The Coca-Cola Company

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1 Part I

THE COCA-COLA COMPANY

The Coca Cola Company is the world’s largest beverage company. The company operates in more than 200 countries and market a portfolio of more than 3,000 beverage products including sparkling drinks and still beverages such as waters, juices and juice drinks, teas, coffees, sports drinks and energy drinks. (The Coca-Cola Company, 2011)

History

The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at the Eagle Drug and Chemical Company, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia by John Pemberton, originally as a coca wine called Pemberton's French Wine Coca. He may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a European coca wine.

In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, essentially a non-alcoholic version of French Wine Coca. The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886. It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents a glass at soda fountains, which were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health.

John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged to Charley, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. So, in the summer of 1888, Candler sold his beverage under the names Yum Yum and Koke. After both failed to catch on, Candler set out to establish a legal claim to Coca-Cola in late 1888, In order to force his two competitors out of the business, Candler purchased exclusive rights to the formula from John Pemberton, Margaret Dozier and Woolfolk Walker. However, in 1914, Dozier came forward to claim her signature on the bill of sale had been forged, and subsequent analysis has indicated John Pemberton's signature was most likely a forgery as well.

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In 1892 Candler incorporated a second company, The Coca-Cola Company (the current corporation), and in 1910 Candler had the earliest records of the company burned, further obscuring its legal origins. By the time of its 50th anniversary, the drink had reached the status of a national icon in the USA. In 1935, it was certified kosher by Rabbi Tobias Geffen, after the company made minor changes in the sourcing of some ingredients.

Coca-Cola was sold in bottles for the first time on March 12, 1894. The first outdoor wall advertisement was painted in the same year as well in Cartersville, Georgia. Cans of Coke first appeared in 1955. The first bottling of Coca-Cola occurred in Vicksburg, Mississippi, at the Biedenharn Candy Company in 1891. Its proprietor was Joseph A. Biedenharn. The original bottles were Biedenharn bottles, very different from the much later hobble-skirt design that is now so familiar. Asa Candler was tentative about bottling the drink, but two entrepreneurs from Chattanooga, Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead, proposed the idea and were so persuasive that Candler signed a contract giving them control of the procedure for only one dollar. Candler never collected his dollar, but in 1899 Chattanooga became the site of the first Coca-Cola bottling company. The loosely termed contract proved to be problematic for the company for decades to come. Legal matters were not helped by the decision of the bottlers to subcontract to other companies, effectively becoming parent bottlers.

Coke concentrate, or Coke syrup, was and is sold separately at pharmacies in small quantities, as an over-the-counter remedy for nausea or mildly upset stomach.

New Coke

On April 23, 1985, Coca-Cola, amid much publicity, attempted to change the formula of the drink with "New Coke". Follow-up taste tests revealed that most consumers preferred the taste of New Coke to both Coke and Pepsi, but Coca-Cola management was unprepared for the public's nostalgia for the old drink, leading to a backlash. The company gave in to protests and returned to a variation of the old formula, under the name Coca-Cola Classic on July 10, 1985.

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21st Century

On February 7, 2005, the Coca-Cola Company announced that in the second quarter of 2005 they planned to launch a Diet Coke product sweetened with the artificial sweetener sucralose, the same sweetener currently used in Pepsi One. On March 21, 2005, it announced another diet product, Coca-Cola Zero, sweetened partly with a blend of aspartame and acesulfame potassium. In 2007, Coca-Cola began to sell a new "healthy soda": Diet Coke with vitamins B6, B12, magnesium, niacin, and zinc, marketed as "Diet Coke Plus."

In January 2009, Coca-Cola stopped printing the word "Classic" on the labels of 16-ounce bottles sold in parts of the southeastern United States. The change is part of a larger strategy to rejuvenate the product's image. (Wikipedia, 2011)

Mission, Vision and Values

Company Mission

 To refresh the world...

 To inspire moments of optimism and happiness...  To create value and make a difference.

Company Vision

 People: Be a great place to work where people are inspired to be the best they can be.

 Portfolio: Bring to the world a portfolio of quality beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy people's desires and needs.

 Partners: Nurture a winning network of customers and suppliers, together we create mutual, enduring value.

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4 sustainable communities.

 Profit: Maximize long-term return to shareowners while being mindful of our overall responsibilities.

 Productivity: Be a highly effective, lean and fast-moving organization.

Company Core Values: Live Our Values

 Leadership: The courage to shape a better future  Collaboration: Leverage collective genius

 Integrity: Be real

 Accountability: If it is to be, it's up to me  Passion: Committed in heart and mind  Diversity: As inclusive as our brands  Quality: What we do, we do well

Coca Cola People

The company is built around two core assets, its brands and its people. That's what makes working here so special. Coca-Cola believes that work is more than a place you go every day. It should be a place of exploration, creativity, professional growth and interpersonal relationships. It is about being inspired and motivated to achieve extraordinary things. The company wants its people to take pride in their work and in building brands others love. “After all, it's the combined talents, skills, knowledge, experience and passion of our people that make us who we are.”

Coca-Cola’s 92,800 associates around the world live and work in the markets it serve -- more than 87 percent of these are outside the U.S. In this geographically diverse environment, the company learns from each market and share those learnings quickly. As a result, the Company culture is ever more collaborative. From beverage concept and development to merchandising, company associates are sharing ideas across departments and markets in new ways. Consequently, these associates are

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increasingly enthusiastic about their work and inspired to turn plans into action. (The Coca-Cola Company, 2011)

Leadership

Since our first soda fountain sales in 1886, we have been a driver of marketplace innovation and an investor in local economies. Today we lead the beverage industry with more than 500 beverage brands -- including four of the world's top-five sparkling brands. But while our business opportunities are enormous, our commitment to our consumers and the communities in which we operate is even greater. Muhtar Kent, our Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, leads us into the new century with a firm commitment to the values and spirit of the world's greatest brand. In our journey to become a sustainable, profitable growth company, our management structure has evolved to sharpen external focus on the marketplace with greater speed, productivity and effectiveness. (The Coca-Cola Company, 2011)

Background of the Study

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has emerged as a form of sustainability governance with advantages to the economic, environment and social progress. According to a study conducted in 2004, there was only 43% of companies had reported to some extent in the social performance while 26% were pending to do so in future and most CSR commitment was expressed in terms of charity (Mallenbaker.net 2006). This shows that current awareness on CSR has increased among organizations in the world. Therefore, this study aims to assess the approaches taken by Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines, Inc. – Tacloban Plant with respect to Corporate Social Responsibility. (Siwar & Haslina)

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Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study was conducted to basically analyze the extent of CSR practices of the Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines, Inc. – Tacloban Plant with respect to the triple bottom-line approach: (1) Social, (2) Economic, and (3) Environmental.

However, this study was limited on gathering information from the subject company because the proponents were reliant on the degree of disclosure of information that the company may provide during the interview with Mr. Marlon Ventulan, HR Specialist.

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7 Part II

COCA-COLA AND THE TRIPLE BOTTOM-LINE

Social

The Coca-Cola Company commits itself to its community through corporate social responsibility. In each of the countries in which Coca-Cola Company is situated, it takes its responsibilities as a resident and a neighbor very seriously. It accepts the fact that it has a duty to contribute to the local community and protection of the local environment.

Coca-Cola Company considers itself as an active member of the community. It is committed in investing its time, expertise and resources to protect, support and enhance the quality of life through a wide range of locally relevant initiatives. In addition to the economic benefits its day-to-day business activities bring, Coca-Cola supports local communities through community investment programs. Key social, economic or environmental needs are identified through consultation, and the company partners with government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other experts to conduct programs. Through two-way dialogue with stakeholders, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and numerous groups and organizations, it strives not only to respond to requests for assistance but also take an active role in identifying needs, extending support and developing meaningful partnerships.

Its efforts are seen through core business activities in terms of direct contributions to the economy, which it makes through investments and taxes, and also indirectly through the stimulus of related activities. In addition, it contributes financially and materially to the welfare and growth of the community, seeking to add further value through our active participation in supportive programs and initiatives that will benefit all members.

“Across its countries of operation, it partners with local institutions, educational bodies, government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and others to

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provide effective and efficient benefits for young people while encouraging involvement by others in the community,” Mr. Ventulan stressed during an interview.

Local elementary and secondary schools are also recipients of Coca Cola’s generosity. The company gives out 100 boxes of Nutri-Juice per school. Among the beneficiaries are the Palo Central School and Elementary Schools in San Jose specifically in Manlurip. The company takes part in local festivities, for example, during Flores de Mayo, Coca Cola ties up with the nearby barangays. It gives out free food and soft drinks to the participants in the said event. With regards to employment, Coca Cola prioritizes the people living the community in which it is located. The residents benefit from the opportunities given by the corporation. The recipients show their heartfelt gratitude by sending back cards, notes, and other tokens as a sign of their appreciation.

As part of Coca-Cola’s ongoing commitment, the company supports efforts to understand and prevent disasters, to provide immediate relief when they do strike and to offer long term support in order to help communities recover and rebuild in the aftermath of disasters. Emergency relief plans are in place, enabling resources to be quickly mobilized and swiftly delivered to those most in need. The company works together with relief agencies at the local level and, if necessary, with international organizations and other group members, in efforts to prevent potential calamities. In the aftermath of tragedies it continues its support to assist in rehabilitation efforts for the victims and the environment, not only through funding but also through volunteer work.

For instance, on February 17, 2006 a massive rock slide-debris avalanche occurred in the Philippine province of Southern Leyte that caused widespread damage and loss of life. Coca-Cola Tacloban responded at once to the call of the local government by giving immediate assistance to the locals who survived. Along with the Philippine Red Cross, the local government, and many other institutions, Coca Cola gave out relief goods, potable water, and food supplements like the “Nutri-Juice”.

To reach its business goals, Coca-Cola strives to ensure a safe, healthy and inclusive workplace for its employees while engaging, training and rewarding them. Every employee is compensated accordingly which is more than the law requires. With their reward system, incentives and salary increases are given to employees who

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deserve such a reward. For improved performance in the workplace, Coca-Cola also conducts trainings and seminars for its employees and workers. Corporate trainings for speaking and presentation are organized by the main office. Sub departments also put together minor trainings, like on waste disposal.

Coca-Cola’s

human rights and equality of opportunity policies were adopted in 2004. All operations are required to create and sustain an open and inclusive workplace, to ensure that employees are developed, challenged, respected and rewarded within a positive and inclusive work environment. Equal opportunities are given to employees without bias to gender or race. In fact, today the company strongly prefers women as their new employees. It is said that the company is male dominated, women composes only 14% of the total population. Due to this, Coca-Cola honors women empowerment by conducting special events for the women of the company, such as the activities on International Women’s Day.

Coca-Cola respects its employees' right to freedom of association. It consults employees about major business developments and issues of shared concern, whether they choose to join trade unions or not. Where unions do not exist, we recommend establishing employee bodies for consultation. For instance, in Coca-Cola Tacloban, two Labor Unions are presently active, one from the manufacturing department, and another from the sales department. Managers tend to tap these unions to help them in conducting the CSR activities.

Economic

The Coca-Cola Company operates in more than 200 countries. Because of the local nature of the business, Coke is in the unique position to contribute to the economic vitality of even the most remote communities across the globe. Coca-Cola collaborates with bottling partners and third parties to combine knowledge and experience in order to create economic opportunities in communities that the company

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operates. (2009/2010 Sustainability Review: Our Commitment to Making a Positive Difference in the World, 2010)

In Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines – Tacloban Plant, it contributes to the economy in two simple yet impacting ways. One is through employment. Employment itself contributes to the welfare of the economy. As a matter of fact, one of the key drivers to economic heights is employment. Across the globe, 92,400 are employed representing thousands of communities and many cultures. In addition, Coke’s bottling partners employ hundreds of thousands of people around the world and are committed to supporting community investment programs. (The Coca-Cola Company, 2011)

Our large global presence is a competitive advantage, but we also see it as a responsibility. Our products are purchased by consumers around the world millions of times a day, making the sustainability of our business dependent upon sustainable economies. We have always tried to be the first to gain access to a market and to grow along with that market by providing jobs, investment and economic opportunities. This in turn provides community members the ability to afford an improved standard of living. To add further value to local economies, we seek to ensure that our ingredients are sourced in an ethical, sustainable manner. (2009/2010 Sustainability Review: Our Commitment to Making a Positive Difference in the World, 2010)

The global business stimulates job creation throughout the value cycle. The company contributed to the economic success of each community by employing local people, paying taxes to the government, paying suppliers for goods, services and capital equipment, and supporting community investment programs. In Coca-Cola Tacloban, the company employs about 250 employees, of which 86% constitutes male. Especially now that Tacloban City has become highly-urbanized by nature, it just means that the market just keeps on getting bigger, thus, there are more people to feed and greater demand to be satisfied. As in Economics, if more people are employed, more people pay taxes or more people have money for spending. Spending money then boosts the economy through taxes and the cycle just goes on when everyone shops.

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Source: (2009/2010 Sustainability Review: Our Commitment to Making a Positive Difference in the World, 2010)

Another contribution of Coca-Cola Tacloban to the economy is its support to business and entrepreneurship. The unique business model of Coca-Cola allows the company to support entrepreneurship and economic development at many different levels. The Coca-Cola system creates opportunities for farmers to supply ingredients for the beverages, opens the door to entrepreneurs wishing to distribute the products, partners with small-scale retailers selling the products in communities worldwide. Coca-Cola takes these steps for the reason that these people are able to help communities progress towards achieving the UN Millenium Developmental Goals, in the same way as these people also benefit from the company.

“In Eastern Visayas, we partner with small-scale entrepreneurs in the distribution of our products. This does not just benefit the company, but these local entrepreneurs as well,” Mr. Ventulan emphasized.

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Environmental

Managing Climate Change

Global climate change which is caused in part by man‑made greenhouse gas emissions has widespread implications for the planet and the communities where we live in. Water and land resources, public health and safety, agriculture and more are at risk. And through the Coca‑Cola system, they recognize that climate change has the great ability and potential to affect the lifespan of our organizations and the supply chain. They increasingly focus on energy efficiency and climate protection to help reduce costs and minimize our environmental impact. Efforts are made in order to lessen the sudden effects of these natural phenomenon, it is already clear that it is already difficult to stop nor obstruct these after effects of climate change, hence, preventive measures and remedies are the one focused by the company.

When producing and distributing its products, the Coca-Cola Company aims to use the best possible mix of energy sources while improving its overall energy use and efficiency. It commits to effectively tracking and managing its carbon emissions and it is taking the necessary steps to do so as a system. The company also invests in renewable energy resources where others make sense for their business, and it is making decisions to improve the overall energy use and efficiency of their facilities. It is also committed in pacifying its own energy end marks. The company continually improves its energy efficiency per liter of product produced and working to stabilize its emissions system-wide. In 2008, the Coca‑Cola system set global targets for energy management and climate protection within its manufacturing operations and to achieve around 5 percent absolute emissions reduction in developed countries and grow its business without growing the carbon emissions approximately by 2015.

The Coca‑Cola system is working to meet each goal, and it is committed in reporting or disclosing its progress. Tree-planting activities worldwide are also done to increase the number of trees that saturate or neutralize the emissions in the air that circulates. In that same time period, emissions in some countries improved by 8 percent. The company is absolutely making progress and change in the environment, but it has

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more work to do in order to meet these targets. Local tree-planting events are done in different places where plants are located. The latest here in Tacloban City was recently conducted last September 2010 at Upper Diit, Tacloban City. Through this consolidated efforts of each plant, the plans and goals to lessen and manage the aftermath of climate change would come to reality.

Managing our Carbon Emission and Energy Saving

The Coca-Cola Company remains committed in protecting the environment and reducing greenhouse gas emissions across our system. Through strategic partnerships and innovative problem-solving techniques, the company continues to identify and leverage new technologies and innovations to reduce their carbon emissions. The company has also built energy efficiency and climate protection targets into business plans and projections. Coke is focusing efforts to reduce emissions in three key areas: manufacturing, fleet/transportation and sales equipment like coolers and vending machines. It remains committed in publicly disclosing its system-wide emission information, and it currently engages in a variety of partnerships with governments, industry and NGOs to find solutions for climate change.

Coca-Cola continually looks for ways to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions through renewable energy resources. Some of the company’s bottling partners are installing solar panels on their bottling facilities to help reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The solar panels capture sunlight across a 360‑degree surface, converting light energy into electricity. Additional investments are being made in biodiesel and wind power generation technologies, among other initiatives.

Coca-Cola is continually working to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions resulting from vending machines and coolers through the installation of HFC‑free systems and intelligent energy management devices. In 2009, through engagement with Greenpeace (An Environment Concerned Organization), the Coca‑Cola system pledged to transition to 100 percent HFC‑free equipment for all new coolers and vending

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machines by the end of 2015. As a result of the commitment to eliminate the use of HFCs in our refrigeration equipment, the Company also has invested millions in research and development to advance the use of climate‑friendly cooling technologies. The Company and many of their bottling partners commemorate Earth Hour annually by switching off all nonessential lights. By running extensive communications campaigns, the company encourages all system associates, customers, suppliers and partners to participate in the initiative. In 2010, the company fully supported Earth Hour with marketing and promotional materials as well as turning off the lights at company facilities in more than 50 countries all over the world.

Recycling Water in Production and Operation

While Coca-Cola gives much effort to improve the water efficiency for each liter of product, the company produces and increases their conservation efforts across the system – the company also recycles water. Water is a very important ingredient in the manufacturing process, thus very vital in the operations. The goal of the company is to return all the water used in the manufacturing processes throughout the system to the environment at a level that supports aquatic life. “Water used in Coca‑Cola system operations is recycled through a stringent treatment and cleansing process to ensure that our wastewater meets or exceeds applicable laws and regulations before being released into the environment,” stressed Mr. Ventulan in an interview.

To understand and promote management of water resources for the Coca‑Cola system’s manufacturing operations, it launched a system-wide water resource sustainability corporate standard. This standard requires each of the more than 900 bottling plants to evaluate the sustainability of the water resources used to produce the beverages, as well as the sustainability of the water resources used by the surrounding community. It also requires identification of associated water risks at the plant level and action plans to reduce such risks. All Coca‑Cola system plants are required to complete this process and be actively implementing their protection plan. These source water protection plans address critical water challenges at a watershed

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level, from hydrological vulnerabilities to local government management. As a company, Coca-Cola provides utmost guidance, planning templates, preparation checklists and training courses to facilitate system wide engagement with this water resource sustainability corporate standard.

Throughout the Coca‑Cola system, the beverages are produced locally and the water used to create these beverages is sourced locally. One of the company’s key water strategies is to replenish the water used by investing in projects that include watershed protection and conservation; expanding community drinking water and sanitation access; example of which is when Coca-Cola Tacloban had given assistance to the victims of landslide at Guinsaugon, Southern Leyte wherein the refugees were given free drinking (potable) distilled water (WILKINS) because of the problem that arose wherein no clean water was available for drinking in that said location. As the plants develop and implement the source water protection plans, such projects will become more locally relevant to the company’s operations. By 2020, Coca-Cola intends to attain the goal of replenishing to nature and communities an amount of water equivalent to that used in the finished beverages.

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16 Part III

COCA-COLA: CSR OBSTACLE

Today’s heightened interest in the proper role of businesses in society has been promoted by increased sensitivity to environmental and ethical issues. Issues like environmental damage, improper treatment of workers, and faulty production leading to customers inconvenience or danger, are highlighted in the media. In some countries government regulation regarding environmental and social issues has increased, and standards and laws are also often set at a supranational level. Some investors and investment fund managers have begun to take account of a corporation’s CSR policy in making investment decisions. Some consumers have become increasingly sensitive to the CSR performance of the companies from which they buy their goods and services. (Corporate social responsibility, Wikipedia, 2006) These trends have contributed to the pressure on companies to operate in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable way.

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The diagram above shows the main problem regarding with the company’s performance in Corporate Social Responsibility is budget constraint. Because of this their activities are being limited, they have short-term benefits and its impact are minimal. Being able to sustain their corporate activities can affect how people and their consumers view their company and their product.

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18 Part IV

RECOMMENDATIONS

CSR Asia, a social enterprise that provides information, training, research and consultancy services on sustainable business practices in Asia, published a report titled “The Future of CSR: Issues of the Next Decade.” It gives a summary of the Top 10 issues that CSR managers will have to confront in the next 10 years, as well as the action points that will help them address these concerns.

On top of the list is the environment and climate change, which “will... require companies to look hard at the sourcing of raw materials, waste management, the management of toxic substances, health impacts of environmental degradation, and the management of diversity.” Next is “labour rights as human rights”, which means recognizing “that workers have fundamental human rights and must be treated with respect rather than mere factors of production.” Third on the list is ensuring transparency and accountability, which “will require a whole new approach to revealing the positive and negative aspects of doing business.”

Other issues in the top ten are: (4) the institutionalization of CSR, (5) stakeholder engagement, (6) “the battle for talent”, (7) community investment, (8) supply chain and product safety, (9) social enterprises, and (10) poverty alleviation and the private sector’s role in it. (Recommendations of CSR Report 2007 2008)

The report also offered recommendations for companies to consider in maximizing their CSR initiatives:

1. Build institutional capacity for CSR;

2. Conduct “properly structured, ongoing stakeholder dialogue” as part of developing a CSR strategy;

3. “Embed” CSR into the organization;

4. Build stronger partnerships with NGOs, with local communities, and “with any stakeholder who can add value to the business;”

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5. Involve stakeholders in innovative strategies and projects “to create productive change;”

6. Find ways to create new relationships with suppliers based on shared visions about CSR;

7. Establish policies and systems to attract and retain talent for the long-term success of the business;

8. Develop communities alongside the business, which includes properly measuring community impacts and having long-term investment strategies involving stakeholders;

9. Engage in better non-financial risk management; and 10. Ensure good governance.

The above-mentioned set of recommendations by CSR Asia will become a very useful guideline to the formulation of recommended actions for Coca-Cola Bottlers Incorporated. Not only do some of these apply to Coca-Cola’s CSR situation today but they also give way to the formulation of new strategic CSR actions for Coca-Cola.

Coca Cola Bottlers Incorporated has been awarded several times in many parts of the globe. For instance, Coca-Cola China was awarded the 2009 CSR Award in the AmCham Shanghai Corporate Social Responsibility Conference and Awards of November 2009 and Coca-Cola Nigeria Limited, too, was awarded Most Socially Responsible Company 2008 during the Social Enterprise Reports and Award (SERA) of August 2008. (Raising the Standard of Excellence 2009) This however does not guarantee that Coca-Cola’s CSR can no longer be improved.

What can be recommended here first is to review the current Corporate Social Responsibilities the company is involved in. There is a need for the said review because this review will allow management as well as all stakeholders involved the activities to evaluate the said actions and assess their impact on the company’s image not only globally but within Eastern Visayas itself. Through the suggested review, the people concerned will be able to pinpoint which activities help the company and society the most and which ones are worth improving or revising. After conducting the

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recommended activity the next plausible thing to do is prepare a CSR action plan for the company. This action plan will determine the purpose of each activity, the time allocated for it and the people responsible for its success. For instance:

ACTION PLAN

Activity Person Involved Time Frame Indicators/ KRAs

1. Nutrijuice Feeding Program  Human Resource Department  All employees 1 month

Helping alleviate poverty by aiding unfortunate children get their daily sustenance thus gradually

improving the health situation in the rural areas 2. Tree-planting

in cooperation with the Boy Scout of the Philippines  BSP  Human Resource Management  All employees in Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines Incorporated 1 month Advocating the conservation and preservation of our environment and influencing others to do the

same

Plans presented in the manner stated above not only give the company the right direction towards proper CSR but also provides an avenue for employees from all ranks within the company to participate in company activities. This brings us to another recommendation which is better involvement of Coca-Cola’s employees. At present as was mentioned in previous chapters, employees in Coca-Cola participate in the CSR activities conducted by the company but at a minimal level. Employees should be further encouraged to participate in these types of activities. First, however, the purpose of the activity must be explained to them. Furthermore, they should be oriented as to the benefits that they get upon participating – that they will be able to help build the image of the organization and in turn will improve Coca-Cola’s performance and will mean more benefits for them.

We can notice that most of the Corporate Social Responsibility Activities held by Coca-Cola are more inclined towards the environmental area. Although they have activities and strategies geared towards the social and economic sphere, still a majority

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if its CSR Activities fall under advocacies for environmental preservation. For this reason, there is a need for Coca-Cola to realign its CSR efforts towards being more social and economic. First off, Coca-Cola should strive harder in obtaining a more diversified workforce and more gender-sensitive recruitment and selection process; specifically that women should be given equal opportunities for selection and growth in the company like opportunities are given to male employees and potential employees. Economically speaking, since Coca-Cola is a very large and established organization, it should also do its best to address poverty in the Philippines. It can do this through several means. For example, a significantly large number of its product distribution can be given to micro-entrepreneurial establishments in rural areas so as to give these a better source of living thus reducing the unemployment rate in the country, one of the key indicators of poverty. Not only that, Coca-Cola with its organizational size and influence may be able to provide entrepreneurial assistance to the same people in order to help alleviate poverty.

One of the CSR strengths of Coca-Cola is its networking and alliances with numerous government and non-government organizations. These organizations which have partnered with Coca-Cola in the past and even at present can help the company address the social and economic issues it is lacking. More than that, the mentioned allies can help Coca-Cola build a stronger, more sustained and long-term CSR program for the company. It is thus highly encouraged that these formed alliances and partnerships be encouraged and strengthened in the following years.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

2009/2010 Sustainability Review: Our Commitment to Making a Positive Difference in the World. (2010). Retrieved February 26, 2011, from The Coca-Cola Company: http://www.thecoca-

colacompany.com/citizenship/pdf/SR09/2009-2010_The_Coca-Cola_Company_Sustainability_Review.pdf

Raising the Standard of Excellence. (2009, January). Retrieved February 25, 2011, from The Coca-Cola Company: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/awards_recognition.html Recommendations of CSR Report 2007. (2008, December). Retrieved February 26, 2011, from Daiichi Sankyo Group CSR Report:

http://www.daiichisankyo.com/corporate/report/pdf/2008/g_ds2008_05.pdf

Siwar, C., & Haslina, S. (n.d.). A Study on Corporate Social Responsibility Practices Amongst Business Organizations in Malaysia. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from

http://www.csr-weltweit.de/uploads/tx_jpdownloads/Chamhuri_Siwar_Siti_Haslina_Md_Harizan_Malaysia.pdf The Coca-Cola Company. (2011). Company Reports. Retrieved February 26, 2011, from The Coca-Cola Company:

http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/company_reports.html

The Cola Company. (2011). Economic Impact. Retrieved February 26, 2011, from The Coca-Cola Company: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/citizenship/economic_impact.html The Coca-Cola Company. (2011). Leading the Industry and Refreshing the World Responsibly. Retrieved February 25, 2011, from Coca-Cola Company:

http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/leadership.html

The Coca-Cola Company. (2011). Working as a Global Company. Retrieved February 25, 2011, from Coca-Cola Company:

http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/meet_our_people.html

Wikipedia. (2011). Coca-Cola. Retrieved February 25, 2011, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coca-Cola

"Raising the Standard of Excellence." The Coca-Cola Company. January 2009.

http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/awards_recognition.html (accessed February 25, 2011).

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"Recommendations of CSR Report 2007." Daiichi Sankyo Group CSR Report. December 2008. http://www.daiichisankyo.com/corporate/report/pdf/2008/g_ds2008_05.pdf (accessed February 26, 2011).

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