New York Science. Grade 7. Consultant. Douglas Fisher, Ph.D. Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Consultant

Douglas Fisher, Ph.D.

New York Science

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Copyright © by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with New York Science Grade 7. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher.

Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place

About the Consultant

Douglas Fisher, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Teacher Education at San Diego State University. He is the recipient of an International Reading Association Celebrate Literacy Award as well as a Christa McAuliffe award for Excellence in Teacher Education. He has published numerous articles on reading and literacy, differentiated instruction, and curriculum design as well as books, such as Improving Adolescent Literacy: Strategies at Work and Responsive Curriculum Design in Secondary Schools: Meeting the Diverse Needs of Students. He has taught a variety of courses in SDSU’s teacher-credentialing program as well as graduate-level courses on English language development and literacy. He also has taught classes in English, writing, and literacy development to secondary school students.

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Note-Taking Tips ... v

Using Your Science Notebook ... vi

Chapter 1 The Nature of Science Chapter Preview ... 1

1-1... 2

1-2... 5

Wrap-Up... 8

Chapter 2 Views of Earth Chapter Preview ... 9

2-1... 10

2-2... 13

2-3... 16

Wrap-Up... 20

Chapter 3 Rocks and Minerals Chapter Preview ... 21

3-1... 22

3-2... 25

3-3... 28

Wrap-Up... 32

Chapter 4 Weathering and Erosion Chapter Preview ... 33

4-1... 34

4-2... 37

Wrap-Up... 40

Chapter 5 Clues to Earth’s Past Chapter Preview ... 41

5-1... 42

5-2... 45

5-3... 48

Wrap-Up... 52

Chapter 6 Plate Tectonics Chapter Preview ... 53

6-1... 54

6-2... 57

6-3... 60

Wrap-Up... 64

Chapter 7 Earthquakes and Volcanoes Chapter Preview ... 65

7-1... 66

7-2... 69

7-3... 72

Wrap-Up... 76

Chapter 8 Waves, Sound, and Light Chapter Preview ... 77

8-1... 78

8-2... 81

8-3... 84

Wrap-Up... 88

Chapter 9 Matter and Its Changes Chapter Preview ... 89

9-1... 90

9-2... 93

Wrap-Up... 96

Chapter 10 Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table Chapter Preview ... 97

10-1... 98

10-2... 101

10-3... 104

Wrap-Up... 108

Chapter 11 Substances, Mixtures, and Solubility Chapter Preview ... 109 11-1... 110 11-2... 113 11-3... 116 Wrap-Up... 120

Chapter 12 Chemical Reactions Chapter Preview ... 121

12-1... 122

12-2... 125

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 13 Cells—The Units of Life

Chapter Preview ... 129

13-1... 130

13-2... 133

Wrap-Up... 136

Chapter 14 Support, Movement, and Response Chapter Preview ... 137 14-1... 138 14-2... 141 14-3... 144 14-4... 147 Wrap-Up... 150 Chapter 15 Circulation Chapter Preview ... 151 15-1... 152 15-2... 155 15-3... 158 Wrap-Up... 162

Chapter 16 Digestion, Respiration, and Excretion Chapter Preview ... 163 16-1... 164 16-2... 167 16-3... 170 16-4... 173 Wrap-Up... 176

Chapter 17 Invertebrate Animals Chapter Preview ... 177 17-1... 178 17-2... 181 17-3... 184 17-4... 187 Wrap-Up... 190

Chapter 18 Vertebrate Animals Chapter Preview ... 191 18-1... 192 18-2... 195 18-3... 198 18-4... 201 Chapter 19 Plants Chapter Preview ... 205 19-1... 206 19-2... 209 19-3... 212 Wrap-Up... 216

Chapter 20 Plant Processes Chapter Preview ... 217

20-1... 218

20-2... 221

Wrap-Up... 224

Chapter 21 Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter Preview ... 225 21-1... 226 21-2... 229 21-3... 232 Wrap-Up... 236

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Your notes are a reminder of what you learned in class. Taking good notes can help you succeed in science. These tips will help you take better notes.

• Be an active listener. Listen for important concepts. Pay attention to words, examples, and/or diagrams your teacher emphasizes. • Write your notes as clearly and concisely as possible. The following

symbols and abbreviations may be helpful in your note-taking.

• Use a symbol such as a star (★) or an asterisk (*) to emphasis important concepts. Place a question mark (?) next to anything that you do not understand.

• Ask questions and participate in class discussion.

• Draw and label pictures or diagrams to help clarify a concept.

Word or Symbol or

Phrase Abbreviation

for example e.g. such as i.e. with w/ without w/o Word or Symbol or Phrase Abbreviation and + approximately  therefore  versus vs

Note-Taking Tips

Note-Taking Don’ts

• Don’t write every word. Concentrate on the main ideas and concepts. • Don’t use someone else’s notes—they may not make sense.

• Don’t doodle. It distracts you from listening actively.

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Using Your Science Notebook

Academic Vocabulary

accompany:to go together with; to happen at the same time as

accurate:careful and exact; without mistakes or errors

adapt:to change to fit new conditions adjust:to arrange the parts of something

to make it work correctly affect:to make something happen; to have

an effect on

annual:plant that completes its life cycle in one year

capable:able to do things; fit category:a division in a classification

system

chemical:having to do with or made by chemistry

chemical bond:the force holding atoms together in a molecule

clarify:to make easier to understand code:(noun) set of signals representing

letters or numerals, used to send a message; (verb) to put in the form of symbols

conduct:to carry or transmit consist:to be made up of; to contain constant:going on all the time; continual;

persistent; regular; stable contract:to become smaller in size convert:to change from one form or use

to another

coordinate:to cause to work well together create:to bring about

cycle:a complete set of events or phenomena recurring in the same sequence

definite:clear, without a doubt displace:to force to move from an

original place

distribute:to divide among several or many

eliminate:to get rid of enable:to make possible enormous:very large erode:to wear away

estimate:to determine the approximate value of something

expand:to get bigger

expert:person who is very skillful or highly trained and informed in some special field facilitate:to make easy or easier factor:a substance that functions in a

body system

feature:a separate or special part or quality

flexible:able to bend without breaking hypothesis:something that is suggested as

being true for the purposes of argument or of further investigation image:a picture produced by an optical

or electronic device

individual:being or characteristic of a single thing

infer:to arrive at a conclusion or an opinion by reasoning

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Science Level Green 291

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Cell Reproduction Before You Read

Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.

1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

Name Date

• One-celled organisms reproduce through cell division.

• Every living organism has a life cycle. • All organisms reproduce sexually. • Most of the cells formed in your body

do not contain genetic material.

Write three things that you know about how and why cells reproduce.

Student responses will vary, but may include that cells split into two and that they reproduce so that an organism can grow.

Science Journal

Before You

Cell Reproduction

Read

Cell Reproduction 107

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Comparemitosis in animals and plants. State if each feature exists in plant cells, animal cells, or both.

Organizeimportant concepts about mitosis.

1. Mitosis is the division of a . 2. Mitosis produces two new nuclei that are identical both to

and to .

3. A nucleus with 46 chromosomes that undergoes mitosis will produce nuclei, each with chromosomes. Identifythe 3 forms of asexual reproduction described below.

the method by which bacteria reproduce new organism growing from body of the parent to regrow body parts that are lost or damaged

regeneration budding

fission

46 two

the original nucleus each other

cell nucleus

Section 1 Cell Division and Mitosis (continued)

I found this information on page .

SE, pp. 278–279 RE, pp. 160–162

I found this information on page .

SE, p. 280 RE, p. 163

Asexual Reproduction

I found this information on page .

SE, pp. 281–282 RE, p. 164

Name Date

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

A strawberry farmer wants to increase her crop without spending large amounts of money for new seeds. How can she take advantage of asexual reproduction to increase her crop? Accept all reasonable responses.

Strawberry plants can reproduce asexually. They grow horizontal stems called runners,

CONNECT IT

Feature Cell Type Centrioles animal

Spindle fibers both

Cell plate plant

Cell wall plant

This note-taking guide is designed to

help you succeed in learning science

content. Each chapter includes:

Language-Based Activities Activities cover the content in your science book including vocabulary, writing, note-taking,

and problem solving.

Science Journal Write about what

you know.

Writing Activities These activities help you think

about what you’re learning and make connections to

your life.

Vocabulary Development Vocabulary words help you to better understand your science lessons. Learning

the Academic Glossary can help you score Anticipation Guide/KWL Charts

Think about what you already know before beginning a lesson and

identify what you would like to learn from reading.

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Comparecharacteristics of human diploid and haploid cells in the table below. Give examples of each type of cell.

Modelthe four stages of meiosis I in the spaces below. Use the figure in your book to help you.

Section 2 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis (continued)

Sexual Reproduction

I found this information on page .

SE, pp. 284–285 RE, pp. 166–167

Meiosis and Sex Cells

I found this information on page .

SE, pp. 285–286 RE, p. 167 Ask students to discuss the differ-ences and similarities between mitosis and the first division in meiosis.

Name Date

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Types of Human Cells Diploid Haploid Number of 46 23

chromosomes

Process that mitosis meiosis

produces them

Examples brain, skin, and egg and sperm cells bone cells

Meiosis I Prophase I Metaphase I

pairs of duplicated chromo- pairs of duplicated

chromo-somes together somes lined up in center of cell

nuclear membrane centromeres attached to

disappearing single spindle fibers

spindle is forming

Anaphase I Telophase I

duplicated chromosomes cell cytoplasm beginning

moving to opposite ends of to divide

the cell one duplicated chromosome

from each pair in each half Diagrams should resemble those in the book. Accept reasonable variations.

Cell Reproduction Chapter Wrap-Up

Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete the table below. Compare your previous answers with these.

1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

Name Date

List three important ideas from this chapter.

Accept all reasonable responses. 1. Mitosis produces two cells with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. 2. Meiosis produces sex cells with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell. 3. DNA is the molecule that carries the code for making proteins.

SUMMARIZE IT

Review

Use this checklist to help you study.

Review the information you included in your Foldable. Study your Science Notebook on this chapter. Study the definitions of vocabulary words. Review daily homework assignments.

Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations. Review the Self Check at the end of each section.

Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter. • One-celled organisms reproduce through A SE, p. 276

cell division. RE, p. 159

• Every living organism has a life cycle. A SE, p. 276 RE, p. 159

• All organisms reproduce sexually. D SE, p. 281 RE, p. 164

• Most of the cells formed in your body D SE, p. 280

do not contain genetic material. RE, p. 163 Cell Reproduction After You Read

118 Cell Reproduction

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Identifythe three reasons cell division is important.

1.growth

2.replacement

3.reproduction

Summarizeinformation about interphase in eukaryotic cells in the following paragraph.

Interphase is the part of the cell cycle. During interphase, cells and . During interphase, cells that are still dividing copy their and prepare for

. Cells no longer dividing are .

Sequencethe steps of mitosis, and write a short description of what takes place in each phase.

1.Interphase—Cell prepares for mitosis; chromosomes

duplicate.

2.Prophase—Chromatid pairs are visible; spindle is beginning

to form.

3.Metaphase—Chromatid pairs line up at the center of the cell.

4.Anaphase—Chromatids separate and start moving to

opposite ends of the cell.

5.Telophase—Spindle fibers start to disappear and the

chromosomes start to uncoil.

6.Division of the cytoplasm—Two new cells are formed.

in interphase always cell division DNA develop grow longest

Section 1 Cell Division and Mitosis (continued)

Why is cell division important?

I found this information on page .

SE, p. 276 RE, p. 159

The Cell Cycle

I found this information on page .

SE, p. 277 RE, p. 160

Mitosis

I found this information on page .

SE, pp. 278–279 RE, pp. 160–162 Have students work in pairs to identify the details of the sequence in mitosis.

Name Date

Cell Reproduction 109

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Wrap-Up

This brings the information together for you. Revisiting what you thought at the beginning of the chapter provides

another opportunity for you to discuss what you have learned.

Note-Taking Based on the Cornell Two-Column Format Practice effective note-taking through the use of graphic organizers, outlines,

and written summaries.

Review Checklist This list helps you assess what you have learned and prepare

for your chapter tests.

Graphic Organizers

A variety of visual organizers help you to analyze and summarize information

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

The Nature of Science

Before You Read

Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.

1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

• An important part of science is testing, or experimenting.

• Technology is useful only in the situation for which it was designed.

• People began studying weather in the 1800s. • Science can answer all of the questions that

can be asked.

Before You

The Nature of Science

Read

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

How do you think scientists could learn more about a clump of stone that could be a small dinosaur heart?

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

New

Vocabulary

Review

Vocabulary

The Nature of Science

Section 1 Science All Around

Academic

Vocabulary

analyze hypothesis/control scientific methods/ Earth science variable/ independent variable constant/ dependent variable science/technology

Scan Section 1 of your book, reading all section titles and bold words. Then write three facts that you have learned about the nature of science and scientific investigation.

1. 2. 3.

Defineanalyze to show its scientific meaning.

Write a sentence that contains both terms from each pair.

Use a dictionary to define outcome to show its scientific

meaning.

AID M3.1a: Use appropriate scientific tools to solve problems about the natural world. S1.2a:

Independently formulate a hypothesis. Also covered: AID S2.1c, S2.2b, S2.2c, S2.2d, IS 3.2, IPS 1.3, ED T1.1a

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Summarizewhy it was important for scientists to solve the mystery of the tsunami that struck Japan, on January 27, 1700.

Sequencethescientific methods used to solve a scientific problem

by completing the graphic organizer below.

Distinguishtopics that Earth scientists study by listing specific topics identified in this section.

1. 7.

2. 8.

3. 9.

4. 10.

Gather information.

Test the hypothesis.

Section 1 Science All Around (continued)

Mysteries and

Problems

I found this information

on page .

Scientific

Methods

I found this information

on page .

Science

I found this information

on page .

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Definethe four types of factors in a science experiment. Identify and describe each of them below.

Summarizetransferable technology by defining the term. Then

provide examples by filling out the graphic organizer below.

Transferable technology is

.

Radar and Sonar

originally developed for are now used to study Independent Variable

variables that do not change

Dependent Variable

the standard to which results can be compared

Section 1 Science All Around (continued)

Working in

the Lab

I found this information

on page .

Technology

I found this information

on page .

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Identify three objects in your home or school that have not been affected by technology.

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review

Vocabulary

Academic

Vocabulary

The Nature of Science

Section 2 Scientific Enterprise

New

Vocabulary

observation scientific theory scientific law ethics bias objective

Skimthrough Section 2 of your book. Write three questions that come to mind from reading the headings and examining the illustrations.

1. 2. 3.

Defineobservation to show its scientific meaning.

Use your book to define the following terms.

Use a dictionary to define objective as an adjective.

AID S3.2d: Formulate and defend explanations and conclusions as they relate to scientific

phenomena. S3.2g: Suggest improvements and recommendations for further studying.

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Summarizehow the manner in which people observe natural phenomena has changed over time.

Organizetypes of weather information that can be measured. Complete the graphic organizer below.

Distinguishbetween a scientific theory and a scientific law.

Weather Information That Can Be Measured

rainfall Section 2 Scientific Enterprise (continued)

A Work in

Progress

I found this information

on page .

The History of

Meteorology

I found this information

on page .

Continuing

Research

I found this information

on page .

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Completethe following paragraph by filling in the missing terms from the word bank.

Science is by what it can .

For a question or problem to be studied through , there must be variables that can be , measured, and . Questions that deal with

or belief systems cannot be answered by science. Ethics is a system

of understanding what is or .

Contrast ethical behavior in science with scientific fraud. Create

a table that lists three specific behaviors that are examples of each type of behavior. • bad • ethics • explain • good • limited • observed • scientific methods • tested

Section 2 Scientific Enterprise (continued)

Limits of Science

I found this information

on page .

Doing Science

Right

I found this information

on page .

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Ethical Behavior Scientific Fraud

Describe how fraud in scientific research could affect other scientists who research in ethical ways.

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The Nature of Science

Chapter Wrap-Up

Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete the table below. Compare your previous answers with these.

1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have learned about the nature of science.

S

UMMARIZE

I

T

Review

Use this checklist to help you study.

Review the information you included in your Foldable. Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.

Study the definitions of vocabulary words. Review daily homework assignments.

Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations. Review the Self Check at the end of each section.

Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter. • An important part of science is testing, or

experimenting.

• Technology is useful only in the situation for which it was designed.

• People began studying weather in the 1800s. • Science can answer all of the questions that

can be asked.

The Nature of Science

After YouRead

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Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Views of Earth

Before You Read

Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.

1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

• All mountains form in the same way. • Lines of longitude run parallel to

the equator.

• All maps of Earth distort the shapes and sizes of landmasses.

Assume that you want to build a home and have a satellite photo to guide you. Describe where you would build your new home and why you would build at your chosen location.

Science Journal

Before You

Views of Earth

Read

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

New

Vocabulary

Review

Vocabulary

Academic

Vocabulary

Views of Earth

Section 1 Landforms landform expose

Skimthe headings in Section 1. Write three questions that come to mind from reading these headings.

1. 2. 3.

Definelandform to show its scientific meaning.

Write the vocabulary term that matches each definition. large, flat area, often found in the interior regions of continents flat, raised area of land made up of nearly horizontal rocks that have been uplifted by forces within Earth

mountain in which rock layers are folded

mountain formed when blocks of Earth’s crust are pushed up by forces inside Earth

mountain made of huge, tilted blocks of rock separated from surrounding rock by faults

mountain formed when molten material reaches the surface through a weak area of Earth’s crust

Use a dictionary to define expose.

PS 2.2c: Folded, tilted, faulted, and displaced rock layers suggest past crustal movement. 2.2f: Plates may

collide, move apart, or slide past one another. Most volcanic activity and mountain building occur at the boundaries of these plates, often resulting in earthquakes.

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Distinguishtwo reasons that plains are useful for agriculture. 1.

2.

Compare and contrastcoastal plains and interior plains.

Summarizekey characteristics of the Great Plains.

The Great Plains are an example of a(n) . They are located

. The area is

and covered with . The Great Plains

are made of .

Compare and contrastplains and plateaus. Complete the Venn

diagram with at least three facts.

Plateaus Plains

Both

Section 1 Landforms (continued)

Plains

I found this information

on page .

I found this information

on page .

I found this information

on page .

Plateaus

I found this information

on page .

Coastal Plains Interior Plains

Location Characteristics

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Use a physical map to identify the landforms in your area.

C

ONNECT

I

T

Section 1 Landforms (continued)

Mountains

I found this information

on page .

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Modelthe four types of mountains. Draw a diagram of each type.

Summarizehow mountains form. Give an example of each.

Folded Mountain: Upwarped Mountain: Fault-Block Mountain: Volcanic Mountain: Volcanic Mountain Fault-Block Mountain Upwarped Mountain Folded Mountain

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review

Vocabulary

Academic

Vocabulary

Views of Earth

Section 2 Viewpoints

New

Vocabulary

pole equator latitude prime meridian longitude parallel

PreviewtheWhat You’ll Learn statements for Section 2. Predict

three topics that will be discussed in this section.

1. 2. 3.

Definepole as it is used when describing Earth.

Define each vocabulary term.

Use a dictionary to define parallel as an adjective. Then find a

sentence in Section 2 that contains the term.

PS 1.1f: The latitude/longitude coordinate system and our system of time are based on celestial observations. Also covered: PS 1.1e, 1.1h

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Modelthe system used to measure position on Earth. • Draw a view of Earth.

• Label important features on the diagram with the following terms.

Summarizehowlatitude and longitude are measured.

Latitude is measured . Longitude is measured . equator north pole south pole prime meridian 0° latitude 90°S latitude 90°N latitude

Section 2 Viewpoints (continued)

Latitude and

Longitude

I found this information

on page .

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Look at the map of time zones in your book. Infer why the International Date Line does not follow the 180° meridian exactly.

S

YNTHESIZE

I

T

Organizeinformation about time zones. Complete the outline.

Time Zones

I. Measuring time A.

B.

II. Characteristics of time zones A.

B.

C.

Summarizewhat a person should do when crossing the

International Date Line. Complete the cause-and-effect diagrams.

Travel west across the International Date Line

Travel east across the International Date Line

Section 2 Viewpoints (continued)

Time Zones

I found this information

on page .

Calendar Dates

I found this information

on page .

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New

Vocabulary

Review

Vocabulary

Academic

Vocabulary

Views of Earth

Section 3 Maps

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

globe conic projection topographic map contour line map scale map legend physical

Scan the section headings, bold words, and illustrations. Write two facts that you discovered as you scanned the section.

1. 2.

Defineglobe to show its scientific meaning.

Use your book to define each vocabulary term.

Use a dictionary to define physical. Use physical in a sentence

to show its scientific meaning.

AID S1.2b: Propose a model of a natural phenomenon. Also covered: AID S3.1b, 6:ICT 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, TPS 1.1f,

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Definemap. Then complete the statements below about map

projections.

A map is .

A map projection is made when

. All map projections the shapes and sizes of land-masses to some extent.

Compare and contrastMercator, Robinson, and conic projections.

Summarizethe purpose of a topographic map.

Section 3 Maps (continued)

Map Projections

I found this information

on page .

I found this information

on page .

Topographic

Maps

I found this information

on page .

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Mercator Robinson Conic

How is it made? What does it show accurately? How is it used?

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If you were going to map your classroom, which map scale would be better: 1 cm:1 m or 1 cm: 10 m? Explain your reasoning.

C

ONNECT

I

T

Organizeinformation about contour lines in the concept web.

Summarizewhat a map scale and map legend show.

Summarizewhat geologic maps are and how they are used.

Map Elements Map Legend Map Scale Contour Lines

Section 3 Maps (continued)

I found this information

on page .

I found this information

on page .

Geologic Maps

I found this information

on page .

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Tie It Together

Model

Create a two-dimension physical map of your state in the space provided below. Include the major landforms found in your state. Use symbols to indicate these landforms on the map. Be sure to explain the symbols you use in a map legend. Your map should be proportional to the actual size of your state. Include a map scale to help others determine distances.

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Views of Earth

Chapter Wrap-Up

Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete the table below. Compare your previous answers with these.

1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

Identify three important ideas in this chapter.

S

UMMARIZE

I

T

Review

Use this checklist to help you study.

Review the information you included in your Foldable. Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.

Study the definitions of vocabulary words. Review daily homework assignments.

Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations. Review the Self Check at the end of each section.

Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter. • All mountains form in the same way.

• Lines of longitude run parallel to the equator.

• All maps of Earth distort the shapes and sizes of landmasses.

Views of Earth

After YouRead

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Rocks and Minerals

Before You Read

Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.

1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

Observe a rock or mineral sample. Write three characteristics about it.

Science Journal

• Minerals are made by people. • Most rocks consist of one or

more minerals.

• Rocks are classified in three major groups. • Rocks have stopped forming on Earth. • Rocks and minerals have many uses

in society.

Before You

Rocks and Minerals

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Academic

Vocabulary

Rocks and Minerals

Section 1 Minerals—Earth’s Jewels

New

Vocabulary

Review

Vocabulary

physical property refine

Scan Section 1 of your book. Then, write three questions that you have about minerals. Try to answer your questions as you read.

1. 2. 3.

Definephysical property with the help of your book or

a dictionary.

Write the correct vocabulary word from your book next to each definition.

a solid material that has an orderly, repeating pattern of atoms a mineral that contains enough of a useful substance that it can be mined at a profit

a rare, valuable mineral that can be cut and polished to give it a beautiful appearance

a solid that is usually made up of two or more minerals

Use a dictionary to find the definition of refine as it applies to

metals. Write the definition below in your own words.

PS 2.1e: Rocks are composed of minerals. Only a few rock-forming minerals make up

most of the rocks of Earth. Minerals are identified on the basis of physical properties such as streak, hardness, and reaction to acid. Also covered: PS 3.3c

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Completethe chart below about minerals.

Contrast cleavage and fracture by writing three different characterisitcs of each in the following chart.

Contrast the qualities of mineral color and luster.

Color

Luster

Section 1 Minerals—Earth’s Jewels (continued)

What is a

mineral?

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Properties of

Minerals

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Minerals

Definition: Examples:

Ways minerals form:

1. 2. 3.

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Sequencefour steps that describe how copper ore is turned into useful products. The first step has been completed for you.

1. Copper ore is mined and crushed. 2.

3. 4.

Listcharacteristics of a gem and an ore in the chart below.

Section 1 Minerals—Earth’s Jewels (continued)

Common

Minerals

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Gem Ore

Write the names of six objects in your classroom that are made using minerals. Then explain how minerals are important in your everyday life.

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review

Vocabulary

Academic

Vocabulary

Rocks and Minerals

Section 2 Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks

New

Vocabulary

lava igneous rock extrusive intrusive sedimentary rock process

Skimthe headings in Section 2. Then make three predictions about what you will learn.

1. 2. 3.

Definethe following terms using your book or a dictionary.

PS 2.2g: Rocks are classified according to their method of formation. The three classes of rocks are

sedi-mentary, metamorphic, and igneous. Most rocks show characteristics that give clues to their formation conditions. Also covered: PS 2.2f, 2.2h

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Contrast extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks in the chart.

Organizea concept map about igneous rocks using these words and phrases.

• high silica content • low silica content

• granitic • dark colored

can be Igneous Rocks are called have basaltic light colored are called have

Section 2 Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks (continued)

Igneous Rocks

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Igneous Rocks

Type Form from Have cooling Have crystal

molten rate that is size that is

rock called

Extrusive Intrusive

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Classify sedimentary rocks by some of their characteristics.

Section 2 Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks (continued)

Sedimentary

Rocks

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Detrital Chemical Organic

Form from How form Where form Examples

Choose a sedimentary or igneous rock. You might pick basalt, granite, shale, or sandstone. Write a story from the rock’s perspective about how the rock formed. When writing your story, you should pretend that you are the rock.

(36)

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

New

Vocabulary

Review

Vocabulary

Rocks and Minerals

Section 3 Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle

Academic

Vocabulary

pressure metamorphic rock foliated nonfoliated rock cycle layer

Scan the headings in Section 3. Write three predictions about what you will learn in this section.

1. 2. 3.

Defineeach vocabulary word. Then, write a sentence reflecting the scientific meaning of each of the words.

PS 2.2g: Rocks are classified according to their method of formation. The three classes of

rocks are sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. Most rocks show characteristics that give clues to their formation conditions. Also covered: PS 2.2f, 2.2h

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Summarizethe conditions under which rocks experience metamorphism as you complete the chart below.

Drawa metamorphic rock with a foliated texture and a

metamorphic rock with a nonfoliated texture below. Show and label two characteristics of each type of rock in the top boxes, and list an example of each type in the bottom boxes.

Section 3 Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle (continued)

New Rock

from Old

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Conditions of Metamorphic Rock Formation

temperature pressure time

Foliated texture Nonfoliated texture

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Createa diagram of the rock cycle below. • Label each type of rock in your diagram.

• Label the processes in your diagram. Use the words melting, cooling, weathering and erosion, compaction and cementation, and heat and pressure.

Identifytwo other cycles that occur in nature.

1. 2.

Section 3 Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle (continued)

Rock Cycle

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While on a leisurely hike, a geologist from the nearby university noticed that the gravel in a sedimentary rock consists of pieces of both igneous and metamorphic rock. As the geologist, write a brief report explaining how this is possible.

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Tie It Together

Design

Some artists specialize in making art from rock and mineral pieces. The different colors, textures, and other properties of the rocks and minerals can produce spectacular displays. In the space below, design your own rock and mineral art. It might be mounted on a wall, make up the courtyard of a building, or be a large monument. You may use any rock or mineral shown in your book in your art.

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Rocks and Minerals

Chapter Wrap-Up

Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete the table below. Compare your previous answers with these.

1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have learned about rocks and minerals.

S

UMMARIZE

I

T

Review

Use this checklist to help you study.

Review the information you included in your Foldable. Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.

Study the definitions of vocabulary words. Review daily homework assignments.

Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations. Review the Self Check at the end of each section.

Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter. • Minerals are made by people.

• Most rocks consist of one or more minerals.

• Rocks are classified in three major groups. • Rocks have stopped forming on Earth. • Rocks and minerals have many uses

in society.

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Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Weathering and Erosion

Before You Read

Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.

1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

• Weathering is the conditions of the atmosphere at a given time.

• Soil forms from pieces of broken rock and other kinds of matter.

• Erosion moves rock and soil from one place to another.

• Water can cause erosion, but ice cannot.

Describe a place—a home, a park, a river, or a mountain. What might that place look like in a year, a hundred years, even 5,000 years?

Science Journal

Before You

Weathering and Erosion

Read

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. acid rain weathering mechanical weathering chemical weathering soil topography

New

Vocabulary

Review

Vocabulary

Academic

Vocabulary

Weathering and Erosion

Section 1 Weathering and Soil Formation

Skimthrough Section 1 of your book. Read the headings and look at the illustrations. Write three questions that come to mind.

1. 2. 3.

Definethe key terms using your book or a dictionary.

Definechemical as an adjective. Use a dictionary to help you.

PS 2.1g: The dynamic processes that wear away Earth’s surface include weathering and

erosion. 2.1h: The process of weathering breaks down rocks to form sediment. Soil consists of sediment, organic material, water, and air.

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Organizeinformation by listing three things that cause rocks to weather.

Identifymajor causes of mechanical weathering. Complete the concept map below.

Createthree drawings to show the process of ice wedging.

Water seeps Water freezes and Ice melts and the into cracks. expands, making process repeats.

Mechanical Weathering can be

caused by caused bycan be

which include which include

Section 1 Weathering and Soil Formation (continued)

Weathering

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Mechanical

Weathering

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Causes of Weathering 1.

2. 3.

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Organizethe information from your book in the outline below. Chemical weathering A. Definition: B. Causes: 1. 2. 3.

Completethe graphic organizers about soil and soil formation.

soil mix to form

soil formation affect

Section 1 Weathering and Soil Formation (continued)

Chemical

Weathering

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Soil

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The temperature on some mountains is below freezing all year. Predict what soil on these mountains is like.

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Scan Use the checklist below to preview Section 2 of your book. Then write three facts that you discovered about how erosion affects Earth’s surface.

Read all headings. Read all boldface words. Look at all of the pictures.

Think about what you already know about features of Earth’s surface.

1. 2. 3.

Write the correct vocabulary word next to each definition.

the dropping of sediment that occurs when an agent of erosion can no longer carry its load

the movement of rock or soil by gravity, ice, wind, or water erosion that occurs when gravity alone causes rock or sediment to move down a slope

the process in which sediment moves slowly downhill

the movement of rock or sediment downhill along a curved surface the erosion of the land by wind

erosion that occurs when wind blows sediment into rocks, makes pits in the rocks, and produces a smooth, polished surface

water that flows over the ground

Define occur using a dictionary.

Review

Vocabulary

Academic

Vocabulary

Weathering and Erosion

Section 2 Erosion of Earth’s Surface

New

Vocabulary

PS 2.1i: Erosion is the transport of sediment. Gravity is the driving force behind

erosion. Gravity can act directly or through agents such as moving water, wind, and glaciers. Also covered: PS 2.1g

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 2 Erosion of Earth’s Surface (continued)

Agents of

Erosion

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Gravity

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Ice

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Glaciers Form and Change Earth’s Surface 1. 2. 3. 4. Mass Movements Similarities Differences

Organizeinformation from your book by filling in the concept map with the four agents, or causes, of erosion.

Compare and contrastthe four types of mass movements. Write ways they are all the same and some ways they are different.

Sequencefour steps explaining how glaciers form and change Earth’s surface.

erosion all cause

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Modelhow a sand dune moves by making a diagram in the box. Label the following features:

• sand blows up this side • dune movement (arrow) • sand falls down this side • wind (arrow)

Completethe concept map by listing several ways that water can flow over Earth’s surface.

Analyzethe effects of erosion. List three examples of landforms caused by erosion and three examples caused by deposition.

Runoff

Section 2 Erosion of Earth’s Surface (continued)

Wind

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Water

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Effects of

Erosion

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Effects of Erosion

Where Sediment Where Sediment

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Weathering and Erosion

Chapter Wrap-Up

Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned and complete the table below. Compare your previous answers with these.

1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

After reading this chapter, identify three things that you have learned about weathering and erosion.

S

UMMARIZE

I

T

Review

Use this checklist to help you study.

Review the information you included in your Foldable. Study your Science Notebook on this chapter.

Study the definitions of vocabulary words. Review daily homework assignments.

Re-read the chapter and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations. Review the Self Check at the end of each section.

Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter. • Weathering is the conditions of the

atmosphere at a given time.

• Soil forms from pieces of broken rock and other kinds of matter.

• Erosion moves rock and soil from one one place to another.

• Water can cause erosion, but ice cannot.

Weathering and Erosion

After YouRead

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Construct the Foldable as directed at the beginning of this chapter.

Clues to Earth’s Past

Before You Read

Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements.

1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

• The footprint of a dinosaur is considered a fossil.

• Scientists use fossils to learn what an environment was like long ago.

• The oldest rock layer is always the one found on top.

• Scientists can determine the age of some rocks.

Before You

Clues to Earth’s Past

Read

List three fossils that you would expect to find a million years from now in the place you live today.

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

New

Vocabulary

Review

Vocabulary

Academic

Vocabulary

Clues to Earth’s Past

Section 1 Fossils paleontologist permineralized remains carbon film cast index fossils emerge

SkimSection 1 of your book. Read the headings and examine the illustrations. Write three questions that come to mind.

1. 2. 3.

Definepaleontologist to show its scientific meaning.

Define the following terms to show their scientific meaning.

Defineemerge to show its scientific meaning.

LE 3.2b: Extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species

are insufficient to permit its survival. PS 2.1f: Fossils are usually found in sedimentary rocks. Fossils can be used to study past climates and environments. Also covered: LE 3.2c

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Completethe chart to describe the two conditions that improve the chances of fossil formation. Give an example of each.

Createa concept web to summarize the types of preservation.

Sequencethe steps involved in the making of thecast of a shell.

Sediment buries shell.

Mold results. Cast results.

Section 1 Fossils (continued)

Formation of

Fossils

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Types of

Preservation

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Section 1 Fossils (continued)

Index Fossils

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Fossils and

Ancient

Environments

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Summarize the three characteristics of index fossils. 1.

2. 3.

Analyzewhy index fossils are more useful to paleontologists than many other fossils.

Organizethe kinds of information about ancient environments that scientists can learn from fossils. Complete the graphic organizer.

Information about environment revealed by fossils

You find a fossil shell in a layer of rock. It appears to be a clam. What type of rock must the rock layer be? What type of environment would the animal have lived in?

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Review

Vocabulary

Academic

Vocabulary

Clues to Earth’s Past

Section 2 Relative Ages of Rocks

New

Vocabulary

sedimentary rock sequence

Scan the list below to preview Section 2 of your book. • Read all section headings.

• Read all bold words. • Look at all of the pictures.

• Think about what you already know about rock.

Write three facts you discovered about the relative ages of rocks as you scanned the section.

1. 2. 3.

Definesedimentary rock to show its scientific meaning.

Read each definition below. Write the correct vocabulary term in the blank to the left.

states that in undisturbed rock layers, the oldest rocks are on the bottom and the rocks are progressively younger toward the top age of something compared with the ages of other things

gap in a sequence of rock layers that is due to erosion or periods without any deposition

Definesequence to show its scientific meaning.

LE 3.2c: Many thousands of layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence for the long history of Earth and for the

long history of changing lifeforms whose remains are found in the rocks. Recently deposited rock layers are more likely to contain fossils resembling existing species. Also covered: PS 2.2c

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Modeltheprinciple of superposition by sketching a cross-section

of layers of undisturbed sedimentary rock. Number the layers, starting with 1 for the oldest layer.

Describehow the relative age of a rock layer is different from the

actual age of the rock layer.

Model how a folded rock formation containing limestone, coal, and sandstone would form. Draw and label the layers as they would form originally. Then draw what they would look like after being folded.

Section 2 Relative Ages of Rocks (continued)

Superposition

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Relative Ages

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As you pass through a highway cut, you notice distinct layers of rock. Can you be sure that the top layer is the youngest one? Explain.

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Compare and contrast angular unconformity, disconformity,

andnonconformity in rocks by sequencing the steps in their

formation.

Identify the two ways to match up, or correlate, exposed rock layers from two different places. Complete the graphic organizer.

Match up rock layers by

Section 2 Relative Ages of Rocks (continued)

Unconformities

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Matching Up

Rock Layers

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Unconformities

Type How It Forms

Angular 1. unconformity 2. 3. Disconformity 1. 2. 3. Nonconformity 1. 2. 3.

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

New

Vocabulary

Review

Vocabulary

Academic

Vocabulary

Clues to Earth’s Past

Section 3 Absolute Ages of Rocks isotopes radioactive decay radiometric dating uniformitarianism ratio

Predictthree things that might be discussed in Section 3 as you read the headings.

1.

2.

3.

Defineisotopes to show its scientific meaning.

Define these key terms to show their scientific meaning.

Defineratio to show its scientific meaning.

LE 3.2c: Many thousands of layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence for the long history of Earth and for the long

history of changing lifeforms whose remains are found in the rocks. Recently deposited rock layers are more likely to contain fossils resembling existing species. Also covered: PS 3.3a

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Organizeinformation about radioactive decay as a tool to find a

rock’s absolute age. Complete the Venn diagram below with at least six points of information.

Create a bar chart to show four half-lives. Then draw a curve

connecting the tops of the bars. Label each axis.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 P ar ent isotope Beta decay Radioactive Decay Alpha decay Both

Section 3 Absolute Ages of Rocks (continued)

Absolute Ages

and Radioactive

Decay

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Analyzecarbon-14 dating by completing the statements.

The half-life of carbon-14 is .

When carbon-14 decays, it becomes .

Carbon-14 radiometric dating is used for ,

, and samples up

to old. Scientists compare amounts of

carbon-14 in the to the amount in a fossil of an organism that lived long ago. While the organism was alive, it took in and processed carbon-14 and . The of carbon-14 to carbon-12 tells the

approximate of the fossil.

SummarizeHutton’s view of uniformitarianism and the modern

view of changes that affect Earth.

Hutton’s view:

Modern view:

Section 3 Absolute Ages of Rocks (continued)

Radiometric Ages

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Uniformitarianism

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Explain why the principle of uniformitarianism is critical to what you have learned about determining the absolute age of rocks.

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Tie It Together

A paleontologist found the following composition of rock layers at a site. The paleontologist concludes that no folding or other disruption has happened to the layers. What can you conclude about the area’s history? Write a summary of your conclusions.

Top layer: coal layer made up of altered plant material

Middle layer: mix of sandstone and shale, with some tracks made by dinosaurs Bottom layer: limestone with fossils of clams, snails, and sea lilies

Figure

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References