (v) right of any section of citizens to conserve their culture, language or script and right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice; and (vi) right to constitutional remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

By the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution, adopted in 1976, Fundamental Duties of the citizens have also been enumerated. Article 51 ‘A’ contained in Part IV A of the Constitution deals with Fundamental Duties. These enjoin upon a citizen among other things, to abide by the Constitution, to cherish and follow noble ideals, which inspired India’s struggle for freedom, to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so and to promote harmony and spirit of common brotherhood transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities.

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

The Constitution lays down certain Directive Principles of State Policy, which though not justiciable, are ‘fundamental in governance of the country’ and it is the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws. These lay down that the State shall strive to promote the welfare of people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice—social, economic and political—shall form in all institutions of national life. The State shall direct its policy in such a manner as to secure the right of all men and women to an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay for equal work and within limits of its economic capacity and development, to make effective provision for securing the right to work, education and to public assistance in the event of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement or other cases of undeserved want. The State shall also endeavour to secure to workers a living wage, humane conditions of work, a decent standard of life and full involvement of workers in management of industries.

In the economic sphere, the State is to direct its policy in such a manner as to secure distribution of ownership and control of material resources of community to subserve the common good and to ensure that operation of economic system does not result in concentration of wealth and means of production to common detriment.

Some of the other important directives relate to provision of opportunities and facilities for children to develop in a healthy manner, free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14; promotion of education and economic interests of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections; organisation of village

panchayats; separation of judiciary from executive, promulgation of a uniform civil

code for whole country; protection of national monuments; promotion of justice on a basis of equal opportunity; provision of free legal aid; protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife of the country and promotion of international peace and security, just and honourable relations between nations, respect for international law, treaty obligations and settlement of international disputes by arbitration.

(34)

THE UNION

E X E C U T I V E

The Union executive consists of the President, the Vice-President and the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as the head to aid and advise the President.

P R E S I D E N T

The President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of elected members of both Houses of Parliament and Legislative Assemblies of the states in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. To secure uniformity among state inter se as well as parity between the states, as a whole, and the Union, suitable weightage is given to each vote. The President must be a citizen of India, not less than 35 years of age and qualified for election as member of the Lok Sabha. His term of office is five years and he is eligible for re-election. His removal from office is to be in accordance with procedure prescribed in Article 61 of the Constitution. He may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Vice-President, resign his office.

Executive power of the Union is vested in the President and is exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution. Supreme command of defence forces of the Union also vests in him. The President summons, prorogues, addresses, sends messages to Parliament and dissolves the Lok Sabha; promulgates Ordinances at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session; makes recommendations for introducing financial and money bills and gives assent to bills; grants pardons, reprieves, respites or remission of punishment or suspends, remits or commutes sentences in certain cases. When there is a failure of the constitutional machinery in a state, he can assume to himself all or any of the functions of the government of that state. The President can proclaim emergency in the country if he is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby security of India or any part of its territory is threatened whether by war or external aggression or armed rebellion.

VICE-PRESIDENT

The Vice-President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. He must be a citizen of India, not less than 35 years of age and eligible for election as a member of the Rajya Sabha. His term of office is five years and he is eligible for re-election. His removal from office is to be in accordance with procedure prescribed in Article 67 b.

The Vice-President is ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and acts as President when the latter is unable to discharge his functions due to absence, illness or any other cause or till the election of a new President (to be held within six months when a vacancy is caused by death, resignation or removal or otherwise of President). While so acting, he ceases to perform the function of the Chairman of the Rajya S a b h a .

COUNCIL OF MINISTERS

There is a Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister, to aid and advise the President in exercise of his functions. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President who also appoints other ministers on the advice of Prime Minister. The Council is

(35)

collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. It is the duty of the Prime Minister to communicate to the President all decisions of Council of Ministers relating to administration of affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation and information relating to them.

The Council of Ministers comprises Ministers who are members of Cabinet, Ministers of State (independent charge), Ministers of State and Deputy Ministers.

LEGISLATURE

Legislature of the Union which is called Parliament , consists of President and two Houses, known as Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and House of the People (Lok Sabha). Each House has to meet within six months of its previous sitting. A joint sitting of two Houses can be held in certain cases.

RAJYA SABHA

The Constitution provides that the Rajya Sabha shall consist of 12 members to be nominated by the President from amongst persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and social service; and not more than 238 representatives of the States and of the Union Territories. Elections to the Rajya Sabha are indirect; members representing States are elected by elected members of legislative assemblies of the States in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote, and those representing Union Territories are chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe. The Rajya Sabha is not subject to dissolution; one-third of its members retire every second year.

Rajya Sabha, at present, has 245 seats. Of these, 233 members represent the States and the Union Territories and 12 members are nominated by the President. The names of members of Rajya Sabha and party affiliation are given in Appendices.

LOK SABHA

The Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of people chosen by direct election on the basis of adult suffrage. The maximum strength of the House envisaged by the Constitution is now 552 (530 members to represent the States, 20 members to represent the Union Territories and not more than two members of the Anglo-Indian community to be nominated by the President, if, in his opinion, that community is not adequately represented in the House). The total elective membership of the Lok Sabha is distributed among the States in such a way that the ratio between the number of seats allotted to each State and the population of the State is, as far as practicable, the same for all States. The Lok Sabha at present consists of 545 members. Of these, 530 members are directly elected from the States and 13 from Union Territories while two are nominated by the President to represent the Anglo-Indian community. Following the Constitution 84th Amendment Act, 2001 the total number of existing seats as allocated to various States in the Lok Sabha on the basis of the 1971 census shall remain unaltered till the first census to be taken after the year 2026.

The term of the Lok Sabha, unless dissolved earlier is five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time and not extending in any case, beyond a period of six months after

(36)

the Proclamation has ceased to operate. Fourteen Lok Sabhas have been co nstituted so far. The term of each Lok Sabha and its Speaker(s) is given in table 3.1.

The State-wise allocation of seats in the two Houses and the party position in the Lok Sabha is given in table 3.2. The names of members of the Fourteenth Lok Sabha, their constituencies and party affiliations are given in Appendices.

QUALIFICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP OF PARLIAMENT

In order to be chosen a member of Parliament, a person must be a citizen of India and not less than 30 years of age in the case of Rajya Sabha and not less than 25 years of age in the case of Lok Sabha. Additional qualifications may be prescribed by Parliament by law.

FUNCTIONS AND POWERS OF PARLIAMENT

As in other parliamentary democracies, the Parliament in India has the cardinal functions of legislation, overseeing of administration, passing of the Budget, ventilation of public grievances and discussing various subjects like development plans, national policies and international relations. The distribution of powers between the Union and the States, followed in the Constitution, emphasises in many ways the general predominance of Parliament in the legislative field. Apart from a wide-range of subjects, even in normal times, the Parliament can, under certain circumstances, assume legislative power with respect to a subject falling within the sphere exclusively reserved for the States. The Parliament is also vested with powers to impeach the President and to remove the Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts, the Chief Election Commissioner and the Comptroller and Auditor General in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Constitution.

All legislation require consent of both the Houses of Parliament. In the case of money bills, however, the will of the Lok Sabha prevails. Delegated legislation is also subject to review and control by Parliament. Besides the power to legislate, the Constitution vests in Parliament the power to initiate amendment of the Constitution.

PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEES

The functions of Parliament are not only varied in nature, but considerable in volume. The time at its disposal is limited. It cannot make very detailed scrutiny of all legislative and other matters that come up before it. A good deal of Parliamentary business is, therefore, transacted in the committees.

Both Houses of Parliament have a similar committee structure, with a few exceptions. Their appointment, terms of office, functions and procedure of conducting business are also more or less similar and are regulated as per rules made by the two Houses under Article 118(1) of the Constitution.

Broadly, Parliamentary Committees are of two kinds—Standing Committees and ad hoc Committees. The former are elected or appointed every year or periodically and their work goes on, more or less, on a continuous basis. The latter are appointed on an ad hoc basis as need arises and they cease to exist as soon as they complete the task assigned to them.

Standing Committees : Among the Standing Committees, the three Financial

Committees—Committees on Estimates, Public Accounts and Public Undertakings— constitute a distinct group as they keep an unremitting vigil over Government expenditure and performance. While members of the Rajya Sabha are associated

Figure

Updating...

References

Related subjects :