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SELECTED CORRELATES OF EXAMINATION ANXIETY

AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN

PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KHWISERO

SUB-COUNTY, KAKAMEGA SUB-COUNTY, KENYA

BY

MUKOLWE ASAKHULU NEWTON

E83/13043/2009

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR

THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE

OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN EDUCATIONAL

PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION OF

KENYATTA UNIVERSITY

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DECLARATION

I confirm that this thesis is my original work and has not been presented in any other university. The thesis has been complemented by referenced works duly acknowledged. Where text, data, graphics, pictures or tables have been borrowed from other works, including the internet, the sources are specifically accredited through referencing in accordance with anti-plagiarism regulations.

__________________________ Date: ___________________

Mukolwe, Asakhulu Newton

E83/13043/2009

We confirm that the work reported in this thesis was carried out by the candidate under our supervision as University supervisors.

_________________________ Date: ___________________

Prof. Edward Oyugi

Department of Educational Psychology

Kenyatta University

__________________________ Date: ___________________

Dr. Sammy Tumuti

Department of Educational Psychology

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DEDICATION

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ACKNOWLEGDEMENT

My successful accomplishment of this work resulted from God’s blessings, health and His wonderful gift of life. I am also grateful for the assistance, encouragement, inspiration and moral and professional support I received from my supervisors; Prof. E. Oyugi and Dr. S. Tumuti. To my beloved wife Ms. Nancy Matendechere Imbusi, a teacher at Ngenia Boys High School, Limuru, and a PhD student in Mathematics at Kenyatta University, and my lovely children Valerie Shitandi, Mablyne Omulanya, Ainsley Asakhulu, Brayden Imbusi and Hansel Asakhulu, I recognise their love, support and joy; and to my parents and siblings for family support. I also thank schools’ administrations and students, including all other people who were involved in facilitating my research work.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page ……….……… (i)

Declaration ……….. (ii)

Dedication ………..……. (iii)

Acknowledgement ………... (iv)

Table of Contents ………..….. (v)

List of Tables ………... (vii)

List of Figures ……….. (viii)

Abbreviations and Acronyms ………..……. (ix)

Abstract ……….... (x)

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT OF THE STUDY ………. ……. 1

1.1 Introduction ……….. 1

1.2 Background to the Study ……….. 1

1.3 Statement of the Problem ………. 8

1.4 Purpose of the Study ……… 10

1.5 Objectives of the Study ………... 11

1.6 Research Hypotheses ……… 11

1.7 Assumptions of the Study ………. 12

1.8 Limitations of the Study ……… 13

1.9Delimitations of the Study ……… 13

1.10 Significance of the Study ……... 14

1.11 Theoretical Framework……… 15

1.11.1 The Interference Model……… 17

1.11.2 The Learning-Deficit Model………. 18

1.11.3 The Conservation of Resources (COR) Theory……… 20

1.12 Conceptual Framework ……… 22

1.13 Operational Definition of Terms ………. 23

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE …... 26

2.1Introduction……… 26

2.2Examination Anxiety and Academic Performance ……… 26

2.3Academic Procrastination, Examination Anxiety and Academic Performance ………... 31

2.4Locus of Control, Examination Anxiety and Academic Performance ………... 34

2.5Academic Resilience, Examination Anxiety and Academic Performance ………... 37

2.6Sex Differences in Examination Anxiety, Academic Procrastination, Locus of Control and Academic Resilience ………… 40

2.6.1 Sex Differences and Examination Anxiety ………. 40

2.6.2 Sex Differences and Academic Procrastination ……….. 41

2.6.3 Sex Differences and Locus of Control ……… 42

2.6.4 Sex Differences and Academic Resilience ……….. 42

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CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND

METHODOLOGY ……… 45

3.1 Introduction……….. 45

3.2 Research Design and Locale ……… 45

3.3 Population ……… 46

3.4 Sampling Techniques and Sample Size Determination ………... 47

3.5 Research Instruments ………... 50

3.6 Data Collection ………. 56

3.7 Data Analysis ………... 58

CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS, INTERPRETATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS ……….. 61

4.1 Introduction ………. 61

4.2 General and Demographic Information ………... 62

4.2.1 General Information ……… 62

4.2.2 Demographic Information ………... 63

4.3 Examination Anxiety and Students’ Performance in KCSE Exams ………... 73

4.4 Academic Procrastination, Examination Anxiety and Students’ Performance in KCSE Exams ……….. 76

4.5 Locus of Control, Examination Anxiety and Students’ Performance in KCSE Exams ……….. 79

4.6 Academic Resilience, Examination Anxiety and Students’ Performance in KCSE Exams ……….. 81

4.7 Sex Differences in Examination Anxiety, Academic Procrastination, Locus of Control and Academic Resilience ………... 84

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ……….. 89

5.1 Introduction ………. 89

5.2 Summary ……….. 89

5.3 Conclusions ……….. 90

5.4 Recommendations ……… 92

5.4.1 Policy Recommendations ……… 92

5.4.2 Recommendations for Further Research ………. 94

References ……….. 96

Appendices: Appendix A: Research Instruments ……….. 115

Appendix B: Time Frame ………. 125

Appendix C: Budget ………. 126

Appendix D: Research Authorization Documents ……… 127

Appendix E: Map of Khwisero Sub-County ………. 131

Appendix F: Khwisero Sub-County Secondary Schools’ List .……... 132

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Schools’ Residential Status in Khwisero Sub-county …… 46 Table 3.2 Sample Distribution ……… 50 Table 3.3 Reliability Coefficients for each Sub-scale ………. 55 Table 4.1 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Test for the

Relationship between Exams Anxiety Scores and KCSE Exams Scores ……….. 74 Table 4.2 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Test for the

Relationship between Academic Procrastination, Exams Anxiety Scores and KCSE Exams Scores ……….. 76 Table 4.3 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Test for the

Relationship between Locus of Control, Exams Anxiety Scores and KCSE Exams Scores ……… 79 Table 4.4 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Test for the

Relationship between Academic Resilience, Exams Anxiety Scores and KCSE Exams Scores ……… 82 Table 4.5 Independent Samples t-Test for Sex Differences in

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Relationships between the Variables of the Study ……….. 22 Figure 4.1 Distribution of Students by Sex and Schools’ Residential

Status ……….. 64 Figure 4.2 Distribution of Students by Sex and Age ……… 65 Figure 4.3 Distribution of Respondents by Sex, Age and KCSE grade Performance ……… 66 Figure 4.4 Distribution of Respondents by Schools’ Residential status

and KCSE Grade Performance ……… 67 Figure 4.5 Statistical Characteristics of Respondents by Sex and

Exams Anxiety, Academic Procrastination, LOC,

Academic Resilience and KCSE Points ……….. 68 Figure 4.6 Distribution of Respondents by Age and Means of Exams

Anxiety, Academic Procrastination, LOC, Academic

Resilience and KCSE Points ……… 70 Figure 4.7 Distribution of Respondents by Schools’ Residential Status

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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

COR Conservation of Resources CPE Certificate of Primary Education CTAS Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale DEO District Education Office

EAACE East African Advanced Certificate of Education EACE East African Certificate of Education

EACPE East African Certificate of Primary Education GAS General Adaptation Syndrome

GPA Grade Point Average

KACE Kenya Advanced Certificate of Education KCE Kenya Certificate of Education

KCPE Kenya Certificate of Primary Education KCSE Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education KICD Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development KNEC Kenya National Examination Council LOC Locus of Control

MDGs Millennium Development Goals

NCST National Council for Science and Technology SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences

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ABSTRACT

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT OF THE STUDY

1.1Introduction

This chapter presents among other items, the background to the problem investigated, the purpose, the objectives and the significance of this study. Theoretical and conceptual frameworks, as the main guiding principles to the study, shall also be presented. Lastly, operational definitions of the key terms in the study will be highlighted.

1.2Background to the Study

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In Education, learners’ educational outcomes and achievements are evaluated and graded using examinations (Chinta, 2005). In fact, testing is common in everyday life, from school content-specific tests (that is, class tests and national examinations) to tests taken to move up in jobs status, thus adding a great deal of pressure to test achievement and grades. Hence, in most cases, this leads many people to become anxious when presented with examinations (Huberty, 2010; Supon, 2004; Collins, 1999). This form of anxiety is known as test or examination anxiety.

Spielberger and Sarason (1989) define test anxiety as a situation-specific trait that refers to the anxiety states and worry conditions experienced during examinations. The level of anxiety can fluctuate over time in response to both internal and external stimulation. Observable behaviors of anxiety can be noticed during the completion process of a quiz, a test or an examination. Some of those behaviors might include perspiration, excessive movement and questioning of instructions. A disruption or disorganization of effective problem-solving and cognitive control, including difficulty in thinking clearly, can also lead to test anxiety (Freidman & Bendas-Jacob, 1997).

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Parker & Harrison, 1995). Hence, too much anxiety during examination may interfere with students’ concentration on the test, thus lowering their performance in examination (Cassady & Johnson, 2002).

The history of examination in educational set ups in Kenya has existed in both pre-colonial and post-colonial Kenya, and this has seen learners being occasionally exposed to examination. Indeed, after independence in 1963, Kenya, together with Uganda and Tanzania, formed the East African Community in 1967. The three countries adopted a single system of education (similar to the British system of education), the 7-4-2-3. This system consisted of seven years of primary education, four years of secondary education, two years of high school, and three years of university education, hence 7-4-2-3. To make transitions in this system, learners sat for regional examinations known as the East African Certificate of Primary Education (EACPE), and then the East African Certificate of Education examination (EACE). Finally, they sat for the East African Advanced Certificate of Education (EAACE), after which they joined university education.

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the East African Advanced Certificate of Education became the Kenya Advanced Certificate of Education (KACE). In 1980, the Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC), was established by the Government through an Act of Parliament (CAP 225A) as a non–profit making institution. Its responsibilities include conducting school and post-school national examinations, except university examinations, and award certificates to successful candidates.

KNEC examinations are based on the syllabus prepared by the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD – formally known as Kenya Institute of Education, KIE) for all public and private schools and colleges preparing for the KNEC examinations. In January 1985, the 8-4-4 system of education was introduced following the Mackay Report of 1982 (Republic of Kenya, 1988)., which adopted eight years of primary education, four years of secondary education and four years of university education, hence 8-4-4. With the introduction of the 8-4-4 system, CPE became KCPE (Kenya Certificate of Primary Education) while KCE became the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). The main limitation of all the aforementioned regional and national examinations is that the scores obtained from these examinations have been regarded as the sole objective means used to admit students into secondary schools, colleges and university courses, and job placements (Wambua, 2003).

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Huberty, 2010; Supon, 2004; Collins, 1999). This is well exemplified by a host of events associated with the preparation and the release of results for final examinations in many schools around the country. These include; holiday tuitions (Kimani, Standard Newspaper, August 7, 2011), class repetition for learners who did not perform well, highly publicized prayers for the candidates (Owayo, Standard Newspaper, October 15, 2011), strikes associated with examination issues (Imprint, 2008), examination leakages and cheating cases, and examination results cancellation, like in the case of North Eastern Kenya schools in 2011 KCSE results (KNEC, 2012). The list also includes suicidal cases related to poor performance in national examinations.

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The above conflicting research findings call for more empirical studies to validate the relationship between examination anxiety and academic achievement of students, especially in Kenya, where studies reviewed (that is, Ndirangu, et al. 2009 and Ondondi, 1983) indicate contrasting results. In addition, many studies carried out on the relationship between test anxiety and performance, have rarely addressed different factors that are associated with the development of test anxiety hence the effects on academic performance in learners. In the current study, the following factors (herein referred to as correlates) were considered: academic procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience.

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The determinants may be internal, hence internal Locus of control, or external, hence external Locus of control. Thus, internals believe that success or failure is due to their own efforts, whereas externals believe that the reinforcers in life are controlled by luck, chance, or powerful others (Rotter, 1989). Consequently, internals considers success in an exam as a result of their hard work (for example, good study habits), while, externals will consider failure on an exam to be the result of an unfair test. In Carden, Courtney and Rebekah (2004) study, it was found that internals showed significantly lower academic procrastination, low test anxiety and reported higher academic achievement than externals. These findings indicate the importance of Locus of control in the relationship between examination anxiety and academic performance in learners.

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The relationship between the above correlates with examination anxiety and academic performance could be among the factors that might influence the levels of academic performance in Khwisero County. Because Khwisero Sub-County was inaugurated in 2009 (Republic of Kenya, 2009), as an independent Sub-County in Kakamega County, its academic standards can now be clearly seen. The trend since its inception shows that the performance of students in national examinations has been quite low (Kabaka, 2011). Thus, a study that looks into the factors associated with exam performance in the Sub-County was vital at this point in time. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the above factors as they relate to examination anxiety and academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Khwisero Sub-County, Kakamega County, Kenya.

1.3Statement of the Problem

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The performance of students in national examinations in Khwisero Sub-County has been comparatively low in relation to other Sub-Counties in the larger Western region. For example, in the 2010 KCSE examinations the Sub-County was ranked number 22 among the 28 Sub-Counties in the Western region (Kabaka, 2011). The examination results data from the Sub-County Education Office for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 (See Appendix VII), exemplifies this by showing that very few students acquire the minimum university entrance grade (C+). Further, of these, very few join and complete university education due to high poverty levels in the Sub-County as the local economy is mostly driven by subsistence agriculture (Kabaka, 2011).

Indeed, with such poverty levels, the teaching-learning resources in many public schools are scarce, leading to inadequate curriculum coverage (Ingubu & Wambua, 2011; UNICEF, 2005; KIPPRA, 2001), and less examination preparation among students, hence this might heighten test anxiety in students. It is out of such state of affairs that the researcher, apart from investigating the relationship between exam anxiety and academic performance, was also interested in studying the influence of the aforementioned correlates on exam anxiety hence academic performance of students in Khwisero Sub-County.

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students. Hence, the earlier the students in Khwisero Sub-County prepare for exam by avoiding academic procrastination, the better for them to reduce exam anxiety and increase their levels of academic performance. Similarly, the more they are directed by internal locus of control and the more they become academically resilient, the less they experience exam anxiety and the higher they increase their mean performance scores in exam.

Thus, it was important to investigate the relationship between exam anxiety and academic performance of students in Khwisero Sub-County by also considering the relationship between exam anxiety and academic performance, and the above correlates (that is, academic procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience). In addition, due to scarcity of research literature on these variables locally, it was important to investigate the relationship between these variables to add more research literature on the hypothesis relating to the widely publicized influence of exam anxiety on academic performance of students.

1.4Purpose of the Study

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1.5Objectives of the Study

The study specifically aimed at finding out the;

i) degree of relationship between examination anxiety and academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Khwisero Sub-county

ii) relationship between academic procrastination, examination anxiety and academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Khwisero Sub-county

iii) relationship between Locus of control, examination anxiety and academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Khwisero Sub-county

iv) relationship between academic resilience, examination anxiety and academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Khwisero Sub-county

v) sex differences among students in public secondary schools in Khwisero Sub-county in relation to their levels of examination anxiety, academic procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience.

1.6Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were tested in this study:

Ha1 There is a negative significant relationship between examination anxiety

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Ha2 There are positive significant relationships between academic

procrastination, examination anxiety and academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Khwisero Sub-County

Ha3 There are positive significant relationships between Locus of control,

examination anxiety and academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Khwisero Sub-County

Ha4 There are positive significant relationships between academic resilience,

examination anxiety and academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Khwisero Sub-County

Ho5 There are significant sex differences among students in public secondary

schools in Khwisero Sub-County in relation to examination anxiety, academic procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience.

1.7Assumptions of the Study

This study was guided by the following assumptions:

i) The scales used for data collection yielded valid and reliable information for testing of the hypotheses under the study

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1.8Limitations of the Study

Standardized scales to measure the variables of the study are not locally available. As such, the researcher adapted items from standardized scales previously used in other research jurisdiction. Items to measure exam anxiety were adapted from Cassady and Johnson (2004) and Sarason (1984); the items used to measure academic procrastination were drawn from Steel (2010), Diaz-Morales, Ferari, Diaz and Argumedo (2006), Tuckman (1991) and Lay (1986).

Rotter’s (1966) scale was adapted and used to measure Locus of control. Similarly, Conner-Davidson (2003) and Wagnild and Young (1993, 1987) studies provided items that were used to measure academic resilience. The items adapted from the scales used in these previous studies were subjected to a pilot study to ascertain their validity and reliability.

Lastly, the generalization of the findings from this study can only be done to the extent that students in other regions are similar in characteristics and conditions in relation to those of Khwisero Sub-County.

1.9Delimitations of the Study

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examinations, hence an appropriate sample to demonstrate the influence of exam anxiety on academic performance. Furthermore, since these national examinations are standardized, they yielded the most valid and reliable data for the analysis of hypotheses in the study.

The study concentrated on exam related anxiety as measured by the examination anxiety scale whose validity and reliability were ascertained. In addition, the study confined itself to the following variables as related to examination anxiety; academic procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience.

1.10 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study may have significant implications to students, teachers, parents, counselors and other stakeholders in the Education sector in Kenya. These include appreciating examination anxiety as a real phenomenon, its potential effects on academic performance, factors that may precipitate it, management and strategic programs in dealing with it.

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internationally, in appreciation of examination anxiety as a universal phenomenon that cuts across time and space.

1.11 Theoretical Framework

This section highlights some of the prominent theories and or models related to anxiety and or stress. The discussion assumes an evolutionary approach to these theories beginning with earliest models to the more recent model (the COR theory) that was finally adopted by the study.

In the earliest theoretical framework, the effects of test anxiety on performance variables, such as competition, were depicted as an inverted U curve by Yerkes and Dodson (1908), precisely known as the Yerkes-Dodson curve. The description of the curve indicates that up to the summit of the curve (the optimal level), anxiety could be adaptive because it motivates students, and improves their functioning. Beyond the optimal level, anxiety is considered maladaptive as it causes distress and impairs functioning, hence productivity (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908). Indeed, this implies that some amount of anxiety is necessary to spark off functioning in human beings, however increasingly excessive anxiety leads to poor performance in human activities.

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perception that there were at least two manifestations of test anxiety. Sarason (1961) proposed that interfering anxieties encountered in evaluative situations were likely a combination of heightened physiological activity and self-deprecating ruminations. Thus, since the early 1970s, there has been wide acceptance of the view that test anxiety is composed of two dimensions (traditionally referred to as emotionality and worry). Emotionality referred to autonomic reactions which tend to occur under examination stress, while worry was conceptually identified as cognitive expression of concern about one's own performance (Liebert & Morris, 1967).

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On the other hand, Lazarus (1966) offered a Cognitive Appraisal Theory that focused on an individual’s expectations of a specific encounter, leading to the perception of a given encounter as harm, threat or a challenge. Perceiving an event as harm or threat would incapacitate performance, while perceiving it as a challenge made an individual to feel confident in resolving the danger posed by the encounter. Since much significance is accrued on exam scores in making professional and life decisions, students are bound to perceive exam as a harm or a threat and or a challenge, hence incapacitating their performance in exam, and or developing confidence in overcoming the dangers posed by exam anxiety, respectively.

Subsequently, most research in test anxiety was directed towards creating better measures of test anxiety (Spielberger, Gonzalez, Taylor, Algase & Anton, 1978; Liebert & Morris, 1967) and eventually determining the differential impacts of the two factors (Hembree, 1988). It is out of such early studies that two models were developed to explain the negative effects of test anxiety on academic performance; these are; the Interference Model (Sarason, 1986) and the Learning-Deficit Model (Naveh-Benjamin, McKeachie, & Lin, 1987).

1.11.1 The Interference Model

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somatic concerns, thus depressing their performance. Nevertheless, the Interference Model also posits that anxious persons are distracted due to worrying and task-irrelevant cognitions (Sarason, 1986).

This model was quite tenable hence vast amount of research was done on it (Cassady, 2001; Ferando, Verea & Lorenzo, 1999; Bandalos, Yates, & Thorndike-Christ, 1995; Williams, 1991; Hembree, 1988; Sarason, 1978). However, some researchers (for example, Birenbaum & Nasser, 1994) emerged to claim that Interference Model by no means explained the only preponderance of criterion variables during the test-taking situation. Consequently other variables needed to be taken into consideration. These opponents proposed that low performance of highly test-anxious students would exhibit deficit knowledge of inadequate mastery, which had nothing to do with any form of interference; hence, the advent of the Learning-Deficit Model.

1.11.2 The Learning-Deficit Model

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Nevertheless, some researchers conceptualized the Interference and Learning-Deficit models as being mutually exclusive (Naveh-Benjamin, 1991; Benjamin, Mckeachine, Lin & Holinger, 1981). However, Tobias (1985) rejected the belief that the deficit and Interference Models were alternative explanations, but conceptualized them as being complementary. According to him optimal performance is achieved by those students who have good domain-specific skills and low test anxiety, because such students have the greatest proportion of their cognitive capacity available to cope with task demands. Such views were also supported by Zohar (1998).

Certainly, many factors impact on examination stress and performance. Chapell, Takahashi, Silverstein, Newman, McCann, Blanding and Gubi (2005) assert that any reasonable model of school achievement needs to consider a wide array of factors such as scholastic abilities, study habits, school attitudes, self-perceptions and self-efficacy, students’ health, classroom environment, opportunities for enrichment, among others. Hence, test anxiety could be considered as just one of many variables surrounding examination performance.

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assessment on emotions and performance by focusing on the resources of individuals and or groups (Buchwald, 2003).

1.11.3 The Conservation of Resources (COR) Theory

According to COR Theory, the primary motivation in human beings is to build, protect and foster their resource pools for self and social bonds defenses (Hobfoll, 1998). The theory provides a model for preventing resource loss, maintaining existing resources, and gaining resources necessary for engaging in appropriate behavior. COR Theory argues that resources are the key components to determining individuals' appraisals of events as stressful, and they define how individuals are able to cope with stressful situations.

COR Theory proposes that those individuals lacking resources are more vulnerable to experience loss spirals and those with plenty of resources have more opportunity for resource gain, hence they will be more resilient (Hobfoll, 1998). COR Theory can be applied to education and assessment by conceptualizing test anxiety as a loss of resources (loss of self-worth, motivation, and of productive cognitive processing) affecting students’ learning and performance. Within the framework of COR Theory, tests and exam can be understood as stressors (Buchwald, 2010).

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students), testing situations increase the probability for a loss of these valued resources. Stress in testing situations can be so excessive that it hinders a person's ability to prepare properly and face testing situations, effectively. For students, the increasing pressure to perform well in tests, combined with cognitive interference, a lack of self-efficacy and motivation as well as negative life conditions (for example, inadequate resources and opportunities to learn), can lead to test anxiety and feelings of hopelessness.

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1.12 Conceptual Framework

In the foregoing description of the problem investigated in this study, and the theoretical guidelines to the study, the following conceptual framework, as shown in Figure 1.1 was developed by the researcher to aid in the conceived relationships between independent and dependent variables of the study.

Key:

Independent Variables: Examination Anxiety, Academic, Procrastination, Locus of control and Academic Resilience

Dependent Variable: Academic Achievement  Categorical Variable: Sex differences

Figure 1.1: Relationships between the Variables of the Study

Source: Researcher, (2012)

 Internal Locus of

control

 Less academic

procrastination

 High level of

academic resilience

 External Locus

of control

 High academic

procrastination

 Low level of

academic resilience

Examination

Anxiety

Lowers Increases High Low

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In Figure 1.1, academic procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience are independent variables that amount to resources in the light of the COR Theory. It then follows that less academic procrastination, internal Locus of control and high level of resilience are resources which would lower the threat of examination anxiety (also and independent variable) and increase students’ academic performance as a dependent variable. Conversely, more academic procrastination, external Locus of control and low level of resilience would amount to lack of resources and eventually leading to increased threat of examination anxiety and low academic performance in students. Hence, the relationship between exam anxiety and students’ academic achievement would be negative. At the same time, there are sex differences (as a categorical variable) in these correlates, including examination anxiety and academic performance. All the above possible relationships and sex differences in the variables of the study were statistically tested.

1.13 Operational Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study the following terms were defined as follows:

i) Academic performance – refers to the points or grades scored by the students in the KCSE exam. Other terms used interchangeably with academic performance were academic outcomes, learning outcomes, school achievement and academic achievement.

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last minute, such as homework, assignment, projects and exam revision.

iii) Academic resilience – refers to high levels of achievement motivation and performance despite the presence of stressful events and conditions that place individuals at risk of doing poorly in school and ultimately dropping out of school. It may involve academic and exam stress, pressures and academic performance expectations, and poverty. iv) Correlates – refers to factors or things that have a mutual relationship

or connection, in which one thing affects or depends on another. In this study, academic procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience were considered as correlates of exam anxiety

v) Examination anxiety – refers to states of worry and apprehension that occurs in students in the face of examinations or test conditions. The terms test/exam anxiety and cognitive test anxiety were used interchangeably in this study.

vi) Locus of control – refers to ones perception about the underlying main causes of events in his/her life. That is, a belief about whether the outcomes of ones actions are contingent on what one does (i.e. based on personal decisions and efforts – internal control orientation, or on events outside one’s personal control, i.e. fate, luck – external control orientation).

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the basic or primary school education level. It begins from form one to form two, to form three and finally to form four.

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CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1Introduction

This chapter is divided into six sections. The first section provides a review of related literature on the relationship between examination anxiety and academic performance. The second, third and fourth sections provide a review of literature on academic procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience in relation to examination anxiety and academic performance. This is followed by a review of related literature on sex differences in examination anxiety, academic procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience. The last section presents summary of the review of related literature.

2.2Examination Anxiety and Academic Performance

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relationship between exam anxiety and exam performance found a negative relationship; that is, higher test anxiety positively correlated to lower exam performance (for example, Sarason, 1958a, 1965; Speilberger, 1966; Sarason, 1975; Humbree, 1988; Kurosawa & Harackiewicz, 1995; Zohar, 1998).

Later studies also support this contention. In one such study by Rana and Mahmood (2010) on the relationship between test anxiety and academic achievement of students at the post graduate level, a sample of 414 students was randomly selected from seven different science departments in a public sector University in Lahore, Pakistan, was used. Data was collected using the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Pearson correlation, multivariate statistics and regression analyses were run for data analysis. It was found that a significant negative relationship existed between test anxiety scores and students’ achievement scores. The results further showed that a cognitive factor (worry) contributed more in test anxiety than affective factors (emotional).

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information. The result showed a significant negative correlation (r = -0.23, p=.000) between test anxiety and academic achievement among adolescents.

In Onyeizugbo (2010) study he examined self-efficacy and test anxiety as correlates of academic performance among 249 undergraduate students of a university in Eastern Nigeria. General Self-efficacy Scale and Westside Test Anxiety Scale were used to assess self-efficacy and test anxiety, respectively. Average scores of students in two psychology degree courses were used to assess their academic performance. The results on test anxiety showed a significant negative correlation between test anxiety and academic performance (r = -0.43, p< .001). In addition, regression analysis showed a significant model emerged, whereby test anxiety proved to be a significant predictor of the variability in academic performance, ß = -.390, p < .001.

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An array of studies showing a negative relationship between test anxiety and academic achievement are highlighted as follows: In Rezazadeh (2009) a statistically significant negative correlation was observed between test anxiety and academic achievement. A study conducted by Nicholson (2009) to explore the effects of test anxiety on student achievement of grade 11 students, revealed that anxiety and achievement are related to each other. Khalid and Hasan (2009) conducted a study on a purposively selected sample of 187 undergraduate students to explore the relationship between test anxiety and academic achievement and found that students with academic achievement had low test anxiety scores and vice versa. Chapell, Blanding, Takahashi, Silverstein, Newman, Gubi, and McCann (2005) conducted a research study to explore the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. They collected data from a large sample of graduate and undergraduate students and found a significant and negative relationship between test anxiety and academic achievement.

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motivated to perform (Hancock, 2001). A research study conducted by Cassady and Johnson (2002) to investigate the effect of cognitive test anxiety on students’ academic performance and found that cognitive test anxiety exerts a significant stable and negative impact on academic performance measures.

Albero, Brown, Eliason and Wind (1997), on the basis of their research study, concluded that students having high test anxiety had significantly lower scores. Oludipe (2009) conducted a study to explore how test anxiety affects students’ performance levels in the sciences, especially in Physics, and concluded that low test-anxious students performed better than high test-anxious students on both numerical and non-numerical tasks in Physics. Other studies showing negative relationship between test anxiety and academic performance include Cassady (2004) and Stober (2004).

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The above reviewed studies concentrated more on the direct relationship between examination anxiety and academic achievement. Nevertheless, test anxiety is a psychological construct that need to be widely studied in terms of the factors that may precipitate it. Thus, the current study, apart from investigating the relationship between examination anxiety and academic achievement, it further examined the contributions brought to examination anxiety by academic procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience.

2.3Academic Procrastination, Examination Anxiety and Academic

Performance

Procrastination has increasingly become a topic of interest across multiple fields, including education, where it is referred to as academic procrastination (Hess, Sherman & Goodman, 2000). Procrastination behavior in general is described as the difficulties that an individual has in performing daily tasks due to incapability to organize time management effectively (Ferrari, Johnson & McCown, 1995). In academic sense, it may involve doing homework, preparing for exam or doing the term papers assigned at the end of the term at the last minute.

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feeling of weak responsibility, anxiety and fear of being unsuccessful in one’s actions owing to negative perceptions, setting unrealistic expectations for academic performance, improper cognitive ascription and the tendency to become faultless (Ferrari, 1992; McCown, Petzel & Rupert, 1987).

Procrastination in the academic realm holds many negative consequences including lost time, increased stress, lower grades, poor health, decreased long-term learning and lower self-esteem (Hoover, 2005). Procrastination is also associated with low self-efficacy, self-denigration, lower level of resourcefulness, higher levels of self-consciousness, self-handicapping and depression (Flet, Blankestein & Martin, 1995). Even though the outcomes produced by procrastinating are overwhelmingly negative, students increasingly engage in it. Indeed, research indicates that procrastination behavior is prevailing considerably in learners, especially among university students (Hoover, 2005; Haycock, 1993).

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renewal of resources (Buchwald & Hobfoll, 2004), that is, less time for exam preparation.

To support this, a study by Sirois and Pychyl (2002) on 374 undergraduate students at Carleton University in Ottawa, found that procrastination is related to not only higher stress and poor coping strategies, but also avoidance behaviors. It was revealed from the study that students who suffered from these avoidance coping styles resisted completing assignments and addressing other deadlines that evoked tension and anxiety. In another study by Farran (2004) on a sample of 186 undergraduate students at Fordham University, it was found that academic procrastination was significantly and positively associated with both depression and anxiety. In other words, participants who reported higher academic procrastination also reported higher depression and anxiety. Milgram and Toubiana (1999) study also support this finding.

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university students and an influential factor on their personalities, psychological well being and academic achievement.

From the research literature reviewed in this section, it comes out clearly that majority of the research work concerning procrastination has been conducted on undergraduate students. Owing to the scarcity of research literature both locally and internationally on procrastination in high school or rather secondary school students, it was therefore important for the present study to investigate on this phenomenon to this group of students. Furthermore, it has been suggested that procrastination behavior is negatively related to age difference, that is, the level of the procrastination behavior decreases as one gets older (Gülebaglan, 2003; O’Donoghue & Rabin, 1999). Thus, with this assertion, it would be more likely that procrastination behavior in secondary school students who are comparatively young could be higher than for the slightly more elderly university or college students. Thus the findings of this study shall shed more light on the above relationship.

2.4Locus of Control, Examination Anxiety and Academic Performance

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very general, cross-situational beliefs about what determines whether or not they get reinforced in life (Rotter, 1982). In this case, Rotter conceived locus of control as a generalized expectancy of internal versus external control over behavior outcomes; hence, it is viewed as a cognitive expectancy which defines the individual’s view of causal factors related to these outcomes (Nunn, 1995).

These expectations fall on a continuum from internal to external (Rotter, 1992). People with a strong internal locus of control believe that the responsibility for whether or not they get reinforced ultimately lies within themselves. Hence, internals believe that success or failure is due to their own efforts. In contrast, externals believe that the reinforcers in life are controlled by luck, chance, or powerful others (Nunn, 1995). Therefore, they see little impact of their own efforts on the amount of reinforcement they receive. Rotter (1966) also noted that whether or not the outcome of a particular behavior served as a reinforcement depended on the value of the outcome to the individual (for example, a student who does not value a high grade may not study for a test, even though he/she knows that a good grade depends on good study habits – an internal factor).

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Gifford, Brice and Mianzo (2006) found that college freshmen who were identified as internals obtained significantly higher GPAs. Similarly, according to Schultz and Schultz (2005) internals demonstrate higher academic achievement compared to externals. In addition, they assert that externals also tend to believe that only fate or the luck of a sympathetic teacher will earn them a good grade, and so they rarely study as much as internals.

In the context of exam anxiety, Carden, Courtney and Rebekah (2004) found that internals showed significantly low test anxiety, in addition to lower academic procrastination and higher academic achievement, than externals. Further, Moore (2006) found out that test anxiety was positively related to locus of control orientation; whereby increased test anxiety levels were prominent in participants with an external locus of control, than those with internal locus of control. Indeed, other studies have also found out that low perceptions of control over external threats and, emotional and physiological reactions, are related to increased levels of anxiety in externals (Weems, Silverman & Rapee, 2003; Zeidner & Schleyer, 1999).

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was investigated in this study, particularly with reference to secondary school students in the rural context. This is because, among other reasons most studies, as it can be deduced from the studies reviewed above, have focused mostly on college students and urban contexts in relation to the phenomenon of Locus of control. Hence, there is scarcity of research literature with regard to the former group.

2.5Academic Resilience, Examination Anxiety and Academic

Performance

Resilience was originally conceptualized in psychiatry and clinical psychology, where the term was adopted to account for positive adaptation in high risk populations (Garmezy, 1985). Nevertheless, resilience is simply defined as a measure of stress coping ability (Connor & Davidson, 2003; Masten, 2001), which encompasses personal competence, trust in one’s instincts, positive acceptance of change, control and spiritual influences (Connor & Davidson, 2003). In this case, resilience is a dynamic process whereby individuals exhibit positive behavioral adaptation when they encounter significant adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats, or even significant sources of stress (Masten, 2001).

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terms for resilience include psychological resilience, emotional resilience, hardiness, resourcefulness and mental toughness. This study focused on resilience

in the academic spheres, hence, referred herein as academic resilience.

Research literature depicts important developments concerning the construct of resilience. This has seen a shift in the application of resilience from its original focus on the role it long played as a means of overcoming severe adversity in abnormal situations, to its promotion as an immensely valuable personal resource enabling positive adaptation to more normative and everyday life challenges and stresses (Sun & Stewart, 2007; Newman & Blackburn, 2002). Thus, this has led to the adoption of the concept in many other disciplines, including education, where school programs have been introduced with an aim of fostering resilience in the lives of learners (Newman & Blackburn, 2002), as part of healthy schools initiatives. Indeed there are many challenging situations that children face in schools such as class transitions, exam anxiety, poverty and abuse. But with such resilience components as confidence, a sense of well-being, motivation, ability to set goals and stress management (Connor & Davidson, 2003), children are able to succeed in school.

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outcomes. Thus, more resilient individuals would be less likely to experience negative cognitive and emotional reactions to exam situations, which have typically been associated with impaired performance (Cassady, 2004; Stober, 2004; Cassady & Johnson, 2002). Alternatively, it is possible that greater resilience might enable individuals to regulate or control negative thoughts and emotions sufficiently to lessen their impact on performance (Prince-Embury, 2005). Therefore, according to the Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1998), resilience can be taken as a resource that would buffer students of exam anxiety, hence increasing their academic performance.

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2.6Sex Differences in Examination Anxiety, Academic Procrastination,

Locus of Control and Academic Resilience

2.6.1 Sex Differences and Examination Anxiety

Research on sex differences in test anxiety has yielded mixed findings. Some studies have reported that females show significantly higher levels of test anxiety than males. For example, a study by Chapell, Blanding, Silverstein, Takahashi, Newman, Gubi and McCann (2005) showed that female students, both graduate and undergraduate, had significantly higher test anxiety level in comparison to men. Another study by Woodfield, Earl-Novell and Salomon (2005) confirmed that women, compared to men express higher levels of anxiety and concerns about all aspects of their academic performance, including anxiety over exam.

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become anxious of low grades or poor performance in tests (Conway, 2005; Rusillo & Arias, 2004).

On the contrary, some studies have found out that sex differences did not lead to significant differences in cognitive test anxiety and performance in cognitive tests (Faleye, 2010; Ndirangu, et al. 2009; Olatoye, 2007; Cassady & Johnson, 2002). These differences in results may be due to differences in sample characteristics and statistical tools used. Nevertheless, sex differences with regard to exam anxiety were also investigated in the current study.

2.6.2 Sex Differences and Academic Procrastination

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2.6.3 Sex Differences and Locus of Control

Research results on sex differences in Locus of control are also varied. In one such study, females with an internal Locus of control had more advanced cognitive abilities than those with an external Locus of control (McLaughlin & Saccuzzo, 1997). On contrary, other studies have shown that males tend to be more internal than females (Mamlin, Harris, & Case, 2001). However, the interaction between sex differences across test anxiety and Locus of control was clearly revealed in Moore (2006) study. The study yielded significant sex differences in which case, female underachievers reported higher test anxiety and were more of externalizers than underachieving males. On the other hand, male achievers were internally oriented and reported less test anxiety than their female counterparts who were of course internally oriented but recorded slightly high test anxiety. Nevertheless, this too was a subject of investigation in this study.

2.6.4 Sex Differences and Academic Resilience

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the otherwise deleterious impact of stressors on their wellbeing. Sex differences in resilience and exam anxiety was also investigated in this study.

2.7Summary and Gap Identification

The foregoing literature review largely indicates that exam anxiety is one factor that negatively affects academic performance in students. However, these studies have fallen short of investigating other important variables that may precipitate exam anxiety, thereby drawing a valid and a more reliable conclusion regarding the relationship between exam anxiety and academic performance among students. In addition, the research literature on the selected correlates of exam anxiety; that is, academic procrastination, Locus of control and academic resilience, showed that studies on these factors only concentrated on their relationship with academic performance, and none examined their direct relationship with exam anxiety. As such their findings on the relationship between these factors and academic performance could have been confounded by test anxiety. Hence, there was a need to investigate the relationship between these selected correlates and exam anxiety in order to make a more concrete conclusion on the relationship between exam anxiety and academic performance, in addition to the relationship between these selected correlates and academic performance in students.

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indicated a mixed picture. Whereas some showed sex differences, others indicated no sex differences. It was therefore important for the current study to also investigate whether or not there could be sex difference in the above variables and give reasons with regard to its findings and conclusions.

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CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1Introduction

This chapter presents a description of the research design to be adopted for the study, variables, location of the study, target population and sampling procedures, and research instruments. Pilot study, data collection procedures, data analysis techniques, logistical and ethical considerations, shall also be described.

3.2Research Design and Locale

This study adopted a correlational research design. The design was selected mainly because it indicates the degree of relationship that exists in a group of people between one aspect of their behaviour and another (Malim and Birch, 1997; Creswell, 2009). Often, correlational research is considered as a type of observational research as no variables are manipulated by the researcher.

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The study was conducted in Khwisero Sub-County, Kakamega County, Kenya. The Sub-County was established in 2009, formerly as part of the then larger Butere/Mumias Sub-County (Republic of Kenya, 2009). It is approximately 47 Kilometers from Kakamega town. The Sub-County is 143 Square Kilometers (55 Square Miles) in size. It is a rural, yet densely populated area consisting of small hills, rivers and springs. The local economy is driven mostly by subsistence agriculture (Sub-County Director of Education, Khwisero, 2012).

3.3Population

Khwisero Sub-County has 18 public secondary schools (Sub-County Director of Education, Khwisero, 2012). By the time of fieldwork, the enrolment statistics of secondary school students in Khwisero Sub-County was approximately 3, 587, with 1, 973 boys and 1, 610 girls (Sub-County Director of Education, Khwisero, 2012). The study therefore targeted the 3, 587 students in public secondary schools in Khwisero Sub-County. Table 3.1 gives a summary of the schools’ residential status in the Sub-County.

Table 3.1: Schools’ Residential Status in Khwisero Sub-County Schools’ Residential Status No.

Boys Boarding 1 Girls Boarding 2 Girls Day 1 Mixed Day 11 Mixed Day/Boarding 3

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3.4Sampling Techniques and Sample Size Determination

As earlier mentioned, only form four students were used for the purpose of this study. Owing to this, out of the 18 public secondary schools, only 9 public schools had up to the form four class as at the time of fieldwork. Thus, these 9 schools qualified the selection criterion of the researcher, because they had at least some experiences with the KCSE national exam. The remaining 9 public secondary schools were still developing and yet to prepare students for the KCSE national exam (See Appendix VI). The sampling unit consisted of the public secondary schools, from which form four students who had registered and were preparing for the 2012 KCSE national examinations were sampled for the study.

In sampling schools, stratified random sampling based on the school’s residential status was performed in the first place. This was followed by simple random sampling in some cases, particularly for Girls Boarding, Mixed Day and Mixed Day/Boarding schools, as there were more than one school in these strata. On the part of students, purposive sampling was used to select form four students from the schools sampled, followed by stratified random sampling based on sex differences, and finally simple random sampling was conducted in each stratum.

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error in this study by obtaining a relatively larger sample of students from the accessible population, hence target population. Such a large sample would also increase external validity of the study findings.

Thus, the large sample was appropriate for this study because, this was a correlational study that needed more cases for valid and reliable analysis of hypotheses, there were many independent variables in the study, it was to cater for low response or dropout rates, and that the accessible population was highly heterogeneous on the variables studied (Mugenda & Mugenda, 1999). Hence, Kombo and Tromp (2006) recommend that 10% or 20% of the target population will yield a relatively large sample size for such studies. Following this, stratified random sampling and then simple random sampling procedures were used to select 5 schools out of the 8 remaining schools that qualified the researcher’s selection criterion, because one had already been used for pilot study purposes. To begin with, the schools were placed in the four main strata: Boys’ schools, girls’ schools, day schools and day/boarding schools. Apart from boys’ schools stratum, which consisted of only one school, the remaining strata had at least 2 or more schools; hence they were subjected to simple random sampling.

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select schools for the study were based on probability or chance factor; hence each school was given an equal chance of being included in the study. In all these cases, the researcher wrote the names of each school on separate pieces of papers, folded and mixed them in a basket and picked each one randomly and at a time.

Following the sampling guidelines mentioned above (Mugenda & Mugenda, 1999) and the recommendation given by Kombo and Tromp (2006), the sample size for the students was drawn from 10% of the target population (3, 587). This calculation yielded a figure of 359 students who participated in the study. This sample was drawn from form four classes of the selected schools, since the study was designed to use this class of students. Simple random sampling, and in the cases of mixed schools, stratified random sampling, techniques were used to select these students in the 5 schools that were sampled earlier.

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were performed in the mixed schools, only that the students were first of all stratified according to their sex differences. Table 3.2 shows the final sample distribution.

Table 3.2: Sample Distribution

School Residential

Status Name of School

Schools' Form IV Population Sampling across Gender Form IV Students Sample Boys Girls

Boarding Girls Emalindi Girls 78 ___ 58 58

Khwisero Girls 52 ___ 39 39

Day Mixed Eshibinga Mixed 116 55 31 86

Boarding Boys Mwihila Boys 131 97 ___ 97

Day Boarding Mixed Namasoli Mixed 106 51 28 79

Total Sample Population 483 203 156 359

56.54% 43.45% 100%

Source: Researcher, 2012

3.5Research Instruments

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range was between 20 and 100, where a score of 20 implied low level of test anxiety and that of 100 depicted high level of test anxiety.

Academic procrastination items were also adapted from questionnaire items used in studies by Steel (2010), Diaz-Morales, Ferari, Diaz and Argumedo (2006), Tuckman (1991) and Lay (1986). There were 20 items on this second sub-scale, which were measured on a five point likert scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree and Strongly Disagree. Reverse scoring on negative statements was also applicable. Scoring of the sub-scale was also performed by summing up all the points from each item. Relatively high score (100) indicated students who procrastinated more, while low scores (20) depicted motivated, focused and dependable individuals.

The third sub-scale also consisted of 20 pairs of statements which measured Locus of control. These pairs of statements were drawn from Rotter’s (1966) scale, in which one statement depicted an internal locus of control and the other one an external locus of control. For scoring purposes, externalizing statements were awarded one point while the internalizing statements were awarded zero points. Hence, more than 10 points implied that one is more of an externalizer. The highest expected score for externalizers was 20.

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items, with options as Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree and Strongly Disagree. This scale was developed by adapting items from Conner-Davidson (2003) and Wagnild and Young (1993, 1987) resilient scales. All points awarded in each item were summed up for scoring purposes. Reverse scoring on negative statements was also applied. High scores up to 100 indicated high levels of academic resilience, while low scores of up to 20 showed less academic resilience. Lastly, the 2012 KCSE national examinations aggregate points and grades obtained by students who participated in the study, were used to depict their levels of academic performance.

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For the purpose of the pilot study, 10% of the total sample size was used (Orodho, 2004). The sample size for the study had been established as totaling to 359 form four students. 10% of this sample size yielded approximately 36 students. The pilot study was carried out in September, 2012, approximately one month before full scale onset of KCSE national examinations. Data collection for the pilot study was conducted on 36 form four students at Khwisero mixed day and boarding secondary school. For this reason, this school was not sampled during the main study. The researcher visited this school, created rapport and was eventually allowed to carry out the pilot study. Stratified and simple random sampling technique was used respectively to select 18 boys and 18 girls from form four classes for the pilot study.

In simple random sampling procedure, and with the help of the class teacher, the form four students were divided into two groups based on their sex differences. They were then given pieces of papers to indicate their KCSE registration number, folded them and returned the papers to the researcher. The researcher churned the papers separately in their respective groupings, and randomly picked up to 18 papers from each group. He called out the registration numbers of those who had been selected to remain for the pilot study purposes.

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30 minutes, after which the researcher collected the questionnaires and thanked the respondents and the school administration for participating in the pilot study. These questionnaires were then later subjected to qualitative and statistical analysis for the purpose of ascertaining validity and reliability of these research instruments, respectively.

Face, content and construct types of validity had earlier on been confirmed through professional guidance from university supervisors and other researchers. In addition to this, the questionnaire was edited following the observations the researcher made in the field during the pilot study. Generally, a number of items were edited to focus mainly on examinations and school related situations, which were the main gist of the study.

The reliability of the four sub-scales, that is, Test anxiety, Academic procrastination, Locus of Control and Academic resilience sub-scales, was checked using split- half method of reliability testing. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Test was used to calculate the correlation coefficients of these sub-scales which were then corrected using Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. The following steps in the test of reliability were observed:

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ii) Each of the subject’s total score from the two groups of items on each subscale was computed and correlated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Test.

iii) The Spearman-Brown prophecy formula was used to correct the realized coefficient.

rs = 2rh

rh + 1

Whereby, rs = split-half reliability

rh = correlation between the two halves of the test.

Table 3.3: Reliability Coefficients for each Sub-scale

Sub-scales Pearson Correlation Coefficients Corrected coefficients

Examination Anxiety 0.574 0.73

Academic Procrastination 0.606 0.8

Locus of Control 0.509 0.7

Academic Resilience 0598 0.8

All the subscales gave reliable coefficient indexes of at least 0.7 and above. According to Gay (1992) any instrument with a split-half estimate of between 0.7 and 1.0 is readily acceptable as reliable enough.

Figure

Table 3.1  Table 3.2
Figure 1.1: Relationships between the Variables of the Study
Table 3.1: Schools’ Residential Status in Khwisero Sub-County
Table 3.3: Reliability Coefficients for each Sub-scale
+7

References

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