Elevator Maintenance and Repair

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Elevator Maintenance + Repair

Harry Vyas

Director

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The NYC Department of Buildings is a registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/ CES). Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both members and non-AIA members are available upon request.

This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing

professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or constructed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.

Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

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Copyright Materials

This presentation is protected by US and

International Copyright laws. Reproduction,

distribution, display and use of the presentation

without written permission of the speaker is

prohibited.

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Course Description

New York City is a vertical city with more than 60,000 elevator stocks that make 30 million trips each day. Elevators are designed to

transport people in more than 28,000 buildings across New York’s dense urban environment.

Maintaining and repairing vertical transportation systems are essential in providing safe and reliable service to riders and building operations. A lack of maintenance and repairs may cause elevator failure, reduce the lifespan of equipment, entrapment and injury.

This course will examine the NYC Building Code and ASME A 17.1 requirements for the maintenance of elevators and escalators. It will also discuss best practices for maintenance and repairs; including engineering controls and accident prevention.

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Learning Objectives

At the end of this program, participants will have learned:

• Participants will examine NYC Building Codes requirements administrative

section 28-304.7 and ASME A 17.1 SECTION 8.6 for elevators and escalators in order to be able to identify specific regulations for elevator maintenance and repairs.

• Participants will examine the Maintenance Control Program and be able to

keep a “Maintenance Log” that is reflective of manufacturers and code requirements.

• Participants will review best practices for the maintenance and repairs of

elevator and escalators in order to educate on the potential risks while working on equipment.

• Participants will analyze various design and engineering control methods to

enhance public safety during maintenance and repair.

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The Elevators Unit’s Mission

The Elevators Unit ensures the operational safety, reliable service and lawful use of elevators, escalators, amusement rides and other related devices throughout New York City by performing inspections and testing.

The Unit enhances compliant development and safety awareness through the Department’s various outreach programs.

The Unit supports development by permitting new technologies under pilot programs.

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Elevator Safety

• The public • Elevator personnel • Authorized personnel • Emergency responders

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Device Types

• Elevators • Escalators • Man lifts • Conveyors • Personnel hoists • Wheelchair lifts

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Codes and Standards

NYC Building Code 2008 (Appendix K, Chapter 30)

ASME A 17.1/2003 and ANSI/ASSE A10.4 (Personnel Hoist)

ASME A 17.3/2002 (Existing Elevators and Escalators, as modified

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Maintenance and Repair Contract

NYC Administrative code 28-304.7 – Required contract

• Owner of New and existing passenger elevators shall have contract with an approved agency to perform elevator repair work and

maintenance as defined by ASME A 17.1- Section 8.6.

• The name, address and telephone number of approved agency

under contract shall be maintained at each premises, on the elevator mainline disconnect switch and in a location readily accessible to employees of the department, building maintenance and custodian staff at the premises.

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Elevator Maintenance and Repair

• Maintenance Control Program

• Maintenance Records

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Maintenance, Repairs and Replacement

Shall confirm following code requirements:

• Code at the time of the installation

• Code requirements at the time of any alteration/modernization

• ASME A 17.3-2002 as modified by NYC Building Code Appendix K • ASME A 17.1b-2003, Section 8.6

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Maintenance Control Program

MCP shall be in compliance with ASME A 17.1b-2003 Section 8.6.1.2:

• Examination, maintenance and tests at schedule interval • Equipment age, condition, and accumulated wear

• Design and inherent quality of the equipment • Usage, Environmental condition

• Improved technology

• Cleaning, lubricating, adjusting applicable components at regular intervals

• Repair or replace all worn or defective component where necessary to maintain installation as per codes and manufacturer requirements

• Available at site to elevator personnel • As required by Manufacturer manual

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MCP Examples

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Maintenance Records

Maintenance records shall be in compliance with ASME

A 17.1b-2003 Section 8.6.1.4:

• Description of maintenance task performed and dates

• Description and dates of examinations, tests, adjustments, repairs and replacements

• Description and dates of call backs (trouble calls), including corrective action taken

• Written record of the findings on the fire fighter service • Available at the site for elevator personal

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Maintenance Log Examples

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Maintenance Log Examples

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Maintenance Log Example

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Elevator Application

• New installations

• Alterations (change in speed, capacity, rise, structural and location) • Replacement and modification (replacement/ modification of

controller, machine, governor, safety etc.)

• Elevator use for construction use (new or amendment on existing application)

• Removal • Dismantle

• Electrical permit must be filed for electrical work performed on device

Note: An acceptance test is required for all types of elevator applications (except

applications filed under EBN/PPN), and Department inspectors shall perform the necessary test and inspection, as per the scope of work.

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Types of Inspections

Department of Buildings Inspectors:

• Acceptance Tests - Permitted Application (new and modernized devices)

• Complaint Inspections (through NYC 311 call center)

• Incidents / Accidents and Emergency Response (24/7)

• Periodic Inspections

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Enforcement

• ECB violations

• PVT/DOB violations • Aggravated I and II

• Criminal court summons (under major offenders program) • Work without permit violation

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Approved Agency Inspections

On behalf of the building owner:

• Category One – 1 Year Test (Performed between January 1st and

December 31st annually)

• Category Three – 3 Year Test (water hydraulic)

• Category Five – 5 Year Test

• All above inspections and tests shall be performed, witnessed by approved agencies not affiliated with each other

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Maintenances Issues

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Hoist Cables

Rouge on ropes –

lack of maintenance

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Maintenances Issues

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Hoist cables

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Maintenances Issues

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Safety Rope

Severe rust condition

on safety cable drum

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Maintenances Issues

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Hoist Cables

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Maintenances Issues

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Hoist Machine

Oil leak on

machine

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Maintenances Issues

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Hoist Machine

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Maintenances Issues

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Electrical

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Maintenances Issues

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Electrical

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Maintenances Issues

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Electrical

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Maintenances Issues

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House

keeping

Dirty pit creating a

fire hazard

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Maintenances Issues

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Safety

Governor switch

blocked

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Maintenances Issues

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Safety

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Maintenances Issues

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Safety

Brake sleeve

defective

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Hoist Applications

New Installations

• ELV-1 Elevator application

• Electrical permit must be filed for electrical work

• Construction application must be filed at the borough office for ties to the building structure and for back structure installation

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Hoist Inspection Requirements

• Acceptance Inspection and Test – Department of Buildings

• Audit Inspection – Department of Buildings

• Hoist Removal – Department of Buildings

• Cathead/Tower Raise – Approved agency Inspectors (Requires 3 days’ notification)

• 90 Day Inspection – Approved agency Inspectors (Requires Full Load Test)

• Inspections required as per Code and manufactures manual

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Advantages of Maintenance as Per MCP

• Enhance safety

• Improve service reliability

• Increase life span of equipment

• Enhance efficiency of vertical system transportation

• Avoid costly repairs

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Elevator Safety

• Worker safety

• Fall protection

• Electrical safety

• Proper use of jumpers

• Lockout and tag out

• Use of caution tape when elevators are serviced – Code requirement

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Elevator Maintenance + Repair

Eric Munz, CSP

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NYC Deptartment of Buildings

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Best Practices and Engineering Controls for Public Safety and Mechanics During Elevator/Escalator Repairs in

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Course Description

This course will cover essential best practices and

engineering controls designed to prevent injury to the

general public and elevator mechanics during the repair of

vertical transportation equipment including elevators and

escalators.

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Safety Tip

A few over-the-counter drugs like antihistamines, cough syrups, and cold medications can create

drowsiness. During allergy season, take notice of the side affects and adjust use accordingly.

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1 new text msg: Adhere to Safety Rules; Save Lives. Don’t just be compliant; be committed.

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Agenda

Public Safety Factors Car Control

Jumper Management Caution Tape

Deep Pit Protection Barricades

Mechanic Safety Practices Access/Egress MR LOTO/Electrical Safety Jumpers

Mechanical Safety

Hoistway Access Procedure Fall Protection

Safety Culture, Creation & Maintenance

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Elevator Safety – General Public

CAR CONTROL

• Maintained while on “inspection” mode, removing the unit from the bank

• Electrical and mechanical energy is isolated during repair tasks • “Safety Chain” includes: door lock, inspection switch, stop

switch

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De-Energize Inspection Control

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Elevator Safety – General Public

JUMPER MANAGEMENT

• The controller is programmed to prevent unwanted movement of the car, jumpers defeat these circuits

• Robust management practices must be applied

• Personal accountability for jumpers must start with the Mechanic

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Controlled Jumper

Uncontrolled jumper

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Elevator Safety – General Public

Jumper Best Practices

• Jumpers must not be used as a diagnostic tool.

• Temporary bridging devices must never be used to short out hall door contacts.

• Exceptions must have a written JHA approved by supervision.

• Never jump-out door and gate contacts at the same time.

• Ensure that elevator is on inspection prior to placing jumpers on door, gate, or safety circuits.

• When passenger(s) are trapped inside a stalled car, mechanic must never jump car gate and move the car from the machine room unless they have communication either directly with the passenger(s) or with a second mechanic. In these types of situations it is preferable to move the elevator using TOCI.

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Elevator Safety – General Public

CAUTION TAPE (NYC)

• The code specifies 3” yellow caution safety tape installed at 18” and 54” on the inside car door threshold when working on the elevator

• The tape needs to be utilized when the elevator is removed from normal service and a Mechanic is not working in front of the

entrance of the actual device

• Prevents unintended public entrance

• Lights out/Doors open communicates that the car is out of service

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Elevator Safety – General Public

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DEEP PIT PROTECTION

• Pits designed with bottom landing access points represent a challenge for public protection

• Falls of any height can cause injury • Deep pit depths can be as great as 20’

• Substantial barricades offer a higher level or protection and OSHA compliance

Standard Barricade Substantial

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Elevator Safety – Elevator Mechanic

Serious Injury Risk Areas

Controller 2% Top of Car 7% Car/False Car 4% Landing 4% Hoistway Opening 4% Pit Entrance 7% Pit 11% Counterweight 2% Hoistway 17% Machine Room/ Entrance 10% Machine/Sheave 15%

Landing Floor Plate 2%

Truss 2% Machine 4%

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Elevator Safety – Elevator Mechanic

ACCESS/EGRESS MACHINE ROOM

• Presents hazard to the mechanic

• Must commonly access rooftops, staircases and mechanical

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Elevator Safety – Elevator Mechanic

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS

• If electricity is required for the task, the mechanic must work

safely around it.

• Increase distance from the hazard • Temporarily guard the hazard

• Permanently guard the hazard

Temporary Electrical Guarding

Exposed Electrical

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Elevator Safety – Elevator Mechanic

JUMPER MANAGEMENT

• Jumpers must not be used as a diagnostic tool

• Temporary bridging devices must never be used to short out hall door

contacts.

• Exceptions must have a written JHA approved by supervision. • Never jump-out door and gate contacts at the same time.

• Ensure that elevator is on inspection prior to placing jumpers on door,

gate, or safety circuits.

Controlled

Jumper Uncontrolled

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Elevator Safety – Elevator Mechanic

MECHANICAL HAZARDS

• Elevator companies maintain equipment that is owned by

another party

• Retrofitting of permanent guards is an owner decision • Use of temporary guarding is a best practice

Guarded Not

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Elevator Safety – Elevator Mechanic

HOISTWAY ACCESS

• Serious injuries occur when control of the car is lost

• Specialized tooling and processes to validate the safety circuits is

a best practice

Specialized Tools

Improvised Control

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Elevator Safety – Elevator Mechanic

FALL PROTECTION

• Elevator mechanics can be exposed to great falls • Guardrails eliminate the hazard

Guardrails Fall

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Escalator Safety – General Public

BARRICADES

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Escalator Safety – Elevator Mechanic

CONTROL OF ENERGY

• Redundant control of truss (steps removed) • LOTO/Electrical

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Safety Culture Development

Minimum Operational Requirements

• Comply with Federal, State and City regulations

Develop a Culture of Safety

• Develop a Safety Management System • Proactively manage safety through

Employee training & communication Proper safety equipment & tools

Create an environment where mechanics champion safety Empower mechanics to own safety

Support the safest work, not the fastest Vehicle Management/Driver Accountability Invest in the safety program

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Standardize Processes

When practical, document a standard work process

• Develops efficiencies • Improves safety for all

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Establish the Rules

ALWAYS use fall protection when a fall hazard exists.

ALWAYSlock and tag out equipment when power is not required.

ALWAYSestablish and maintain control of the unit prior to accessing.

ALWAYS follow proper jumper procedures.

ALWAYS use certified & inspected hoisting & rigging equipment.

ALWAYSfollow the operation authorized procedures for false cars/running platforms.

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Establish the Rules

ALWAYS control live electricity and rotating equipment when working within close proximity.

NEVER ride the car top

with the elevator in normal operation.

NEVER work above or

below others when working in the hoistway.

ALWAYSuse barriers and redundant controls

(LOTO) when unattended

ALWAYS secure the

step chain from movement.

NEVER ride escalator

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Educate Mechanics on the Process

Classroom and hands-on training reinforces the learning

process

Improves accountability and compliance

Frequent training/communication

Elevator Field Employees’ Safety Handbook

Engaged Training

Safety Handbook

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Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)

An important accident prevention tool used by

mechanics is the Job Hazard Analysis Process, or JHA.

This process allows mechanics to analyze each job step,

identify hazards they may

encounter, and document ways accidents can be prevented by mitigating these hazards. A written JHA should be used at the start of each day, and when starting each new major task.

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Jobsite Inspections

1. Fall Protection

2. Control of the hazardous Energy

3. Control of the Elevator

4. High Risk Practices

a. Scaffolding

b. False Cars / Running Platforms

c. Hoisting & Rigging

d. Jumpers

Although NEII® companies continue to drastically reduce the number of injuries, serious injuries still occur.

As a result, some members have developed special

observation programs to assess the level of

understanding of mechanics of the key hazard areas while

performing typical procedures. This assessment focuses on preventing the leading causes of serious and fatal injuries.

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Program Recognition & Enforcement

Mature programs

• Motivate employees to “do the right thing” • Reinforces compliance to rules

• Formally document history

• Verbal warning to termination options

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This concludes

The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Course

NYC Department of Buildings AIA Point of Contact: Allison Ginsburg

Aginsburg@buildings.nyc.gov

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Elevator Maintenance + Repair

Harry Vyas

Director, Elevators Unit

Eric Munz, CSP

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References