5 PEN PC TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Certified that this report titled “5 PEN PC TECHNOLOGY” is
a bonafide record of the seminar work done by
under our supervision and guidance, towards partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of
B.Sc. Computer Science of the University of Kerala.
Reg.No:320-10 956 011
Head of the Institution
The seminar report on “5 PEN PC
TECHNOLOGY” is outcome of guidance,moral support and
devotion bestowed on me throughout my work.For this I
acknowledge and express my profound sence of gratitude and
thanks to everybody who have been a source of inspiration
during the seminar preparation.
First and foremost I offer our sincere phrases
of thanks with innate humility to Mrs.Rajani,lecturer of
University Institute of Technology,Pirappancode and guide of
my seminar for providing help whenever needed.
If I can say in words I must at the outset tender
our intimacy for receipt of affectionate care to University
Institute of Technology for providing such a stimulating
atmosphere and wonderful work environment.
A B S T R A C T
Five pen pc shortly called as P-ISM (“Pen-style Personal Networking Gadget Package”), is nothing but the new discovery, which is under developing stage by NEC Corporation. P-ISM is a gadget package including five functions: a CPU pen, communication pen with a cellular p h o n e f u n c t i o n , v i r t u a l k e y b o a r d , a v e r y s m a l l
p r o j e c t o r , a n d a c a m e r a . P - I S M ’ s a r e connected with one another through short-range wireless technology. The whole set is also c o n n e c t e d t o t h e I n t e r n e t t h r o u g h t h e c e l l u l a r p h o n e f u n c t i o n . T h i s p e r s o n a l g a d g e t i n a minimalist pen style enables the ultimate ubiquitous computing.
INDEXACKNOLODGEMENT ……… 3 ABSTRACT .……… 4 INTRODUCTION .……… 6 HISTORY ……… 7 5 PEN PC ………. 8 PEN FUNCTIONS ……….. 9 (I)CPU PEN ……….. 9 (2)Communication pen ……….. 11 (3)virtual keyboard ……….. 12 (4)digital camera ……….. 15 (5)Led projector ……….. 17 BATTERY ……….. 19 Merits of 5 Pen PC’s ……….. 20 Demerits of 5 Pen PC’s ……….. 22 Conclusion ……….. 23 Reference ……….. 24
Computer affects our life in a much bigger way then most of us might have
thought. It has become a compulsory requirement in most professions to be able to use computer software. The first computer invented was the ENIAC in 1943 which was the same size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern PCs. Modern computers which are based on integrated circuits are small enough to fit into mobile devices. One of the most compacted
computers out right now are table computers with the most popular being the IPad, but even that is 9.1inch and weighing about 700grams. But imagine having a computer will fit on your pencil case.
P-ISM (“Pen-style Personal Networking Gadget Package”), which is nothing but the new discovery, which is under developing, stage by NEC Corporation. P-ISM is a gadget package including five functions: a pen-style cellular phone with a
handwriting data input function, virtual keyboard, a very small projector, camera scanner, and personal ID key with cashless pass function. P-ISMs are connected with one another through short-range wireless technology. The whole set is also connected to the Internet through the cellular phone function. This personal gadget in a minimalist pen style enables the ultimate ubiquitous computing. It is shown below
A tablet personal computer (tablet PC) is a portable personal computer equipped with a touch screen as a primary input device and designed to be operated and owned by an individual. The term was made popular as a concept presented by Microsoft in 2001, but tablet PCs now refer to any tablet-sized personal
computer, even if it's not using Windows but another PC operating system. Tablets may use virtual keyboards and handwriting recognition for text input through the touch screen.
All tablet personal computers have a wireless adapter for Internet and local network connection. Software applications for tablet PCs include office suites, web browsers, games and a variety of applications. However, since portable computer hardware components are low powered, demanding PC applications may not provide an ideal experience to the user.
The conceptual prototype of the "pen" computer was built in 2003. The prototype device, d u b b e d t h e " P - I S M " , w a s a " P e n - s t y l e P e r s o n a l N e t w o r k i n g G a d g e t " c r e a t e d i n 2 0 0 3 b y J a p a n e s e t e c h n o l o g y c o m p a n y N E C . T h e P - I S M w a s f e a t u r e d a t t h e 2 0 0 3 I T U T e l e c o m World held in Geneva, Switzerland .T h e d e s i g n e r o f t h e 5 P e n
T e c h n o l o g y , ” Toru Ichihash”, s a i d t h a t ” I n d e v e l o p i n g t h i s concept he asked himself – “What is the future of IT when it is small?” The pen was a logical choice. He also wanted a product that you could touch and feel. Further, the intent is to allow for an office anywhere.”H o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h a c o n c e p t u a l p r o t o t yp e o f t h e " p e n " c o m p u t e r w a s b u i l t i n 2 0 0 3 , s u c h devices are not yet available to consumers .An article about the device published on the Wave Report website in 2004
A Pen-style Personal Networking Gadget Package .It seems that information terminals are infinitely getting smaller. However, we will continue to manipulate them with our hands for now. We have visualized the connection between the latest technology and the human, in a form of a pen. P-ISM is a gadget package including f i v e f u n c t i o n s : a p e n - s t yl e c e l l u l a r p h o n e w i t h a h a n d w r i t i n g d a t a i n p u t f u n c t i o n , v i r t u a l keyboard, a very small projector, camera scanner, and personal ID key with cashless pass function. P-ISMs are connected with one another through short-range wireless technology .T h e w h o l e s e t i s a l s o c o n n e c t e d t o t h e I n t e r n e t t h r o u g h t h e c e l l u l a r p h o n e f u n c t i o n . T h i s personal gadget in a minimalistic pen style enables the ultimate ubiquitous computing .However, the prototype displayed at ITU Telecom World was apparently the only sample that was built and reportedly cost $30,000. Thus, while the prototype may have proved that such technology is feasible, it is currently unclear when - or even if - personal computers of this type will become available to the public. Several years on from the initial launch of the P-ISM conceptual prototype, there seems to be little information available about future plans.
5 PEN PC
Pen PC,which is nothing but the new discovery, which is under developing, stage by NEC Corporation. P-ISM is a gadget package including five
functions: a pen-style cellular phone with a handwriting data input function, virtual keyboard, a very small projector, camera scanner, and personal ID key with cashless pass function. P-ISMs are connected with one another through short-range wireless technology. The whole set is also connected to the Internet through the cellular phone function. This personal gadget in a minimalist pen style enables the ultimate ubiquitous computing. A 5 Pen PC system contains the following components:
The functionality of the CPU is done by one of the pen. It is also known as computing engine. It consists of dual core processor embedded in it and it works with WINDOWS operation system. The central processing unit (CPU) is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computer's functions. The central processing unit carries out each instruction of the program in sequence, to perform the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. This term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s.
The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation remains much the
same. Early CPUs were custom designed as a part of a larger, sometimes one-of-a-kind, a n d computer. However, this costly method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has largely given way to the development of mass-produced processors that are made for one or many purposes. This standardization trend generally began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and mini computers and has rapidly accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit(IC). The IC has allowed
increasingly complex CPUs to be designed
andmanufactured to tolerances on the order of nanometres.B o t h t he mi ni a t u r i za ti o n a n d standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of
these digital devices in modern life
far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machine.
The performance or speed of a processor depends on the clock rate and the instructions per clock (IPC), which together are the factors, for the instructions per second(IPS) that the CPU can perform .Many reported IPS values have represented "peak" execution rates on artificial instruction sequences with few branches, whereas realistic workloads consist of a mix of instructions and applications, some of which take longer to execute than others. The performance of the memory hierarchy also greatly affects processor performance, an issue barely considered in MIPS calculations. Because of these problems, various standardized tests such as SPECint have been developed to attempt to measure there all effective performance in commonly used applications.
P r o ce s s i ng per f o r ma n ce o f co mpu t er s i s i n cr ea s ed b y us i n g multi-core processors, w h i ch essentially is plugging two or more individual processors (called cores in this sense) into one integrated circuit. Ideally, a dual core processor would be nearly twice as powerful as a single co r e pr o c e s s o r . I n p r a cti c e, ho w e v er , th e p er f o r ma n ce g a i n i s f a r l es s , o nl y a bo ut f i f t y percent, due to imperfect software algorithms and implementation.
P-ISM’s are connected with one another through short-range wireless technology. The whole set is also connected to the Internet through the cellular phone function. They are connected through Tri -wireless modes (Blue tooth, 802.11B/G, a n d t e r a b yt e s o f d a t a , e x c e e d i n g t h e capacity of today’s hard disks. This is very e ffective be cause we c an able to c o n n e c t w h e n e v e r w e n e e d w i t h o u t h a v i n g w i r e s . T h e y a r e u s e d a t t h e f r e q u e n c y b a n d o f 2 . 4 G H z I S M ( a l t h o u g h t h e y u s e d i f f e r e n t access mechanisms). Blue tooth mechanism is used for exchanging signal status
information b e t w e e n t w o d e v i c e s . T h i s t e c h n i q u e s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d t h a t d o n o t r e q u i r e c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o d e v i c e s ( s u c h a s B l u e t o o t h ’ s A d a p t i v e F r e q u e n c y Hopping), the most efficient and comprehensive solution for the most serious problems can be accomplished by silicon vendors. They can implement information exchange capabilities within the designs of the Blue tooth. Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum ,which chops u p t h e d a t a b e i n g s e n t a n d t r a n s mi t s c h u n k s o f i t o n u p t o 7 9 b a n d s ( 1 M H z e a c h c e n t e r e d from 2402 to 2480 MHz) in the range 2,400-2,483.5 MHz (allowing for guard bands)
3. VIRTUAL KEYBOARD
The Virtual Laser Keyboard (VKB) is the ULTIMATE new gadget for PC users. The VKB emits laser on to the desk where it looks like the keyboard having QWERTY arrangement of keys i.e., it uses a laser beam to generate a full-size perfectly operating laser keyboard that s m o o t h l y c o n n e c t s t o o f P C a n d m o s t o f t h e h a n d h e l d d e v i c e s . A s w e t yp e o n t h e l a s e r projection , it analyses what we are typing according to the co-ordinates of the location.
A virtual keyboard is a software component that allows a user to enter characters. A
virtualk e y b o a r d c a n u s u a l l y b e o p e r a t e d w i t h m u l t i p l e i n p u t d e v i c e s , w h i c h m a y i n c l u d e a touch screen,an actual keyboard, a computer mouse, a head mouse and aneye mouse.
O n a d e s k t o p P C , o n e p u r p o s e o f a v i r t u a l k e y b o a r d i s t o p r o v i d e a n a l t e r n a t i v e i n p u t mechanism for users with disabilities who cannot use a physical keyboard. Another major use for an on-screen keyboard is for bi- or multi-lingual users who switch frequently between different
character sets or alphabets. Although hardware keyboards are available with dual key board layouts( f o r e x a m p l e C y r i l l i c / L a t i n l e t t e r s i n v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l l a y o u t s ) , t h e o n - screen keyboard provides a handy substitute while working at different stations or on laptops ,which seldom come with dual layouts.
T h e s t a n d a r d o n s c r e e n k e y b o a r d u t i l i t y o n m o s t
windowing systems allow sh o t k e y s w i t c h i n g b e t w e e n l a yo u t s f r o m t h e p h ys i c a l k e y b o a r d ( t y p i c a l l y a l t - s h i f t b u t t h i s i s
u s e r configurable), simultaneously changing both the hardware and the software keyboard layout .In addition, a symbol in the systrayalerts the user to the currently active layout .Although Linuxsupports this fast
manual keyboard-layout switching function, many popular Linux on-screen keyboards such as gt key board, Matchbox-keyboard or Kvkbd do not react correctly. Kvkbd for example defines its visible layout according to the first defined layout in K e y b o a r d P r e f e r e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e
d e f a u l t l a yo u t , c a u s i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n t o o u t p u t incorrect characters if the first layout on the list is not the default. Activating a hot-key layout switch will cause the application to change its output according to another
keyboard layout, but the visible on-screen layout doesn't change, leaving the user blind as to which keyboardl a y o u t h e i s u s i n g . M u l t i
l i n g u a l , m u l t i a l p h a b e t u s e r s s h o u l d c h o o s e a l i n u x o n -s c r e e n keyboard that -support thi-s feature in-stead, like Florence .V i r t u a l k e y b o a r d s a r e c o m m o n l y u s e d a s a n o n - s c r e e n i n p u t m e t h o d i n d e v i c e s w i t h n o p h ys i c a l k e yb o a r d , w h e r e t h e r e i s n o r o o m f o r o n e , s u c h a s a pocket computer , personaldigital assistant(PDA),tablet computer or t o u c h s c r e e n equipped m o b i l e p h o n e . I t i s c o m m o n f o r t h e u s e r t o i n p u t t e x t b y t a p p i n g a v i r t u a l k e y b o a r d b u i l t i n t o t h e operating systemof the device. Virtual keyboards are also used as features of emulation softwarefor systems that have fewer buttons than a computer keyboard would have.
V i r t u a l k e yb o a r d s m a y b e u s e d i n s o m e c a s e s t o r e d u c e t h e r i s k o f keystroke logging. F o r example: Westpac’s online banking service uses a virtual keyboard for the password entry, as does Treasury Direct(see picture). It is more difficult for malwareto monitor the display
andm o u s e t o o b t a i n t h e d a t a e n t e r e d v i a t h e v i r t u a l k e y b o a r d , t h a n i t i s t o m o n i t o r r e a l keystrokes. However it is possible, for example by recording screenshots at regular intervals or upon each mouse click .The use of an on-screen keyboard on which the user "types" with mouse clicks can increase the risk of password disclosure by shoulder surfing, because:
•A n o b s e r v e r c a n t yp i c a l l y wa t c h t h e s c r e e n mo r e e a s i l y ( a n d l e s s s u s p i c i o u s l y) t h a n t h e keyboard, and see which characters the mouse moves to.
•S o me i mp l e me n t a t i o n s o f t h e o n - s c r e e n k e yb o a r d ma y g i v e v i s u a l f e e d b a c k o f t h e " k e y " clicked, e.g. by changing its colour
briefly. This makes it much easier for an observer to read the data from the screen.
•A u s e r ma y n o t b e a b l e t o " p o i n t a n d c l i c k " a s f a s t a s t h e y c o u l d t y p e o n a k e y b o a r d , t h u s making it easier for the observer.
The digital camera is in the shape of pen .It is useful in video recording, video conferencing , simply it is called as web cam. It is also connected with other devices through Blue tooth. It is a 360 degrees visual communication device. This terminal will enable us to know about the s u r r o u n d i n g a t m o s p h e r e a n d g r o u p t o g r o u p c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h a r o u n d d i s p l a y a n d a central super wide angle camera.
diagram of digital camera
A d i g i t a l c a m e r a ( o r d i g i c a m ) i s a camera that takes video o r s t i l l photographs, o r b o t h , digitally by recording images via an electronic image sensor . Most 21st century cameras are digital .Front and backof CanonPowerShotA95.
s p l a y i n g i m a g e s o n a s c r e e n immediately after they are recorded, storing thousands of images on a single small memory d e v i c e , a n d d e l e t i n g i m a g e s t o f r e e s t o r a g e s p a c e . T h e m a j o r i t y , i n c l u d i n g m o s t c o m p a c t cameras, can record moving video with sound a s w e l l a s s t i l l photographs. S o m e c a n crop and stitch pictures and perform other elementary image editing. S o m e h a v e a GPSreceiver built in, and can produce Geo tagged photographs .The optical system works the same as in film cameras, typically using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device. The diaphragm and shutter admit the c o r r e c t a m o u n t o f l i g h t t o t h e i m a g e r , j u s t a s w i t h f i l m b u t t h e i m a g e p i c k u p d e v i c e i s e l e c t r o n i c r a t h e r t h a n c h e m i c a l . M o s t d i g i c a m s , a p a r t f r o m c a m e r a p h o n e s a n d a f e w specialized types, have a standard tripod screw .Digital cameras are incorporated into many devices ranging from PDAs and mobile phones (called camera phones) t o v e h i c l e s . T h e Hubble Space Telescope
The role of monitor is taken by LED Projector which projects on the screen. The size of the projector is of A4 size. It has the approximate resolution capacity of 1024 X 768. Thus it is gives more clarity and good picture. diagram of led projector A video projector is a device that receives a video signal and projects the corresponding image on a projection screen u s i n g a lenss ys t e m .
A l l v i d e o p r o j e c t o r s u s e a v e r y b r i g h t l i g h t t o p r o j e c t t h e i m a g e , a n d m o s t m o d e r n o n e s c a n c o r r e c t a n y c u r v e s , b l u r r i n e s s , a n d o t h e r i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s t h r o u g h m a n u a l s e t t i n g s . V i d e o p r o j e c t o r s a r e w i d e l y u s e d f o r c o n f e r e n c e room presentations, classroom training ,home theatre and live events applications. Projectors are widely used in many schools and other educational settings, connected to an interactive white board to interactively teach pupils.
A video projector, also known as a digital projector, may be built into a cabinet with a rear- p r o j e c t i o n s c r e e n ( rear projection television ,o r R P T V ) t o f o r m a s i n g l e u n i f i e d d i s p l a y device, now popular for “home theatre” applications .Common display resolutions for a portable projector include SVGA(800×600 pixels),XGA (1024×768 pixels) ,
720p(1280×720 pixels), and1080p (1920×1080 pixels).T h e c o s t o f a d e v i c e i s n o t o n l y d e t e r m i n e d b y i t s r e s o l u t i o n , b u t a l s o b y i t s b r i g h t n e s s . A projector with a higher light output(measured in lumens, symbol
“lm”) is required for a larger screen or a roo m with a high a m ount of a m b i e n t l i g h t .
A r a t i n g o f 1 5 0 0 t o 2 5 0 0 ANSI lumens or lower is suitable for smaller screens with controlled lighting or low ambient light. Between 2500 and 4000 lm is suitable for medium-sized screens with some ambient light or d i m m e d l i g h t . O v e r 4 0 0 0 l m i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r v e r y l a r g e s c r e e n s i n a l a r g e r o o m w i t h n o lighting control (for example, a conference room). Projected image size is important; because the total amount of light does not change, as size increases, brightness decreases. Image sizes a r e t y p i c a l l y m e a s u r e d i n l i n e a r t e r m s , d i a g o n a l l y , o b s c u r i n g t h e f a c t t h a t l a r g e r i m a g e s r e q u i r e m u c h m o r e l i g h t ( p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e i m a g e a r e a , n o t j u s t t h e l e n g t h o f a s i d e ) . Increasing the diagonal measure of the image by 25% reduces the image brightness by more than one-third (35%); an increase of 41% reduces brightness by half.
The most important part in portable type of computer is battery and storage capacity. Usually batteries must be small in size and work for longer time. For normal use it can be used for 2weeks. The type of battery used here is lithium ion battery. The storage device is of the type tubular holographic which is capable of storing. The use of lithium ion battery in this gadget will reduce energy density, durability and cost factor .By making Five Pen PC feasible, it will enable ub iquitous computing therefore it is easier for people to use. Many applications can be imagined with this new technology. As it makes use of E-fingerprinting the gadget will be more secure, which allows only owner to activate the Pc. So even if we loose it, no one else can access the gadget. All PC’s communicate each other with the help of Bluetooth technology and the entire gadget is connected to internet (Wi -fi) .This technology is very portable, feasible and efficient. Every body can use this technology in very efficient manner. Some prototypes have been already developed in 2003 which are very feasible, but currently unclear. The enhancement in this technology can be expected in coming years.
Merits of 5 Pen PC’s
A 5 Pen PC have several merits.They are :
The first and most important advantage of the 5 pen pc are that they are portable. Due to its size they can be carried anywhere . These PC’s are in the shape of pens and that’s why they can be carried in small bags or even in our pockets. A portable computer is a computer that is designed to be moved from one place to another and includes a display and keyboard. They can also be called a 'Portable Workstation' or 'Portable PC'.5Pen PC are the most easily portable pc ever made. Another major merit is that its works on battery and so it can be used whenever we want.
2. Ubiquitous computing
Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) is a post-desktop model of human-computer interaction in which information processing has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. In the course of ordinary activities, someone "using" ubiquitous computing engages many computational devices and systems simultaneously, and may not necessarily even be aware that they are doing so. This model is usually considered an advancement from the desktop padgim . More formally Ubiquitous computing is defined as "machines that fit the human
3. Wi-Fi technology
The another major important merit of a 5 pen pc is that its has a Wi-Fi technology built in it through which the user can connect to the internet very easily.Wifi, is a mechanism that allows electronic devices to exchange data wirelessly over
a computer network. A device enabled with Wi-Fi, such as a personal computer, video game console, smart phone, tablet, or digital audio player, can connect to a network resource such as the Internet via a wireless network access point.
An access point (or hotspot) has a range of about 20 meters (65 ft) indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can comprise an area as small as a single room with walls that block radio signals or a large area, as much as many square miles, covered by multiple overlapping access points.To connect to a Wi-Fi LAN, a computer has to be equipped with a wireless network interface controller. The combination of computer and interface controller is called a station. All stations share a single radio frequency communication channel. Transmissions on this channel are received by all stations within range. The hardware does not signal the user that the transmission was delivered and is therefore called a best-effort delivery mechanism. A carrier wave is used to transmit the data in packets, referred to as "Ethernet frames". Each station is constantly tuned in on the radio frequency communication channel to pick up available transmissions.A Wi-Fi-enabled device can connect to the Internet when within range of a wireless network connected to the Internet.
5 Pen PC technology is a feasible model of portable PCs, i.e., it is one of the most possible and practical to achieve easily or conveniently. This type of PCs can be used everywhere and by anyone. Its is very easy to use.
Demerits of 5 Pen PC’s
Positioning is a major factor affecting the proper usage of the this PC.the
keyboard and the display are virtual in this case so need a flat and clear surface to get a better experience ,so the positioning matters the display and working with the PC. The keyboard and the display are being worked by the use of laser. These devices are interconnected by using Bluetooth. So the positioning of the device plays a major role in its working.
The production cost of these type of PCs are too high. By the decrease in the size of the PC parts the cost of these computer are also very high. By the increase in the cost of these computers these cannot become useful for the common people. These is one of the main demerits of these PC.
Another major disadvantage of this type of PC is its battery life. It’s the battery used in this PC only last for maximum of 2 weeks. It’s life span is only for two weeks. These is yet another demerit of these PC’s.
By the human needs the communication devices are becoming smaller and
compactable. PC are becoming smaller and smaller. We can see that the 5 pen pc technology is one of the advanced Portable PC that is easy to carry even in our pockets and work with it any where we want. This 'pen sort of instrument' produces both the monitor as well as the keyboard on any flat surfaces from where you can carry out functions you would normally do on your desktop
computer. This has also Wi-Fi technology in which user can communicate through the internet, It’s another major advancement is the camera which can be used even for video conferencing. This is just a new start. We can expect much more advanced comfortable pc system in future.