An Analysis of Conversational Implicatures Found in Movie Abraham Lincoln : Vampire hunter. Skripsi. English Education Departement, Teacher Training and Education Faculty, Muria Kudus University

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AN ANALYSIS OF CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURES

FOUND IN MOVIE ABRAHAM LINCOLN: VAMPIRE HUNTER

By

TUY ENI WIJAYANTI NIM 200932083

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTEMENT TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY

MURIA KUDUS UNIVERSITY 2013

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AN ANALYSIS OF CONVERSTIONAL CONVERSATION

IMPLICATURES FOUND IN MOVIE ABRAHAM LINCOLN :

VAMPIRE HUNTER

SKRIPSI

Presented to the University of Muria Kudus

in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for Completing the Sarjana Progam in English Education

By

TUY ENI WIJAYANTI NIM 200932083

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTEMENT TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY

MURIA KUDUS UNIVERSITY 2013

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MOTTO AND DEDICATION

Motto:

“Dream, believe, make it happen.”

( if you have a dream, ypu must believe that you will get it and try hard to make it happen, then your dream will be come true... So, don’t be affraid to dream as high as possible because dream is the main asset that you got).

Dedication:

This skripsi is dedicated to: Allah the Almighty. My beloved parents, Mr. and Mrs. Arifin, and my dearest youngest sister,

Nanda, thanks for your support, pray, and blessing.

My best friends in senior years and college (Pretty Bee)

My friends in UMK KUDUS who can’t be mentioned one by one. Anybody who support her.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, the writer wants to express her highest gratitude to ALLAH SWT the almighty for the blessing and aspirations so that she can complete this skripsi entitled “An Analysis of Conversational Implicatures found

in Movie Abraham Lincoln: vampire Hunter”.

The writer wishes to express the writer’s deepest gratitude to those who are directly or indirectly involved in completing this skripsi, they are:

1. Dr. Slamet Utomo, M. Pd, the Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Muria Kudus University.

2. Diah Kurniati, S. Pd, M. Pd, the Head of English Education Department. 3. Fajar Kartika, SS, M.Hum as the first advisor, drs. suprihadi, M.Pd as the

second advisor, who have accurately guided her during the writing of skripsi. 4. All lecturers of English Education Department of Teacher Training and

Education Faculty of Muria Kudus University for valuable knowledge, guidance, and advices during the years of my study.

5. My beloved parents, Mr. And Mrs Arifin, and my youngest sister, Nanda and all my family for giving prayer and spirit.

6. My bestfriends I’ve ever had, Khalim, Santi, Ganish, Ayu, Lisa (From Pretty bee) and my best friends from high school, Bella, Elok, Nisa.

7. My friends in happiness and sadness during compose this skripsi ( Dita, Uma, and Jami’asih)

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8. All my friends in Muria Kudus University and all many people who help me whose name cannot be mentioned one by one, I can only say thanks.

9. All the people who inspired me include : my favorite actor (Benjamin Walker), my senior year’s teacher (Bu Zaenab S.Pd)

The writer would like to express her sincerest gratitude to the readers for some critics and suggestions. Hopefully this skripsi will be useful for everyone.

Kudus, 30 July 2013

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ix ABSTRACT

Wijayanti, Tuy Eni. 2013. An Analysis of Conversational Implicatures Found in

Movie Abraham Lincoln : Vampire hunter. Skripsi. English Education

Departement, Teacher Training and Education Faculty, Muria Kudus University. Advisor : (1) Fajar Kartika, SS, M.Hum , (2) Drs. Suprihadi, M.Pd

Key words : Converstaional Implicature, Generalized Conversational Implicature, Particularized Conversational Implicature.

In much of our conversation, we assume that speakers and listener are generally cooperating with each other. However, in some circumstance, a speaker intends to communicate more than is said, that something must be more than just the words mean. It is an additional meaning called conversational implicature. Conversational implicatures is an interesting thing where it is not a matter of a sentence but instead of an utterance’s meaning.

Therefore, in this study, the writer is interested in analyzing the implicature/implicit meaning that are found in the utterances of the three main characters, and the types of conversational implicatures that produced by the three main characters of the Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter movie. The writer used Grice’s theory of conversational implicatures as the basis of the analysis of the study. The utterances containing implicature fall into two categories: generalized conversational implicature and particularized conversational implicature.

This is a qualitative research which the data of the study is taken from the movie Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter. The writer chose Abraham Lincoln:

Vampire Hunter movie because the writer noticed that the utterances produced by

the three main characters contain a lot of implicatures. Moreover, Abraham

Lincoln: Vampire Hunter movie is a unique movie with an intellegent plot in

developing the story about the other life side of the sixteenth president of United States.

From the findings, the writer found 104 implicatures from the three main characters: Abraham, mary, and Henry. Between the two types, generalized and particularized converstaional implicatures, generalized conversational implicature take a bigger number 54. Whereas, the other one, the total of particularized converstaional implicatures takes number 50. This study also reveals significant finding that may contribute to the theory of implicature itself and its applications so that it will useful for further reference. Firstly, the study reveals that one single utterance can have two types of conversational implicature. To add, the use of indefinite article ‘a/an’ in a sentence can actually function as cardinal number as it actually refers to ‘one’. Lastly, the theory of indefinite article of the type ‘a/an X’, is typically interpreted according to the generalized conversational implicatures that : an X +> not speaker’s X cannot be genralized in this study since it can be interpreted as the speaker’s X.

For the next researchers who are interested in doing similar research, this study will give contribution to comprehend the conversational implicatures. And

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also this study can give inspiration and guidance for the further researcher to be more careful in doing research.

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ABSTRAKS

Wijayanti, Tuy Eni. 2013. Analisa Implikasi Percakapan yang ditemukan dalam

Film Abraham Lincoln : Vampire hunter. Skripsi. Jurusan Pendidikan

bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Muria Kudus. Pembimbing : (1) Fajar Kartika, SS, M.Hum , (2) Drs. Suprihadi, M.Pd

Key words : Implikasi Percakapan, Implikasi Percakapan Umum, Implikasi Percakapan Khusus.

Di dalam kebanyakan percakapan kita, kita menganggap bahwa para pembicara dan para pendengar umumnya bekerja sama satu sama lain. Namun, dalam beberapa situasi, pembicara bermaksud untuk menyampaikan lebih dari yang diucapkan, sesuatu itu pasti lebih dari sekedar yang dimaksudkan. Ini adalah makna tambahan, yang disebut conversational implicature. Conversational implicature adalah sdari tiesuatu hal yang menarik dimana ini bukan merupakan masalah kalimat melainkan makna dari sebuah ungkapan.

Oleh karena itu, dalam penelitian ini, penulis tertarik dalam menganalisis implikatur/ makna tersirat yang ditemukan dalam ungkapan-ungkapan dari tiga karakter utama, dan jenis conversational implicature yang dihasilkan oleh tiga karakter utama dari film Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter. Penulis menggunakan teori conversational implicature dari Grice sebagai dasar analisis penelitian. Ungkapan yang mengandung implikatur terbagi dalam dua kategori: Generalized Conversational Implicature dan Particularized Conversational Implicature.

Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dimana data dari penelitian ini diambil dari film Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter. Penulis memilih film

Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter karena penulis melihat bahwa

ungkapan-ungkapan yang dihasilkan oleh tiga karakter utama mengandung banyak implikatur. Selain itu, film Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter adalah film yang unik dengan alur yang pintar dalam mengembangkan cerita tentang sisi lain kehidupan dari presiden ke enam belas Amerka Serikat.

Dari temuan tersebut, penulis menemukan 104 implikatur dari tiga karakter utama: Abraham, Mary, dan Henry. Di antara dua jenis tersebut, generalized dan particularized converstaional implicatures, generalized converstaional implicatures berjumlah sebesar 54. Sedangkan, yang lain, total particularized converstaional implicatures berjumlah 50. Penelitian ini juga mengungkapkan temuan yang signifikan yang dapat berkontribusi pada teori implikaturnya dan aplikasinya sehingga akan berguna untuk referensi lebih lanjut. Pertama, penelitian ini mengungkapkan bahwa salah satu ungkapan tunggal dapat memliki dua jenis conversational implicatures. Sebagai tambahan, penggunaan article tak terbatas ‘a/an’ dalam kalimat sebenarnya dapat berfungsi sebagai nomor bilangan pokok karena sebenarnya mengacu pada angka ‘satu’. Terakhir, teori article tak terbatas jenis ‘a/ X’, biasanya ditafsirkan sesuai dengan generalized converstaional implicature bahwa : X+> bukan X milik pembicara

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tidak bisa disamaratakan dalam penelitian ini karena dapat diartikan sebagai X milik pembicara.

Untuk penelitian selanjutnya yang tertarik dalam melakukan penelitian serupa, penelitian ini akan memberikan kontribusi untuk memahami implikasi percakapan. Dan juga penelitian ini dapat memberi inspirasi dan petunjuk untuk peneliti selanjutnya untuk lebih berhati-hati dalam melakukan penelitian.

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xiii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page COVER…... i LOGO……... ii TITLE…... iii

MOTTO AND DEDICATION…... iv

ADVISORS’ APPROVAL…... v

EXAMINERS’ APPROVAL…... vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…... vii

ABSTRACT…... ix

ABSTRAKS…... xi

TABLE OF CONTENTS…... xiii

LIST OF TABLES…... xvi

LIST OF APPENDIXES…... xvii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Research…... 1

1.2 Statements of the Problem…... 5

1.3 Objectives of the Research…... 5

1.4 Significances of the Research…... 6

1.5 Scope of the Research…... 7

1.6 Operational Definition…... 7

CHAPTER II REVIEW TO RELATED LITERATURE AND HYPOTHESIS 2.1 Pragmatics ………... 9

2.2 Conversational Analysis... 11

2.2.1 Conversational Implicatures... 11

2.2.1.1 Types of Conversational Implicatures... 12

2.3 Meaning... 15

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2.4 Movie... 17

2.4.1 Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter movie…... 18

2.5 Previous Research…... 18

2.6 Theoretical Framework…... 20

CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE RESEARCH 3.1 Design of the Research…... 21

3.2 Data and Data Sources…... 21

3.3 Data Collectig…... 22

3.4 Data Analysis…... 22

CHAPTER IV FINDING OF THE RESEARCH 4.1 Research Finding………... 25

4.1.1 Types of Conversational Implicatures in the Movie Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter and the Context of Interpretation…... 25 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION 5.1 The Implicatures and the Types of Conversational Implicatures in Movie Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter... 66 5.1.1 Generalized Conversational Implicature... 67

5.1.2 Particularized Conversational Implicature... 71

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CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

6.1 Conclusion…... 74 6.2 Suggestion... 76 REFERENCE…... 78 APPENDICES…... 79 STATEMENTS... 88 CURRICULUM VITAE…... 91

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LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

3.4 The Analysis and Classification of Conversational Implicature 23 4.1.1 The Implicature and the Types of Conversational Implicatures in

the Movie Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter and the Context of Interpretation.

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4.1 The number of Conversational Implicature by each main character 65

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix Page

1. DVD movie Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter... 79 2. Transcript of the movie Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter... 80

Figure

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References

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