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1

Welcome to PMP Exam Preparation

(Based on Guide to PMBoK 4

th

Edition)

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General Information

Parking

Refreshment

No-Smoking

Copyrighted Slides

Key Contact Details

Support: Mr. Krish 050-2459498 Email. krish@chicagomti.com

Suggestions & Complaints: info@chicagomti.com

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3

Ground rules for this training program

On Time all the Time

Tolerance Limit - 10 Minutes / 80% of the class strength

Interactive Class

Everyone has to participate

No Criticism

Bring Highlighter

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Project Management Institute

Building Professional in Project Management

Project Management Institute

Established in 1969 and headquartered outside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA ,the

Project Management Institute (PMI) is the world’s leading non-for-project

management professional association with over 260,000 members in more than 171

countries and 180,000 PMP’s worldwide.

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5

Types of Questions

Situational Questions

Questions with two or more right answers

Questions with extraneous information

Out of the blue questions

Questions where understanding is important

Questions with new approach to known topic.

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FORMAT OF THE PMP EXAM

 Computer based exam conducted in Prometric centers.

 200 multiple choice questions to be answered within 4 hours.

 Exam is preceded by a 15-minute computer tutorial on the format of the exam.

 Each question has exactly one correct answer. Most people find four hours to be more than sufficient for the exam.

 Out of these 200 questions, 25 questions are research questions. These are randomly placed

throughout the exam. These questions are not evaluated while computing exam results. You will only be evaluated on the basis of 175 questions.

 On clicking the final submission button, the system will compute the results immediately and provide you with the Pass or Fail message. Do not forget to collect the result-sheet from the Examination center invigilator/coordinator

 To pass the PMP examination, you must answer a minimum of 106 of the 175 scored questions correctly. Immediately on completion of the exam, the Prometric center will give you the provisional mark-sheet. The mark-sheet will give the breakup of the score by Process Area.

 There is no negative marking in the exam. Unanswered questions are treated as wrong questions.

 After clearing the exam, you will receive the PMP certificate by mail within 2 months. Examination scores are confidential.

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7

Distribution of Questions by Process Group in the PMP

Exam

Topics

Percentage of

Questions

Initiation

11%

Planning

23%

Executing

27%

Monitoring &

Controlling

21%

Closing

9%

Professional & Social

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9

Introduction

Trying to manage a project without

project management is like trying to

play a football game without a game

plan.

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Advantages of Using Formal Project Management

Better control of financial, physical, and human resources

Improved customer relations

Shorter development times

Lower costs

Higher quality and increased reliability

Higher profit margins

Improved productivity

Better internal coordination

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11

What is a Project ?

A Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a

unique, product, service, or result.

Temporary endeavor with a beginning and an end.

Creates unique product, service or result.

Is Progressively Elaborated.

Distinguishing characteristics of each unique project will be

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Another definition of a Project

"A project is a finite endeavor - having specific start and

completion dates - undertaken to create a unique product or

service which brings about beneficial change or added value.

This finite characteristic of projects stands in sharp contrast to

processes, or operations, which are permanent or

semi-permanent functional work to repetitively produce the same

product or service." -- Wikipedia

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13

What is Project Management?

The application of knowledge, skills, tools and technique to

project activities to meet project requirements

Project Management is accomplished through the application and

integration of the processes such as

Initiating

Planning

Executing

Monitoring and Controlling

Closing

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Managing Projects

The Project Manager is the person responsible for

accomplishing the project objectives.

Managing a project includes:

Identifying requirements.

Establishing clear and achievable objectives.

Balancing the competing demand of quality, scope, time and cost.

Adapting the specifications, plans, and approach to the different

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15

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Organizational / Managerial Approach

Management by Objective

Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process of agreeing

upon

objectives

within an organization so that

management

and

employees

agree to the objectives and understand what

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17

Organizational / Managerial Approach

The essence of MBO is participative goal setting, choosing

course of actions and decision making. An important part of

the MBO is the measurement and the comparison of the

employee’s actual performance with the standards set.

Ideally, when employees themselves have been involved with

the goal setting and the choosing the course of action to be

followed by them, they are more likely to fulfill their

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Organizational / Managerial Approach

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19

Organizational / Managerial Approach

Project management is the

discipline

of

planning

,

organizing

,

and

managing

resources

to bring about the successful

completion of specific project goals and objectives. It is

sometimes conflated with

program management

, however

technically a program is actually a higher level construct: a

group of related and somehow interdependent projects

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Areas of Expertise

Generally accepted as Good Practice

1. Project life cycle definition

2. Five project management process Groups 3. Nine Knowledge areas

•Functional departments & supporting disciplines •Technical elements

•Management specialization •Industry Groups

•Cultural and social environment •International and political environment •Physical environment

Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Executing & Controlling

Effective communication Influencing the organization Leadership Motivation Negotiating and conflict management Problem solving

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21

Project Management Context

Program Management

Portfolio Management

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Programs and Program Management

A Program is a group of related projects.

Management is coordinated because:

they may use the same resources,

the results of one project feed into another, or

they are parts of a larger "project that has been broken down to smaller

projects".

ADVANTAGES

Decreased risk

Economies of Scale

Improved Management

Programs may include elements

of related work outside of the scope

of the discrete projects in the program.

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23

Portfolios and Portfolio Management

A Portfolio is a collection of projects or programs

and

other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective

management of that work to meet strategic business

objectives.

The projects or programs in the portfolio may not

necessarily be interdependent or directly related.

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Portfolios and Portfolio Management

Portfolio Management

Program Management

Portfolio - A suite of Programs and

Projects managed to optimize

Enterprise Value

Program - A structured grouping

of projects designed to produce

clearly identified business value

Project – A structured set of

activities undertaken to deliver a

defined capability based on an

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Project, Program and Portfolio Management

25

Projects

Programs

Portfolios

Scope

Have defined

objectives. Scope is

progressively

elaborated.

Programs have larger

scope and provide

more significant

benefits

Have business

scope that changes

with strategic goals

of organization

Change

Project Managers

expect change and

implement processes to

keep change managed

and controlled

Program Manager

must expect change

from both inside and

outside the program

and be prepared to

manage it

Portfolio managers

continually monitor

changes in the

broad environment

Planning

Project Managers

progressively elaborate

high-level information

into detailed plans

throughout the project

life cycle

Program Managers

develop the overall

program plan and

create high-level plans

to guide detailed

planning at the

component level

Portfolio Managers

create and

maintain necessary

processes and

communication

relative to the

aggregate portfolio

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26

Projects

Programs

Portfolios

Managemen

t

Project Managers

manage the project

team to meet the

project objectives

Program Managers manage

the program staff and the

project managers; they

provide vision and overall

leadership

Portfolio managers

may manage or

coordinate portfolio

management staff

Success

Success is

measured by

product and project

quality, timeliness,

cost effectiveness

and degree of

customer

satisfaction

Success is measured by

degree to which program

satisfies the needs and

benefits for which it was

undertaken

Success is

measured in terms

of aggregate

performance of

portfolio

components

Monitoring Monitoring and

Controlling of the

work of producing

the project’s

Program Managers monitor

progress of program

components to ensure

overall goals, schedules,

Portfolio Managers

monitor aggregate

performance and

value indicators

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27

Projects are frequently divided into more manageable

components or subprojects.

Subproject are often contracted to an external enterprise or to

another functional unit in the performing organization.

Sub projects can be referred to as projects and managed as such.

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Project Management Office (PMO)

An organizational entity that centralizes and coordinates the

management of projects.

Responsibility of a PMO can range from providing project

management support functions to actually being responsible

for the direct management of a project.

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Functions of a PMO

A PMO performs a number of functions that may include but are not limited to:

Managing shared resources across projects

Project Management Process/Methodology: Develop and implement a consistent

and standardized process.

Coaching, mentoring, training and oversight

Developing and managing project policies, procedures, templates and other shared

documentation (Organizational Process Assets)

Monitoring compliance with PM standards, policies, procedures and templates

(30)

Home for project managers: In some cases, maintain a

centralized office from which project managers are loaned out to

work on projects.

Project management software tools: Select and maintain project

management tools for use by employees. Also manage the Project

Management Knowledge base.

Portfolio management: Establish a staff of program managers who

can manage multiple projects that are related, such as infrastructure

technologies, desktop applications and so on, and allocate

resources accordingly.

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31

Authority of PMO

Manage the interdependencies between projects

Help provide resources

Terminate projects

Help gather lessons learned and make them available to other projects

Provide templates

Provide guidance

Provide enterprise project management software

Be more heavily involved during project initiating than later in the

(32)

Differences

between role of a Project Managers

and PMO

Project manager focuses on the specified project objectives ,

while the PMO manages major program scope changes which

may be seen as potential opportunities to better achieve

business objectives

The project manager controls the assigned project resources

to best meet project objectives while the PMO optimizes the

use of shared organizational resources across all the projects

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33

Making PMO Work

The role of the PMO must be clearly defined.

Preferably all those who are in the PMO must be qualified on

Project Management e.g. PMP certified.

The commitment of executive (top) management is required.

The PMO will not improve your project performance without

the use of proper project management processes and

technique. So professional project management must be

encouraged.

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35

Session Objective

2.1 The Project Life Cycle - Overview

2.2 Projects vs. Operational Work

2.3 Project Stakeholders

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2.1 The Project Life Cycle

All projects are divided into phases, and all projects, large or

small, have a similar life cycle structure.

At a minimum, project will have a beginning or initiation

phase, an intermediate phase or phases, and an ending

phase.

All the collective phases the project progresses through in

concert are called the project life cycle.

Construction: Feasibility-> Planning -> Design -> Production -> Turnover -> Startup

IT Project: Requirement -> Design -> Program -> Test -> Implement

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37

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Handoffs

Project phases evolve through the life cycle in a series of

phases sequences called handoffs, or technical transfers. The

end of one phase sequence may mark the beginning of the

next.

The completion of one phase does not automatically

signals the beginning of next phase.

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39

Phase Completion

You will recognize phase completion because each phase

has a specific

deliverable

, or multiple deliverables, that

marks the end of the phase.

A deliverable is an output that must be produced,

reviewed, and approved to bring the phase or project to completion.

Deliverables are tangible and can be measured and easily proved.

A Guide to the PMBOK states that phase ending reviews are also known

by a new other names: Phase Exits, Phase Gates, or Kill Points.

(40)

Phase-to-Phase Relationships

There are three basic types of phase – to – phase relationships :

A Sequential relationship : where a phase can only start once the previous phase is complete

An Overlapping relationship : where the phase starts prior to completion of the previous one

(Fastracking ). Overlapping phase may increase risk and can result in rework .

An Iterative relationship : where only one phase is planned at any given time and the planning for

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41

More on Project Phases

In early phases of a project life cycle:

Resource needs are usually lowest

The level of uncertainty (risk) is highest

Project stakeholders have the greatest opportunity to influence the project

In middle phases of a project life cycle:

The certainty of completing a project improves

More resources are needed

The final phase of a project life cycle focuses on:

Ensuring that project requirements were met

The sponsor approves completion of the project

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43

Typical Construction Life Cycle

P

er

ce

nt

ag

e

C

om

pl

et

e

Feasibility Planning & Designing

Production Turnover and Start-up Project “GO” decision Major Contracts Let Installation Substantially complete Full Operation 100%

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45

2.2 Project vs. Operational Work

• Attains its objectives and terminates

• Create own character, organization, and goals

• Catalyst for change

• Unique product or services

• Heterogeneous teams

• Definite Start and end date

Projects

• Producing a News letter

• Writing and publishing a book

• Implementing a LAN

• Hiring a sales man

• Arrange for a conference

• Opening for a new shop

• Arranging a Music Concert

Examples

•Sustains the business

• Semi-permanent charter, organization,

and goals

• Maintain status quo

• Standard product or services

• Homogeneous teams

• Ongoing

Operations

• Responding to customers requests

• Writing a letter to a Prospect

• Hooking up a Printer to a computer

• Meeting with an employee

• Attending a conference

• Running a shop

• Writing a progress update memo

(46)

2.3 Projects and Strategic Planning

Projects are means of organizing activities that cannot be

addressed within the organizations normal operational limits.

Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of

the following strategic considerations:

A Market Demand & Organizational Need

A Customer Request

A Technological Advancement

A Legal Requirement

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47

2.4 Project Stakeholders

A stakeholder is someone whose interest may be positively or

negatively impacted by the project.

Key stakeholders

The project manager

Customer

Performing organization

Project Team

Project Management Team

Sponsor

Influencers

(48)

Key Stakeholders

Sponsor

Person or group that provides the financial

resources for the project

Portfolio Managers/Portfolio Review Board

Managers responsible for the high-level

governance of a collection of projects or

programs

Program Managers

Managers responsible for managing related

projects in a coordinated way to obtain

benefits and control not available from

managing them individually

Project Management Office

It has direct or indirect responsibility for

the outcome of the project

Project Managers

Manages the Project

Project team members

Group performing the project’s work

Functional (Department/Unit) Managers

Key individuals playing a

management role within a

functional area of the business

Operations Management

Individuals who have a

(49)

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Key Stakeholders

Influencers

Due to an individual's position can

influence positively or negatively

Sellers/Business Partners

External companies that enter into

a contract

Customer

Purchases the product or service

User

Uses the product or services

Performing Organization

Whose employees are most directly

involved in doing the project’s work

(50)

Relationship between Stakeholders and the Project

Page 24

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51

What we do with the Stakeholders ?

Identify ALL of them

Determine ALL of their requirements

Determine their expectations

Communicate with them

Manage their influence

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53

(54)

Organizational Influence

Projects are typically part of an organization that is larger than

the project.

The maturity of the organization with respect to its project

management system, culture, style, organizational structure

and project management office can also influence the project.

Organizational Systems

Organizational Cultures and Styles

Organizational Structure

(55)

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55

Organizational System

Project-based organizations are those whose operations

consist primarily of projects. These organizational falls into

two categories:

Organizations that derive their revenue primarily from performing

projects for others under contract - architectural firms, engineering

firms, consultants, construction contractors, and government

contractors.

(56)

Organizational Cultures and Styles

These cultures are reflected in numerous factors:

Shared values, norms, beliefs, and expectations

Policies and procedures

View of authority relationships

Work ethics and work hours

(57)

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Organizational Structure

The structure of the performing organization often constraints

the availability of resources in a spectrum from Functional to

Projectized, with a variety of matrix structure in between.

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59

Functional Organization - Key Points

The organization is grouped by areas of specialization within

different functional areas.

Projects generally occur within a single department.

Information required from other department will be routed

through departmental heads.

Team members complete project work in addition to normal

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61

Projectized Organization – Key Points

The entire company is organized by projects.

The project manager has control of projects.

Personnel are assigned and report to a project manager.

Team members complete only project work and when its over

they don't have HOME.

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63

Weak Matrix - Key Points

Two Bosses

Team members reports to Project Manager and Functional Manager

Team members do project work in addition to normal departmental

work

Power rests with functional manager

Project Manager plays a role of:

Project Expediter: Cannot take decision. Staff assistant and

Communication coordinator.

Project Coordinator: Similar to Project Expeditor except has some power

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65

Balanced Matrix Organization - Key Points

Two Bosses

Team members reports to Project Manager and Functional

Manager

Team members do project work in addition to normal

departmental work

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Strong Matrix – Key Points

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(70)

Advantages & Disadvantages

Functional

Advantages

Disadvantages

Clear career paths in

specialization areas

Team members report

to one supervisor

Easier specialist

management

More than one boss

for project team

members

Resource allocation is

challenging

Potential for conflict

between functional and

project managers

Matrix

Advantages

Disadvantages

Improved project

manager control over

resources

Project objectives are

supported in the

organization

More support from

functional organization

More than one boss

for project team

members

Resource allocation is

challenging

Potential for conflict

between functional and

project managers

(71)

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71

Advantages & Disadvantages

(Cont..)

Projectized

Advantages

Disadvantages

Efficient project organization

Project loyalty

Simplified communications

Lack of professionalism in

specialization areas

No “home” when projects are

completed

Duplication of facilities and job

functions

(72)

Project Management System

The project management system is the set of tools,

techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures used

to manage a project.

If a PMO exists in the performing organization, one of the

functions of the PMO would typically be to manage the project

management system, in order to ensure consistency in

application and continuity on the various projects being

performed.

(73)

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73

Project Management Processes for a Project

Unit 1

(74)

Session Objective

3.1 Project Management Processes

3.2 Project Management Process Groups

3.3 Process Interactions

(75)

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75

Processes for a Project

Recall the definition of Project Management !

Project Management is accomplished through processes.

It uses Project Management Knowledge, Skills, Tools & Technique

It receives Inputs and generates Outputs

Select appropriate processes within the PM process group that are

required to meet the project objectives

Use a defined approach to adapt the product specifications and plans to

meet project and product requirements.

Comply with Stakeholders needs, wants and expectations.

(76)

What is a process ?

A Process is a set of interrelated actions and activities that

are performed to achieve a pre-specified set of products,

results, or services.

(77)

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Tailoring

Project Managers and their teams are advised to carefully

consider addressing each process and its constituent inputs

and outputs.

The project manager and project team are responsible for determining which

processes within each process group are appropriate for the project you're working on.

This is called Tailoring.

(78)

Project Management Processes

Based on Plan-do-check-act cycle (as defined by Shewhart

and modified by Deming)

The application of the project management processes to a project is iterative and many processes are

repeated and revised during the Project.

Initiating = Start the cycle

Planning = Plan

Executing = Do

Monitoring & Controlling = Check and Act

Closing = Ends the Cycle

(79)

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79

3.2 Project Management Process Groups

The project life cycle describes what you need to do the work,

the project management process describes what you need to

do to manage the project. It includes:

Initiating

Planning

Executing

Monitoring & Controlling

Closing

(80)

Project Management Process Group Triangle

(81)

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81

3.3 Process Groups Interaction in a Project

Figure

Updating...

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