The Relationship between Personality Traits and Trend to Drug Use among Students

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Universal Journal of Management and Social Sciences Vol. 4, No.1; January 2014

15

The Relationship between Personality Traits and Trend to Drug Use among

Students

*BahmanAkbari1,Gholamreza Taghizadeh2, Sofia Heidarikhamroudi3

1Islamic Azad University, Fouman and Shaft Branch, Fouman, Iran (Corresponding Author), 2

Islamic Azad University, Fouman and Shaft Branch, Fouman, Iran, 3 M.A in Psychology, Farhangian University (Emam Ali Prdis), Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran

*bakbari44@yahoo.com Abstract

The present study was conducted by the aim of examining personality traits’ relationship with trend to drug use among boy students in the Humanities Branch of Islamic Azad University in Tonokabon .Statistical population of the study was all male students of Humanities Branch of Tonokabon University (1469people).306were selected as the sample size based on Morgan table and using random stratified sampling.

Tools used in this research were five-factor personality features questionnaire NEO (1998)and addiction inventory(2001).The research was of descriptive –survey, its design was of correlation. Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis were used to analyzing data. The results showed that: there is a significant positive correlation between personality traits(mental irritation) and tendency towards drug use(r = 0.213).The extraversion personality characteristic and tend to drug use were negatively related (r = -0.227).There is a negative relationship between flexibility personality characteristic and trend to narcotic drug use (r = 0.268).Personality characteristic of being agreeable negatively related to drug use (r = -264) and there is a negative correlation between personality characteristic (responsibility) and trend to use narcotic substance (r = -0.248).

Conclusion: The findings suggest the importance of relationship between personality

characteristics and tendency to use narcotic substance. Variables like mental irritation, being agreeable, extraversion, flexibility and responsibility can explain high rate of substance abuse among college students.

Keywords: Personality Traits, Tendency to Narcotic Drug Use

1. Introduction

When we look at themselves and our surrounding, we find this fact that none of us are not exactly similar to each other. Each of us has a style and structure and so-called we have unique personalities that will be influenced all our actions and life in general. In fact, it is the reason for being different from other people, but it should be noted that our people are also identical in many ways. That is, they are similar to each other in terms of behavioral and temporal features. To complete this term, personality traits can be named under which psychologists are

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Universal Journal of Management and Social Sciences Vol. 4, No.1; January 2014

16 expressed features for personality. Each person has one of these characteristics and others may be placed within such properties. Such as how to establish bilateral emotional relationship between two people that is called fall in love style. However, knowing and judging about an individual is according to his understanding which is a predictor of his actions in special situations. For example we can point to those actions and behaviors that may be helpful or harmful to the society (narcotic substance abuse). Since individuals’ personality shaped from childhood, and on the other hand, as mentioned above, individual actions influenced by his character, it is necessary that an attention paid to individual‘s training and education. Also, a consideration taken on how to shape a healthy personality in which the person supported in applying positive behaviors (of course its contrary is also true).

Therefore, this study sought information on the extent of relationship between personality characteristics and trend to drug use in male students so that comprehensive information to be provided in this regard.

Timoty(2000) in his study concluded that there is are relationship between narcotic substance abuse disorders and personality disorders. It means whatever the person take disorders of abnormal issues in terms of personality, his consumption of narcotic drug will be high.

The results of Kenneth study(2000) showed that the character and individual traits affected is orders and person's drug use; both are (type of personality characteristic and narcotic drug use) related to each other.

Lubman(2001) in his study found that personality disorders management such as self-assessment and crimes (abnormalities) allow an individual controlled or eliminated his consumption and addiction. Because his personality is treated and improved from decline to healthy. This helps individual to reduce and control his consumption.

Samuel(2005) in his study entitled“ substance abuse and personality disorder in homeless people who are referred to health centers in America” concluded that people with personality disorders consumed narcotic drug and were among the consumers. Those who have been taken the treatment in the centers had positive and better condition than other addicts, other than this position. One outcome of these centers was therapy duration and its using.

Marvins(2006) in his study entitled“ narcotic drug use in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia” concluded that patients with schizophrenia were dangerous factors for drug use compared to non-schizophrenic patients.

Kassel (2007) in his study,“ secure of adults’ attachment and narcotic substance use among students in Chicago”, concluded that the positive relationship between subjects to drug use was frequent and narcotic drug use was irritant. In fact, attachment styles were is k factors for substance use among students.

Estefanson(2008) in his research found that personality attributes considered as important etiological factors in tendency to precarious behaviors such as smoking, alcohol and un safe sexual activities.

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Universal Journal of Management and Social Sciences Vol. 4, No.1; January 2014

17 Ahliman(2009) in his study as:“ use of several drugs and antisocial effects in predicting mass remains in a program with compulsive work and the amount of high acceptance inSwedenUniversity”,concludedthatselectedpatientsfor12-month program continued to their work and had a daily job. The substance use before medicine in this treatment and high level of disorder were shown. Low age for using drug was continuity negative impacts and avoids consumption.

Heydari Pahlavian(2003) in a study entitled“ comparative investigate of personality characteristics of drug addicts with normal people in Hamadan city” concluded that many drug addicts suffer from mentalist orders and disturbances. So, personality disorder is of most obvious problems that this group is afflicted to it. Thus, there is a correlation between personality features and addiction.

Molavi(2004) in his study: “examining effective factor son youth trends to drug use in Ardebil”, concluded that the most important social-personal and family factor sin youth tendency to drug use included: signs of depression, divorce, family disputes, socializing with wrong people, smoking, and academic failure. The spread of this problem probably can prevented by teaching life skills, extending family counseling, establishing artistic, cultural and professional-technical training centers and classes. In other words, in young people who are exposed to these issues, a kind of unsteady personality is formed that is very effective in their tendency to narcotic drug use.

Ghalei ha(2007) in a study entitled“ comparative investigate of personality characteristics and mental disorders in drug addicts in Hamadan city”, concluded that drug-dependent persons have more pathological symptoms and psychiatric disorders than independent individuals. In fact, personality traits and dependency to addiction are related in individuals.

Konani (2010) in his study as “personality characteristics and traits of felon male adolescents in Shiraz” concluded that mental personality health and personality problems and conflicts of individuals are influenced their performance and behavior.

AjilChi (2010) in her study entitled“ relation and personality traits of addicted women to social orderin Tehran” concluded that personality characteristics such as aggression, maladjustment, being anti-social, psychopathy, lack of social interest, disregard for social customs, irresponsibility, personality disorder, lack of attention to social rules can lead to increased crime, delinquency, violence, murder and etc. All these factors create chaos in society.

2. Methods

This study was a descriptive – survey and research design was of correlation. Population of the study was all male students of the Humanities Branch of Tonokabon University(1469people). 306were selected as the sample size based on Morgan table and using random stratified sampling.

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Universal Journal of Management and Social Sciences Vol. 4, No.1; January 2014

18 Tools used in this study included the five-factor personality traits inventory NEO and addiction questionnaire.

A) five-factor personality traits inventory, NEO: This questionnaire has been prepared by Costa

and McCrae in 1998which is composed of 60 items in 5 options response spectrum: "totally disagree", "disagree = 1", "no idea = 2", "agree = 3", "totally agree = 4".It measures personality traits such as extraversion, neuroticism, flexibility, being agreeable, and conscientiousness. The questionnaire was conductedon208studentswithin 3months.Obtained validity coefficients include: 0.83, 0.75, 0.79 and 0.29 that were for the factors of neuroticism, extraversion, flexibility, being agreeable and conscientiousness respectively (Costa & McCrae, 1998).Also in Iran, Hejazi & Irvani (2002) standardized the short form of NEO personality inventory through Chronbach‘s alpha. The obtained coefficients are as follows: 0.85, 0.7, 0.68, 0.54 and 0.82which were for mental irritation, extraversion, flexibility, being agreeable and responsibility respectively. Furthermore, to determine the reliability of thisquestionnaire,a2-year longitudinal study was done on scales of neuroticism, extraversion, and flexibility. As a result, reliability coefficient of 0.68 to 0.38 was shown in both personality reports and young couples’ reports. Reliability coefficients of two being agree able and conscientiousness factors were 0.79and0.63 respectively (Costa & McCrae,1998).Further, in Iran Hejazi & Irvani (2002) have reported the reliability coefficients of 0.53 to 0.76.

Addiction questionnaire (narcotic substance use): This questionnaire has been prepared by

Nazari(2001) in two forms: (a) 32 articles and (b) 31 items in5 options response spectra: " strongly agree =5", "agree = 4 "," no idea = 3 "," disagree =2, "" strongly disagree = 1 ".

In 2001, Nazari has used the ideas of M.A, Ph.D. students and psychological professors to examine the validity, strengths and weaknesses of items. All of them had favorable comments and were agreed on the credibility of scale. Moreover ,to determine the reliability of this tool the Cronbach's alpha coefficient in two forms(a) and (b)was equal to0.81 and 0.86 respectively.

3. Research Findings

Main hypothesis: there is a relationship between personality traits (mental irritation,

extraversion, flexibility, agreeableness and accountability) and tendency to narcotic drug use in students.

To examine this hypothesis, the Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis(stepwise) were used.

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Universal Journal of Management and Social Sciences Vol. 4, No.1; January 2014

19 Table (1) Descriptive indexes of study variables

variables number mean Standard deviation Maximum of scores Minimum of scores mental irritation 306 29.17 12.107 5 48 extraversion 306 5.21 3.925 1 46 flexibility 306 5.32 4.019 1 46 agreeableness 306 5.94 3.810 2 45 responsibility 306 6.08 3.838 1 44 tendency to

narcotic drug use 306 236.19 50.485 345 109 In Inferentialstatistics the Pearson correlationandmultivariate regressionwere used to examinetheassumptions.

Table (2) the correlation matrixof studyvariables.

variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 tendency to narcotic drug - 0.213 ** 0.277** 0.269** 0.264** 0.248** 0.222** 0.229** 0.213** mental irritation - - 0.040 -0.069 -0.016 -0.024 0.128 * -0.026 0.146* extraversion - - - 0.956** 0.945** 0.921** -0.005 0.108 0.011 flexibility - - - - 0.923 0.896** -0.010 0.062 0.005 agreeableness - - - 0.906** 0.033 0.091 0.049 responsibility - - - 0.035 0.127** 0.043 ** p< 0.01

According to correlation matrix, the relationships of mental irritation (p = 0.001, r =0.213), extraversion (p = 0.001, r = -0.277) flexibility (p = 0.001, r =0.269), agreeableness (p = 0.001, r =-0.264), responsibility (p = 0.001, r = -0.248) with tendency towards narcotic drug use are significant.

First sub-hypothesis:

there is a correlation between mental annoyance personality characteristic and trend to narcotic substance use.

According to correlation matrix and regression, the relationship between mental annoyance personality characteristic and trend to narcotic substance (p = 0.001, r =0.213)is approved. This correlation is statistically positive significant (p<0.001).Therefore by confidence of0.99, it is

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Universal Journal of Management and Social Sciences Vol. 4, No.1; January 2014

20 concluded that there is a direct correlation between mental annoyance personality characteristic and trend to substance abuse. Then hypothesis regarding the relationship between these two variables is confirmed.

The result of this hypothesis is consistent with research findings of Molavi (2004), Konani (2010), Ajil Chi(2010), Timoti (2000),Kenneth(2000), Lubman (2001), and Samuel(2005).

To explain this research finding can be stated that this personality trait (mental irritation) is in terms of characteristics such as: maladjustment, emotional instability, emotions decay, social phobias, depression, anger, guilt and self-hatred, hate feeling toward others, plenty of sorrow, excessive turn moil and unrest. Therefore, people with such features are leaned towards narcotic drug to provide their comfort and relief mental situations. They create a safe place through it; this causes they gradually addicted to drugs because their tendency to narcotic drug is increasing.

Second sub-hypothesis: the personality traits of extroversion and propensity for substance use

are related.

According to the correlation matrix and regression, the relationship between extroversion characteristic and trend to narcotic substance (p = 0.01, r = -0.227) is approved. This correlation is statistically negative meaningful (p<0.001).Thus, by confidence of0.99, it is concluded that there is a negative correlation between extroversion personality characteristic and trend to substance abuse. Therefore, the research hypothesis is confirmed based on the relationship between these two variables. Findings have not been obtained consistent with this hypothesis result.

To explain this finding, can be stated that personality trait(extraversion) is based on characteristics like: participate in groups and gatherings, being active, have daring, mobility, high energy, optimism, decisiveness, and sociability. So people with these features haven tends to use narcotic substance. These individuals are sociable and active; they do not develop emptiness and psychological disability in themselves by which inclined to self-made calms such as narcotic drugs. Thus, according to this hypothesis finding, people who more extroverted in terms of personality trait, their interest in narcotic drugs is less. Therefore, the relationship between these two variables is negative.

Third sub-hypothesis: there is a correlation between personality traits of flexibility and trend to

narcotic substance use.

According to the correlation matrix, the relationship between flexibility characteristic and trend to narcotic substance (p = 0.01, r = -0.269) is approved. This correlation is statistically negative meaningful (p<0.001).Thus, by confidence of0.99, it is concluded that there is a negative correlation between personality trait of flexibility and trend to substance abuse. Therefore, the

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Universal Journal of Management and Social Sciences Vol. 4, No.1; January 2014

21 research hypothesis is confirmed based on the relationship between these two variables. Findings have not been obtained consistent with this hypothesis result.

To explain this finding, can be stated that personality trait (flexibility) is based on characteristics such as: seeking diversity, flexibility in all matters, in dependence in judgment, attention to internal emotions, receiving positive and negative emotions and accepting them as personal experience, creativity, thinking, rational behaviors. Individuals with such features do not show propensity for drug use. Hence, its incidence is very low. For this reason, personality traits(flexibility) and propensity for drug use are negatively related. That is, a person who is more flexible (in terms of personality) has less or no tendency to use narcotic drugs.

Fourth sub-hypothesis: there is a correlation between personality traits of being agreeable and

trend to narcotic substance use.

According to the correlation matrix, the relationship between personality traits of being agreeable and trend to narcotic substance (p = 0.01, r = -0.264)is approved. This correlation is statistically negative meaningful (p<0.001).Thus, by confidence of0.99, it is concluded that there is a negative correlation between personality trait of being agreeable and trend to substance abuse. Therefore, the research hypothesis is confirmed based on the relationship between these two variables. Findings have not been obtained corresponding to this hypothesis result.

To explain this finding, can be pointed that personality trait(being agreeable) has following features: altruism, sympathy, being eager to help others, pacifism, extroversion, interpersonal inclinations. In fact, a person with this property being agreeable from others point of view. Thus an individual with this characteristic does not incline to drug abuse. For, he does not suffer from psychological emptiness or mental shortcomings in terms of communication, social and personality which they provide these gaps by narcotic drug. So, as much as a person being agreeable(from the perspective of others) his tendency towards narcotic drug is less, because, the relationship between these two is negative.

Fifth sub-hypothesis: there is a correlation between personality traits of responsibility and

trend to narcotic substance use.

According to the correlation matrix, the relationship between personality traits of responsibility and trend to narcotic substance (p = 0.01, r = -0.248)is approved. This correlation is statistically negative meaningful (p<0.001).Thus, by confidence of0.99, it is concluded that there is a negative correlation between personality trait of responsibility and trend to substance abuse. Therefore, the research hypothesis is negatively confirmed based on the relationship between these two variables. Findings have not been obtained corresponding to this hypothesis result. To explain this finding, can be pointed that the responsible and committed person does not involve in what was considered as a social constraint and problem. Because a person with

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Universal Journal of Management and Social Sciences Vol. 4, No.1; January 2014

22 personality traits of responsibility has following features: being conscientious, dutifulness, impulses control, aimed at observing rules and norms. Hence, a person with such personality trait does not follow community opponent-norm actions such as narcotic drugs. He always seeks success, observes the rules and norms and analyzes his demands fulfillment. For this reason, the correlation between personality traits (responsibility) and tendency towards narcotic drugs consumption is negative. For, whatever individual‘s personality trait become responsibility his interest in narcotic drugs consumption or substance abuse is less.

4. Suggestions

-Given that today tendency and drug abuse as asocial problem have been involved various classes of people, including university community (students),it is recommended to avoid such dangerous behavior general course associated with this problem is provided for all students. -It is suggested that similar research to be conducted by other researchers in other levels of education(pre-university school).

-It is proposed that by considering present research topic, other studies are comparatively performed on male and female students of university.

-It is necessary that other psychological variables (such as personality traits) can be used another researches that are associated with tendency towards substance abuse.

References

- Ajil Chi, Bita (2010). The relationship between personality traits of addicted women and social order, General Psychology, P.H.D Thesis, Tehran: Islamic Azad University, Science and Research.

- GhaleiHa Ali (2007). A comparative study of psychiatric disorders and personality features in dependent and independent people to narcotic drugs. Hamedan, University of Medical Sciences.

-HeydariPahlavian, Ahmad (2003). Comparison ofpersonality traitsof drug addictswithnon-addictedpeople. Hamedan,Universityof Medical Sciences.

- Kassel, J.D, (2007). Adult Attachment Security and College Student Substance Use. USA: university of Chicago.

- Kenneth, J, (2000). Personality and Substance Use Disorders: A Prospective Study, Columbia: university of Missouri

- Konani, Salman(2010). characteristicsand personalitytraits of delinquentboys. CriminalLawand Criminology,BAthesis, Universityof Shiraz.

- Lubman, D, (2001). Managing Border Line Personality Disorder and Substance USA, Australian, Vol.40.

- Marvins, S, (2006). Substance Use in Persons with Schizophrenia Baseline Prevalence and Correlates from the Nimcatue Study, Journal of Nervious and Mental Disease, Volume 191.

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Universal Journal of Management and Social Sciences Vol. 4, No.1; January 2014

23 -Molavi, Parviz.(2004). Examining effective factors on young people tendency towards narcotic

drugs. Journalofmental health principles,sixth year, numbers21 &22.

- Öhlin, L, (2009). Poly – Substance Use And Antisocial Personality Triats At Admission Predict Cumulative Retention In A Buprenorphine Programme With Mandarory Work And High Compliance Profile, Sweden, Department Of Psychology.

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- Timothy, Y, (2000). Borderline Personality Disordr And Sabstance Use Disorders : A Review And Integration, Colombia : University Of Missouri.

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