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Driving Down Costs with

Intergovernmental Agreements

and Cloud Solutions

Today’s Goal

Discuss varying Intergovernmental

Agreements & Cloud Solutions

Provide examples of cost-saving


Cover steps you should consider for

both intergovernmental agreements

& cloud solutions

Intergovernmental Agreements

Are you familiar with agreements

available to you?

What agreements are you

leveraging today?

Are you in process of looking at

any agreements?

Are there areas you wish you could

see such agreements?


Types of Agreements

Handshake Agreements

Act 177 Agreements

Councils of Governments (COG)

Joint Authorities

Cooperative Planning and Land Use


Other Methods of Cooperation

Intergovernmental Agreements

CCAPs Microsoft Enterprise Agreement


Minnesota Cooperative Purchasing






A Few Examples

Other Examples of

Intergovernmental Agreements

San Diego County entered into a joint

agreement for shared fire protection

Intergovernmental agreements vital to

Albany/Dougherty County services

HealthCare Alliance – A program of the

County Commissioners Association

U.S. Communities Government


Motivators for Intergovernmental


More than 1,600 local governments with existing intergovernmental contracts for service delivery reported on the factors motivating them to enter into the service agreements:

•Save money: 81%

•Achieve economies of scale: 70% •Lack of private providers: 63%

•Strengthen collaborative intergovernmental relations: 63%

•Promote higher quality/more effective service delivery:


•Promote regional service integration: 54% •Access technical expertise: 35% •Avoid shedding services: 14%

What are the obstacles to successful

cooperative arrangements?

Successful agreements deal with all these points.

Respondents identified a number of

obstacles to intergovernmental

contracting. The top three are shown


•Concern about community control

(69% reporting)

•Lack of common vision/shared mission

(46% reporting)

•Lack of trust (43% reporting)

Avoiding the Obstacles

Start off on the right foot

• Be Inclusive

• Involve Elected Officials

• Involve Municipal Staff

• Start With An Easy Project

• Communicate Effectively

Maintain A Cooperative Spirit

• Be Proactive

• Be Flexible

• Be Patient

• Think Regionally


Avoiding the Obstacles

Proceed With Care

Study Options Thoroughly

Select Realistic Programs

Pay Attention to the Little Things

Watch Out for the Ease of Informality

Allocate Costs Fairly

Focus on Cost Savings and Outputs

Share Total Costs

Set Up a Positive Cash Flow

Avoid Overdependence on Grants

Avoiding the Obstacles

Deal Directly With Problems

Learn From Failures

Address Turf Issues

Recognize Historical Animosities

Respond Directly to Challenges

Source: Pennsylvania

Intergovernmental Cooperation


Why Cooperate?

Shared interests and


Economies of scale


So How do I Start?

Be creative

Think about the

services that you

purchase that are

purchased by others

Look at what others are


Think about some of your pain points

Look for ways to solve mutual

problems with other government


Think about starting small

So How do I Start?


Cloud Solutions - What Does This

Mean to You?

Are you using

the cloud


In what ways are you using cloud

service options?

Are you considering other solutions in

the cloud?

Do or can cloud solutions save you


How is cloud changing IT budgets

and processes?

Technology and computing was

Capital intensive

Dependent upon on premise technology

Dependent upon on premise staff

Required purchase lead times

Might need additional infrastructure

Testing before deployment


Cloud provider

Sets up the infrastructure

Manages the equipment

and licenses

Delivers internet-based


Resolves service



The Business

Does not incur the capital


Pays a recurring

operational expense

No longer has maintenance

or support direct expenses

Allows IT to focus on

services rather than just


With Cloud Services…

Business leaders and departments play a

bigger role in service evaluation, testing,

recommendation and negotiation.

IF a cloud service is cheaper and better

than the on premise service, the

business can opt to take the service


With many vendors, you can shop



More Common Moves to the Cloud

Email (Outlook, Google)

User Documents (One Drive, Drop Box,

Google Drive)

Websites (CCAP, Civic Plus)

Web-based Applications (GIS, Payroll,

CCAP/Cooperative County Efforts)

Backups (Barracuda, Azure, Symantec)


Government and the Cloud

GSA-US General Services Administration

– Cloud Focused Contracts

• The Cloud First policy mandates that agencies take full advantage of cloud computing benefits to maximize capacity utilization, improve IT flexibility and responsiveness, and minimize cost. • We help agencies comply with mandates and guidelines for

moving to the cloud.

• Our cloud IT services provide convenient, on-demand access to a shared pool of computing resources that can be quickly and easily configured, provisioned, and released.

Free templates for migration to the cloud

Government and the Cloud

Franklin County

City of Altoona

Lancaster County

Montgomery County

Mifflin County

Huntingdon County



City of Portland

San Jose

Palo Alto


Top Ten Considerations for Cloud Solutions

Vendor certifications to ensure compliance with


Vendor knows your industry

Understand bandwidth limitations

Data encryption (transit and at rest)

Read the provider’s SLA

Know how much it REALLY will cost you

Don’t overbuy

Make sure you can recover/restore your data

Have a backup plan


Measuring Your Benefits and Savings

Intergovernmental Agreements

-Closing Remarks

Cooperation is the Future

 Why cooperate? The preceding sections have outlined some

of the reasons why municipal governments should work together: our interdependence; greater efficiency; and more effectiveness.

 As communities grow, so do needs for new and expanded

services. As time passes, our citizens come to expect more from their municipal governments. The state and federal governments continue to require more sophistication, services and paperwork.

 Our response to meet these increasing demands is for

municipalities to work together. Cooperation is the future of local government.

The question is whether it is in your future.

Closing Remarks

Cloud Solutions …

 May make sense when you compare your current costs,

capabilities, and strategy for solutions

 May be a cost effective solution, but may not fit in all areas  You may end up with a “hybrid” approach (so some of your

solutions in the cloud, some on premise)

 Start Small

 Ensure a good fit with your selected provider  Consider open options





County Commissioners Association of Pennsylvania Kathie Zullinger SharePoint Manager & Software Licensing Specialist

717-526-1010 X 3353





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